A Textbook of Hydraulics Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines

A Textbook of Hydraulics Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
اسم المؤلف
R. S. Khurmi
التاريخ
14 مارس 2019
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A Textbook of Hydraulics Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
R. S. Khurmi
Contents
S.No. Chapter Name Page No.
1. Introduction
2. Fluid Pressure and its Measurement
3. Hydrostatics
4. Applications of Hydrostatics
5. Equilibrium of Floating Bodies
6. Hydrokinematics
7. Bernoulli’s Equation and its Applications
8. Flow Through Orifices (Measurement of Discharge)
9. Flow Through Orifices (Measurement of Time)
10. Flow Through Mouthpieces
11. Flow Over Notches
12. Flow Over Weirs
13. Flow Through Simple Pipes
14. Flow Through Compound Pipes
15. Flow Through Nozzles
16. Uniform Flow Through Open Channels
17. Vfon-Uniform Flow Through Open Channels
18. Viscous Row
19. Viscous Resistance
20. Fluid Masses Subjected to Acceleration
21. Vortex Flow
22. Mechanics of Compressible Row
23. Compressible Row of Fluids
24. Flow Around Immersed Bodies
25. Dimensional Analysis
26. Model Analysis (Undistorted Models)
27. Model Analysis (Distorted Models)
28. Non-Dimensional Constants
29. Impact of Jets
30. Jet Propulsion
31. WaterWheels
32. Impulse Turbines
33. Reaction Turbines
34 » Performance of Turbines
35. Centrifugal Pumps
36. Reciprocating Pumps
37. Performance of Pumps
Pumping Devices
Hydraulic Systems
Index
Index
A Braking jet, 510
Branched pipes, Discharge
through, 258, 264
Breast water wheel, 501
Bridge openings, 228
Broad-crested weir, 221
Buckets of a Pelton wheel, 509
Bulk modulus of a fluid, 392
Buoyancy, 87
Coefficient of contraction, 139
—discharge, 140
—resistance, 140
—velocity, 139
Coefficient of friction for commercial pipes, 357
Absolute pressure, 16
Accumulator, Hydraulic, 653
Adiabatic process, 391
Advantagesof distorted model,454
— model analysis, 440
-r- syphon spillway, 229
— triangular notch over a
rectangular notch, 197
— water turbines, 505
— water wheels, 504
Adverse slope profiles, 330
Air foil theory, 412
Air lift pump, 647
Air vessels, 616
Analytical method for metacentric
height.90
Anicut, 227
Applications of Bernoulli’s equation, 126
— hydrostatics, 69
—wei^s. 227
Approach, Velocity of. 217
Archimedies’ principle, 87
Area of flow, 304
Assumptions for the effect of viscosity. 333
Atmospheric pressure, 15
Average velocity of flow, 305
Axial flow turbines, 531
Comparison of a model and its
prototype, 443, 444, 445,446,
448, 449, 451, 452
Components of a reaction turbine.
C
Capillarity of water, 8
Capillary tube method, 359
Casing of a Pelton wheel,510
Cauchy’s number, 467
Cavitation,580
— in centrifugal pumps, 639
Centre of buoyancy, 87
Centre of pressure.42
—of a composite section, 54
—of an inclined immersed
surface, 49
—of a vertically immersed
surface.43
Channels of (nost economical cross
section, 293
Characteristic curves for
centrifugal pumps, 641
— Francis’ turbine, 575
— Pelton wheel, 574
— turbines. 573
Characteristics of turbines, 561
— water curves in nonuniform flow, 327
528
Composition of forces, 10
Compressibility of water, 7
Compressible flow, 112
Compound pipe, Discharge
Ihrough, 253
Conditions for equilibrium of a
floating body, 92
— maximum discharge
through a channel of circular section, 302
—maximum velocity through
a channel for circular
section. 300
—rectangular section, 293
—trapezoidal section. 295
Condition fc stability of a dam, 83
Conical buoys floating in liquid, 99
— draft tubes, 557
Conservation of energy, Law ol, 11
Construction of the model, 442
Correct prediction of the model.
I!
Backwater curve. 323
Banki turbine, 526
Barrage, 227
Bazin’s formula for discharge over
a rectangular weir, 214
—through open channels, 287
Beginning and development of
Hydraulics, 1
Bell mouthpiece. 272
Bernoulli’s equation, 118
—Limitations of 121
—Practical applications of.
126.
Borda’s mouthpiece, 182
Boundary layer separation, 416
443
Charle’s law, 385
Chemical method for discharge
through a river, 306
Chczy’s formula for lossof head in
pipes.235
—discharge through an open
channel, 284
Cippolctti weir, 318
Classification of fluids, 337
— models, 443
— reaction turbines, 530
—viscous flows, 338
—water turbines, 505
— water curves, 328
Crane, Hydraulic, 656
Critical depth, 311
—flow, 313
—slope profiles, 329
—velocity, 313, 339
Current meter, 306
—Rating of, 307
D
D’ Alembert’s principle, 363
Darcy’s formula for loss of head in
pipes, 232
Dead weight pressure gauge, 30
Density of water,6662 Index
Description of water curves or
profiles.328
Design of Pelton wheels,521
Determination of velocity of a approach, 218
Development of hydraulicturbines.
—rectangular orifice, 144, Equation of continuity, 107, 394
— of forced vortex flow, 374
—non-uniform flow, 325
Equipotential lines, 110
Equivalent size of a pipe, 255
Euler’s equation for motion, 119
— number, 466
Experimental method for hydraulic
coefficients, 141
—mctacentric height, 102
External gear pump, 648
145
-‘—mouthpiece, 180, 181, 182,
185, 186
—pipes in parallel, 256
—syphon pipes, 265
— venturimeter, 127
Distribution of velocity of a flowing liquid on a pipe section.
505
Diameter of the nozzle for maximum transmission of power,
275 345
Diaphragm pressure gauge.30
Difference between impulse tur- Drag, 409
bine and reaction turbine,530 Drowned orifice. 147, 148
—weir. 225
Draft tube, 530, 557
F
Differential manometer, 25, 28 Falling sphere method, 360
Filament lines, 110
Floating bodies anchored at base,
Dimensional homogeneity, 422
Dimensionless number, 463
Direct acting hydraulic lift,657
Disadvantages of distorteu model. Dynamic similarity, 442
Double cylinder reciprocating
pump, 640
— floats, 305 98
Floats, 305
Flow of gas through an orifice or
nozzle, 397
— liquid from one vessel into
another under pressure,
454
E
Discharge — water of awheels centrifugal , 504 pump, Effect of acceleration of the piston
on the indicator diagram, 608
—end contractions over a rectangular weir, 213
— friction in the suction and
587
— reaction turbine, 538
— reciprocating pump, 603
Discharge of the prototype for the
given discharge of the model,
445, 456
Discharge over a broad crested
weir, 221
— Cippolctli weir, 215
—drowned weir, 225
—narrow crested weir, 220
—ogee weir, 224
—rectangular notch, 194
-—rectangular weir, 211, 213
—sharp crested weir, 223
—stepped notch, 199
—submerged weir, 225
— trapezoidal notch, 198
—triangular notch, 196
Discharge through branched pipes,
258, 264
— Borda’s mouthpipe, 182
—circular channel, 291
—compound series), 253 pipe ( ic., pipe in
— convergent -divergent
mouthpiece, 186
—convergent mouthpiece,
149
— water vessels into and fitted fromtothethe air
delivery pipes on the indicator diagram, 609
—pipe elasticity on hammer Flow through syphon pipes, 265
Flownct. llO
Fluid masses subjected to acceleration along inclined plane, 368
— horizontal acceleration,
delivery pipe of a
reciprocating pump, 627
blow, 280
— temperature in the viscosity, 335, 336
— variation in diameter, 634
— variation in speed, 632
—viscosity on motion, 334 –
Effect on discharge over a notch,
due to error in the measurement of head, 205
—over a rectangular notch.
364
— vertical acceleration, 367
Force, 9
Force of a jet impinging normally
on a fixed plate, 471
205 — on a fixed curved vane, 479
— on a hinged plate, 474
Efficiencies —over aoftriangular a centrifugal notch pump , 207. — on472 an inclined fixed plate.
587
— on a moving curved vane.
— draft tubes, 558
— impulse turbines, 513
— power transmission
through a nozzle, 273
— reaction turbine, 541
Elastic force, 463
Elbow draft tubes, 558
Energy, 11
— equation for flowing gases,
481
— on a moving plate, 476
— on a Series of vanes, 477
Forcefor ol resistance the glYtttof force ^he prototype of resistance of a mddel, 446
Forced vortex flow,373
Francis’ formula fordischarge over
a rectangular weir, 213
185
—drowned •^ orifice, 147, 148, tos InrKtn^ 1Index 663
Indicator diagram of a reciprocating pump, 606, 608, 609
Inertia force,462
Intensifier, Hydraulic.654
Internal gear pump,649
International system of units, 3
Inverted differential manometer.
Froude’s number, 464
Fundamental dimensions, 420
—units, 3
Fumeyron turbine,559
—due to obstruction in a pipe,
179
—due175 to sudden contraction,
G —due173 to sudden enlargement,
Gauge pressure, 16
Gay-Lussac law,386
General gas equation, 386
Geometrical similarity, 441
Girard turbine, 526
Govering of an impulse turbine.
Lower critical velocity, 339
28 Lubrication of bearings, 350
Irrotational flow, 112
Inward flow reaction turbine, 531
Isothermal process,390
M
Mach number, 467
— its importance, 402
— wave, 403, 404
Main components of a reaction turbine,528
Manning’s formula for discharge
through open channels, 289
Manometer, 17
Manometric efficiency of a
centrifugal pump, 587
— head of a centrifugal pump.
J
524
Jet of water, 138
Jet pump, 648
Jonval turbine, 559
Graphical representation of pressure head and velocity head.
239
Gravity force, 463
Guide mechanism, 529 K
Kaplan turbine, 554
Kilogram.4
Kinematic similarity, 441
—viscosity, 336
Kinetic energy of a liquid particle
in motion, 116
Kutter’s formula for discharge
through open channels, 288
H
Hagen-Poiseulle law for laminar
flow in pipes, 341
Height of paraboloid of the liquid
surface, 376
Higher critical velocity, 339
Horizontal slope profiles, 330
Hydraulic coefficients, 139
— Experimental determination of, 141
Hydraulic accumulator, 653
— couplingi 658
— crane, 656
— gradient line, 239
— intesifier, 654
— jump, 314
— lift , 657
— press, 651-
— ram, 645
— similarity, 441
— torque convertor, 659
Hydraulic efficiency of an impulse
turbine, 513
— reaction turbine, 541
Hydroelectric power plant, 505
586
Maximum length of a vertical floating body, 95
— speed of a of reciprocating the rotatingpump crank,
612, 619
Measurement of air speed, 406
—river dfscharge, 304
—fluid pressure, 16
Magnus effect in a moving liquid,
L
Laminar flow, 338
Law of conservation of energy, 11
Laws of motion, 10
—perfrct gases, 385
Length of backward curve.323
Lift, 410, 657
Limitations of Bernoulli’s equation.121
Liquids and their properties,6
Lobe pump, 649
Lock gates, Water pressure on, 72
Loss of head due to hydraulic jump.
416
Mechanical efficiency of a
centrifugal pump, 587
— impulse turbine, 513
— reaction turbine, 541
Mechanical gauges, 29
Mctacentric height, 89
—Analytical method for, 90
—Experimental 102 method for.
316 Methods of dimensional analysis,
424, 430
—determination of coefficients of viscosity, 358
Loss of head due to friction in a
viscous flow, 346
Loss of head in pipes, 231
—Chezy’s formula, 235
—Darcy’s formula, 232
Loss of head of a liquid flowing in
a pipe, 173
—due to entrance in a pipe,
I
Metre, 4
Micromanomcter, 21
Mild slope profiles, 328
Minimum starting speed of a
centrifugal pump, 598
Mixed flow* turbines. 531
Ideal fluid, 337
Impulse turbine, Govering of, 524
Inclined venturimeter, 131
Incompressible flow, 112
Increase inthe water pressure while 178
flrtlUIMA tL
— l_ •a •664 Index
—running full. 184
Multiple cylinder reciprocating
pump, 640
Multistage centrifugal pump, 599
Potential energy of a liquid in motion, 116
—lines, 110
Power, 10
— developed by a prototype
for the power developed
by a model, 449, 458
— produced by an impulse
turbine, 512
— reaction turbine, 541
— required to drive a
centrifugal pump, 590
— reciprocating pump, 605
Practical applications of
Bernoulli’s equations. 126
— hydrostatics, 69
.—weirs, 277
Prandtl and Von Karman’s equation for pipe flow. 356
— experiment of boundary
la) cr separation, 412
Precautions for rating of current
meters, 307
Prediction of a model, 443, 45
Press, Hydraulic, 651
Presentation of units and their
values, 4
Pressure diagrams, 64
— difference in a free vortex
flow, 383
—energy ofa liquid particle in
motion, 116
— force, 462
—head, 13
—due to one kind of liquid on
one side, 65, 68
Pressure in a mouthpiece, 187.189,
190, 191
Pressure of water due to deviated
flow, 489
Pressure on a bod) immersed in a
mosing liquid. 408
urved surface, 58
Prevention of boundary layer
separation. 417, 418
Priming of a centrifugal pump, 641
Principle, Archimedes’.87
— of jel propulsion. 492
Procedure for model analysis, 442
Proof of Bernoulli’s equation, 118
—Pascal’s law, 14
Properties of liquid.6
R
Radial How turbines.531
Raised weir, 227
Ram, Hydraulic, 645
.Rate of discharge, 107
Rating of current metres, 307
Ratio of specific heats, 389
Rayleigh’s meihod for dimensional
homogeneity, 424
Real lluid, 339
Recent trends in water power engineering. 505
Rectangular notch.Discharge over,
144. 145
Relation between pressure and
height. 398
— specific heats, 386
— specific speed and shape of
reaction turbine runner.
N
Narrow cred weir, 220
Negative slip of the pump, 604
Net positive suction head (NPSH),
639
Neutral equilibrium of a floating
body, 93
Ncw’lpnian fluid, 338
Newton’s laws of motion, 10
— resistance, 408
—viscosity, 334
Nik;iradse’s experiment in rough
pipes, 355
No. of buckets on the periphery of
a Pelton wheel, 522
— jets for a Pelton wheel, 519
Non-modular venturiflume, 318
Non-Newtonian fluid. 338
Non-uniform flow, 111
Nozzle of a Pelton wheel, 508
571
Resultant force. 9
Reynold’s experiment of viscous
flow. 339
Reynold’s number.340.463
Rod floats, 305
Rotating cylinder method, 360
Rotational How, 112
Runner o! Pelton w heel. 509
O
Ogee weir, 224
One-dimensional flow, 113
Orifice meter. 134
Orifice viscometer. 359
Othci impulse turbines, 526
— reaction turbines, 559
Outward flow reaction turbines.
S
Scalars and vectors, 11
Second. 4
Selection of centrifugal pump.638
— repeating \ ariablcs, 431
— suitable scale for model.
536
Overall efficiency of a centrifugal
pump, 587
— impulse turbine, 513
— reaction. turbine, 542
Overshot water wheel, 499
442
— turbines, 568, 569
Sharp crested weir, 223
Shooting llow, 313
S. I. units.3
Signilicancc of specific speed.568
— unit power, unit speed and
unit discharge, 563
Simple manometer, 17
—segment method. 304
Simpson’s rule, 304
Siphon spillway. 229
—Advantages of, 229 .
Size of a buckets of a Pelton wheel,
P
Parallelogram law of forces, 10
Pascal’s law, 14
Path lines, 110
relton wheel, 508
— Design of, 521
Piezometer tube, 16
Pilot tube, 135.306
Piping system of a centrifugal
pump, 583
Polygon law of forces, 10
522
Slip of pump, 604
Clni>a \f f mrfirn n f uyaf^r 325665
Index
Sluice gates, W«tcr pressure on.70 *
Specific energy of a flowing liquid.
— forces present in a moving
liquid, 462
— mouthpieces, 172
—notches, 194
—orifices, 138
— pumps.582
— reciprocating pump, <503
— water wheels, 499
—weir, 210, 220
—circular horizontal tank
through an orifice at the
bottom, 158
— prototype time of for emptying the givena
model, 451, 460
—tank of variable cross-section through an orifice,
310
—diagrams, 311
’—gravity of water, 7
—weight of water, 6
Specific heals of a gas,387
Specific speed of a centrifugal
pump, 635
— of a turbine.565
— shape of reaction turbine
runner, 571
Speed of the prototype for the given
speed of a model.448.457
Spiral casing for a centrifugal
pump, 583
— reaction turbine, 528
Stable equilibrium of a floating
body, 92
Stagnation pressure, 404
Steady (low, 112
Sleep slope profile, 329
Stepped notch, 199
Slreaklines. 110
Streaming flow, 313
Stream function, 113
Streamline flow, 112
Streamlines, 110
Submerged orifice, 147
—weir, 225
Suction head, 638
Surface tension force, 46″
Surge tanks.282
Suspended hydraulic
Syphon pipes.26*
—spillwa 4′
161
—tank through two orifices. U
163
Time of flow of liquid from, on- Undistorted Undesshol water models wheel , 443 .502
Uniform flow, 111
Unit discharge, 562
— power, 561
d particle in Units—ofspeed kinematic , 562 viscosity, 336
• —viscosity,334
Unstable equilibrium of a floating
body, 92
Unsteady flow, 112
Upper critical velocity.339
Useful data.9
Use of flow nets, 110
Uses—ofnozzles principle , 278of dimensional
homogeneity,423
vessel into another, 166
—through a long pipe, Iof 1 a
Time of rolling (oscillatii
floating body, 104
Total energy line, 239j
gy of lie
—cncr motion.
Total
liquid particle in
.on, 117
rr
. horizontal immersed
surface, 37
an an anclincd surface, 40
— on the top and bottom of a
closed cylindrical vessel
completely filled with
water, 381
—onsurface a vertically , 38 immersed
Transmission of power through
nozzle, 272
—pipes, 241
Trapezoidal notch, 198
Travelling time of a prototype for
the given travelling time of a
model, 452
Triangular notch, 196
Triangle law of forces, 10
Tripple cylinder reciprocating
pump, 640
Tube gauges, 16
Turbine runner,529
Turbulent flow, 112, 338
Turgo turbine, 526
Two-dimensional flow, 113
Types of casings for the impeller of
a centrifugal pump,582
— draft tubes, 557
V
Values of Chezy’s constant m
formula for discharge through
an open channel, 287
Vane pump, 649
Vapour pressure, 639
Vectors and scalars, 11
Velocity of approach, 217, 218
— sound wave, 399
—water through a nozzle, 276
Velocity of water in the prototype
for the given velocity of water
in the model, 444, 455
Vena contract,
model, 442
Testing.cmoulli’s, 118
Theom’s turbine,559
Th/css of boundary layer. 413,
T4I4, 415
iree dimensional flow, 113
—a tank its bottom through , 153 an orifice at
—through a long pipe, 244
—over 201a rectangular notch,
Time—ofover emptying a triangular a hemicnh notch^,ri 203 –.i
Ventilation of rectangular weirs,
Venturiflume,318
Venturimeter, 126, 131
Viscous —Discharge force, 462through, 189
Viscosity.9.333 3«
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