A Practical Approach to Motor Vehicle Engineering and Maintenance

A Practical Approach to Motor Vehicle Engineering and Maintenance
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Allan Bonnick , Derek Newbold
19 سبتمبر 2020
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A Practical Approach to Motor Vehicle Engineering and Maintenance
Third Edition
Allan Bonnick
Derek Newbold
Foreword xiii
Acknowledgements xiv
Introduction to the retail motor industry and Health and Safety at Work xv
1 Vehicle layouts and some simple vehicle structures 1
Light vehicles 1
Vehicle structure 1
Passenger protection 1
Vehicle shape 4
End-of-Life Vehicles Directive 4
Layout of engine and driveline 5
Self-assessment questions 7
2 Engine principles 8
Engine details 8
The four-stroke Otto cycle 8
The two-stroke cycle 14
Two-stroke engine with valves 15
Rotary engines 16
The Atkinson engine cycle 16
Self-assessment questions 17
3 The main moving parts of an engine 19
Valves 19
Cam and follower 19
Valve springs 20
Valve operating mechanisms 22
The camshaft drive 23
Pistons 25
The crankshaft and flywheel assembly 30
The connecting rod 30
Self-assessment questions 32
4 Multi-cylinder engines 37
Cylinder arrangements 37
Engine structure e the main fixed parts 37
Self-assessment questions 46
5 Firing orders and engine balance 47
Firing orders 47
Crankshaft layout 47
Vibrations and engine balance 48
Self-assessment questions 536 Crankshaft, camshaft, and valve operating mechanisms 54
Crankshaft 54
Camshaft 58
Self-assessment questions 62
7 A petrol fuel system 67
The fuel tank 67
Pump details 68
Fuel return 69
Mechanical fuel pump 69
Pipes 69
Filters 70
Carbon canister 70
Inertia switch 70
Working with petrol 70
Maintenance and repair 71
Self-assessment questions 72
8 Motor fuels 74
Fuels 74
Factors affecting exhaust emissions 75
Emissions and their causes 76
Methods of controlling exhaust emissions 77
Self-assessment questions 80
9 Carburettors 81
The simple carburettor 81
Rich or weak mixture 82
Keeping the mixture strength constant 82
Constant-choke carburettor 82
Cold starts, idling, progression, and acceleration 83
Constant-vacuum carburettor 84
Self-assessment questions 85
10 Petrol injection e introduction 87
Petrol injection systems 87
Types of petrol injection system 89
Single-point injection 89
Multi-point injection 91
Direct petrol injection 96
Fuel system maintenance and repair 97
Self-assessment questions 100
11 Air supply and exhaust systems 101
Engine air supply systems (carburettor) 101
Fuel-injected engine air intake system 103
Variable-length induction tract 104
Turbocharging 105
Practical assignment e air supply and exhaust systems 107
Self-assessment questions 108
vi Contents12 Lubricants and engine lubrication 110
Lubricants 110
Boundary lubrication 111
Hydrodynamic lubrication 111
Sources of oil 111
Types of oil 112
Handling oil and disposal of waste 113
Lubrication system 113
Self-assessment questions 122
13 Cooling systems 126
Overheating 126
Heat transfer 127
Over-cooling 127
Types of cooling systems 128
Engine air-cooling system 128
Liquid cooling 130
Comparison of air- and water-cooled systems 131
Radiator and heater matrix 132
Water pump 134
Thermostat 135
Pressurized cooling systems 136
Fans and their operations 138
Corrosion in the cooling system 142
Antifreeze 142
Engine temperature gauge 143
Engine core plugs 144
Servicing and maintaining the cooling system 145
Heating and ventilation 149
Interior heating and air-conditioning 149
Heat losses 153
Practical assignment e cooling systems 154
Practical assignment e liquid cooling systems 155
Self-assessment questions 156
14 Internal combustion engines 158
Engine power 158
Dynamometers for high-speed engines 158
Self-assessment questions 167
15 The compression ignition engine e diesel engine 168
The four-stroke compression ignition engine 168
The Diesel cycle and the dual combustion cycle 168
The two-stroke CIE 170
Diesel engine construction 170
Turbulence 171
Combustion in a compression ignition engine 173
Diesel fuel and products of combustion 174
Emissions limits 174
Emissions control on the CIE 174
Self-assessment questions 176
Contents vii16 Diesel fuel systems 177
Diesel fuel systems 177
Common rail diesel fuel system 189
Self-assessment questions 193
17 Engine fault diagnosis 198
Engine faults 198
Mechanical condition 198
Summary 204
Self-assessment questions 205
18 Transmission 208
The clutch 208
Operating mechanisms 211
Matching the engine to the road-going needs of the vehicle 213
A basic gearbox 214
The constant mesh and synchromesh gearbox 215
Overdrive 219
Transmitting the power to the driving wheels 219
Propeller shafts and drive shafts 225
Constant-velocity universal joints 225
Axles and axle casings 227
Final drive 227
Differential 228
Rear hub bearing and axle shaft arrangements 229
Types of bearings used in the transmission system 231
Practical assignment e removing a clutch 235
Practical assignment e removing and refitting a gearbox 235
Practical assignment e axles and final drives 235
Self-assessment questions 236
19 Electronically controlled automatic transmission 237
Fluid couplings 237
Automatic gearbox 239
Maintenance and fault tracing 243
Self-assessment questions 246
20 Suspension systems 248
Unsprung mass 248
Non-independent suspension systems 248
Independent suspension 250
Suspension dampers 257
Maintenance checks 260
Practical assignment e suspension system 260
Self-assessment questions 261
21 Braking systems 263
Vehicle braking systems 263
Types of brakes 263
Hydraulic operation of brakes 264
viii ContentsWheel cylinders 265
The handbrake 265
Split braking systems 265
The tandem master cylinder 266
The brake fluid reservoir 267
Brake pipes and hoses 267
The brake servo 267
Brake adjustment 269
Wear indicators 270
Stop lamp switch 270
Brake pressure control valve 270
Brake fluid 271
Braking efficiency 271
Anti-lock braking system (ABS) 272
Bleeding the brakes 274
Practical assignment 274
Self-assessment questions 275
22 Steering, wheels, and tyres 276
Light vehicle steering layouts 277
Steering geometry 278
Ackermann principle 278
Centre-point steering 279
Steering roll radius 280
Castor 281
Wheel alignment 282
Steering gearboxes 282
Front-hub assemblies 288
Light vehicle wheels 288
Types of car wheels 290
Wire wheels 291
Wheel nut torque 291
Tyres 291
Wheel and tyre balance 293
Tyre maintenance 294
Self-assessment questions 295
Practical assignment e steering worksheet 300
23 Power-assisted steering 302
Hydraulic power-assisted steering 302
ECU-controlled power-assisted steering 303
Electric power-assisted steering 303
Four-wheel steering 304
Diagnostics 309
Self-assessment questions 309
24 Computer (ECU)-controlled systems 310
The fundamental parts of a computer 310
A practical automotive computer system 311
Engine management systems 318
Traction control 320
Electric throttle 320
Stability control 322
Self-assessment questions 323
Contents ix25 Electrical and electronic principles 324
Electric current 324
Electromotive force 324
Effects of electric current e using electricity 325
Measuring current and voltage 328
Electricity and magnetism 329
Alternating current 332
Electronic principles 336
Self-assessment questions 342
26 Vehicle electrical systems 346
Vehicle batteries 346
The alternator 350
The starter motor 356
Self-assessment questions 360
27 Ignition systems 361
Ignition systems for spark ignition engines 361
Fault tracing, maintenance, and repair of ignition systems 369
Fault tracing in contact breaker ignition systems 380
Some practical applications, i.e. doing the job 384
Self-assessment questions 390
28 Electrical systems and circuits 392
Central door-locking systems 392
Screen wipers 393
Screen washers 396
Anti-theft devices 399
Electrically operated door mirrors 399
Electric horns 400
Electrically operated windows 402
Lighting 402
Circuits and circuit principles 408
Instrumentation 416
Supplementary restraint systems (SRS) 418
Self-assessment questions 422
29 Electrical and electronic fault diagnosis 424
Diagnostics on ECU-controlled systems 424
On-board diagnostics (OBD) 424
Fault tracing in electrical circuits 426
Self-assessment questions 433
30 Nuts, bolts, and spanners 434
Dimensions of nuts, bolts, and spanners 434
Screw threads 434
Studs 434
Lock nuts and other securing devices 435
x ContentsTaps and dies 435
Drilling and tapping sizes 436
Removing broken studs 436
Thread restoration 436
Screws 437
Bolt, stud, and screw strength 438
Tightening torques 438
Self-assessment questions 439
31 Measuring instruments and measurement 441
Measuring instruments 441
Pressure gauges 448
Belt tension gauge 450
Cathode ray oscilloscope 450
Digital multimeter 451
Self-assessment questions 455
32 Motor industry organizations and career paths 457
Qualifications 457
Modern motor vehicle qualifications 457
Career prospects 458
Motor industry organizations 459
Appendix A 460
Appendix B 462
List of acronyms 463
Note: Page references followed by “f” and “t” denote figures and tables, respectively.
Acceleration, 76, 83
Acceleration devices, 83
Acceleration enrichment, 76
Accelerator pump, 84f
Accountability, xxi
Ackermann principle, 278, 278f, 279f
Active or ‘live’ hydropneumatic suspension, 254e5, 255f
Active systems, 79
rear steering, 307, 307f
tests, 430e1, 430f
valve timing, 12, 14f
Adaptive ignition, 368e9
Adblue tank, 176f
Additives, 112
Aeration, 133
Air bags
for driver and front seat passenger, 419f
inflation, pyrotechnic device for, 421f
modules disposal, 422
Air bleed compensation, 82
Air cleaner, 102f
Air conditioning, cooling system, 149e3, 151f, 152f
air conditioning fluid, 149e50
computer control of, 150e1
personnel qualifications, 152
refrigerant, 151e2
training topics, 153
Air control valve, operation of, 103, 103f
Air cooled diesel engine, 129f
Air dam, 5f
Air filter, 102, 102f
Air flow meter, 103e4, 104f
Air horns, 401e2
repair and maintenance, 401e2
Air intake manifold, 104, 105f
Air intake system, 103e4, 103f
Air resistance, 4
power used against, 4f
Air supply systems, engine, 101e3, 102f
air control valve, operation of, 103, 103f
air filter, 102, 102f
temperature control of, 102e3, 102f
Air suspension, 255e7, 258f
Air-cooling system, 128e9, 128f, 129f
advantages, 131
cooling air circulation, 128
disadvantages, 131
fans, types of, 128e9
Air-flow sensor, 93e4, 94f, 104
Airefuel ratio values, 88
Alternating current, 332e6, 351
applications of, 332e6
waveform, 332f
Alternative data loggers, 432, 432f
Alternator, 350e6
alternating current, 351
basic vehicle alternator, 350e1, 351f
bearings, 355
brushes and brush box, 354
component parts of, 353f
drive pulley and cooling fan, 355, 355f
full-wave rectifier, 352, 352f
output tests, 355e6, 355f
rectifier, 353e4
rotor, 352e3, 353f
single diode as a simple half-wave rectifier, 352
stator, 353, 353f
testing, 355, 356f
typical vehicle alternator, 352
voltage regulator, 354
Alternator protection diode, 333
Alternator rectifier, 352, 352f
Alternator voltage regulator
protection diode in, 333f
Altitude effect on engine performance, 166e7
Ampere, 325
Ampere-hour, 348e9
Anti-foaming agent, 244
Antifreeze, 142e3
function, 142
level checking, 142e3, 143f
Anti-lock braking system (ABS), 272e4, 272f, 273f
modulator, 273f
warning light, 274
wheel speed sensor, 272e4
Antioxidants, 112
Anti-roll bar, 254
Anti-theft devices, 399
burglar alarm, 399
coded ignition key and engine immobilizer system, 399
Anti-wear additives, 112
Atkinson efficiency, 17
Atkinson engine cycle, 16e17
pressureevolume diagram for, 17f
Atomization, 74e5
Atoms, 324, 324f
Authority, xxi
Authorized treatment facilities (ATFs), 5
Automatic brake adjuster, 270, 270f
Automatic gearbox, 239e43
epicyclic gear ratios, 239, 240f
friction elements that lock and unlock elements of gear set, 240
gear ratios, 240, 242f, 243f
gear set that produces gear ratios, 240
hydraulic system, 240
oil pressure in, 240e5
sensors, 242e3
shift valves, 241e2
Automatic transmission hydraulic circuit, 244f
Automotive computer system, 310e18
adaptive operating strategy, 313
fault codes, 312e13
gateway, 316
multiplexing, 316e17, 317f
networking and bus systems, 313
power supply and drivers, 316, 317f
Axial flow fan, 128e9, 130fAxial flow pump, 134e5
Axle shaft, 229e30
Axles, 227
casings, 227
fully floating, 230, 233f
location, 252e3, 253f
misalignment, 299f
semi-floating axle, 229, 233f
three-quarter floating axle, 229e30, 233f
Back e.m.f., 333
Baffle plates, 115
Ball bearings, 231
Ball-joints, 287, 287f
Ballasted (series resistor) ignition circuit, 377f
Banjo axle casing, 227, 228f
Bath tub chamber, 43
Batteries, 346e50
capacity, 348e9
charging, 349
chemical effect of electric current, 346e7
construction, 348
case, 348, 348f
installation, 347f
lead acid vehicle battery, 347
relative density of electrolyte, 349
reserve capacity, 349e50
testing, 350
typical vehicle battery, 347e8
Battery plate, 348f
Baulk-ring synchromesh gearbox, 216, 217f
Beam axle steering arrangement, 276, 276f
Bearing failure, 202e4, 203f
oil pump checks, 203f
crankshaft measurement, 203f
Bearing lubrication, 111f
Bearings, 31f, 55, 55f, 58, 59f, 355
alternator, 355
ball and roller, 210
combined radial and one-way thrust, 210
double-row journal, 231
metals, 55
copperelead, 55
leadebronze, 55
tinealuminium, 55
needle roller, 234
overhead camshaft, 58
overhead value, 58
parallel-roller journal, 232
plain, 231
shells, 55
fitting, 55, 55f
single-row deep groove radial, 231
taper roller, 232, 234
Belt tension gauge, 450, 450f
Belt-driven camshaft drive, 23e4, 25f
Bi-metal elements, 143
Bi-metal spring, 103
Bimetal strip, 413
Binary, 314
Bio-fuels, 79
Bipolar transistors, 339
Birfield joint, 226
brakes, 274
fuel system, 183
Block circuit diagram, for remote central locking, 393f
Bluecol hydrometer, 142, 143f
Body panels, 1
Body roll, 252f
dimensions of, 434, 434f
drilling and tapping sizes, 436, 437t
strength, 438
Boolean logic, 342
Bosch-type direct petrol injection, 97f
Boundary lubrication, 111
Brake adjustment, 269e70
automatic brake adjuster, 270, 270f
manual brake adjuster, 269, 269f
Brake fluid, 271
Brake fluid reservoir, 267, 267f
Brake horsepower, 159
Brake linings, xix
Brake mean effective pressure, 165, 165f
Brake pipes and hoses, 267
Brake power, 158
torque and sfc, comparison, 164
Brake pressure control valve, 270e1, 271f
Brake servo, 267e9, 268f, 269f
Brake thermal efficiency
petrol vs. diesel, 165, 166t
Brake-light switch, 270f
Braking efficiency, 271
Braking systems, 263e74
anti-lock braking system (ABS), 272e4, 272f, 273f
in automatic gearbox, 242f
bleeding, 274
brake adjustment, 269e70
brake fluid, 271
brake fluid reservoir, 267, 267f
brake pipes and hoses, 267
brake pressure control valve, 270e1, 271f
brake servo, 267e9, 268f, 269f
brakes, types of, 263e4
braking efficiency, 271
handbrake, 265, 266f
hydraulic operation, 264e5
regenerative braking, 396f
split, 265e6
stop lamp switch, 270
tandem master cylinder, 266e7, 267f
vehicle, 263
wear indicators, 270, 270f
wheel cylinders, 265
Breakout box, 428e30
oscilloscope tests at, 429e30
Brush box, 354
Brushes, 354
Bulbs, 402e5. See also Headlamp
Burglar alarm, 399
Burroughs type tension gauge, 356f
Bus, 313
Bushes, 260
Business-line organization chart, xx
Bypass filter system, 118
Cable connectors
protection diode in, 416f
types of, 417f
Cable-operated clutch arrangement, 212f, 213f
Cable sizes, 411
Calibration, 182
Calipers, 447, 447f
Calorific value, 74
Cam, 19
466 IndexCam and peg gearbox, 284
Cam profile, 182f
Cam-and-roller steering gearbox. See Worm and roller gearbox
Camber, 279e80, 279f, 294e5, 296f, 298f
Camshaft, 58e1, 58f
bearings, 58, 59f
overhead camshaft, 58
overhead value, 58
condition checks, 59
dimension checks, 59f
tappet rotation, 60e1
valve clearance, 61
valve train, 59e60
Camshaft drive, 23e5
belt-driven, 23e4, 25f
chain and sprocket, 23, 24f
condition checks, 24, 26f
gear train, 23, 25f
CAN, logic levels, 314
Capacitance, 334e5
in circuit, 335, 336f
Capacitive discharge, 335
Capacitors (condenser), 334, 335f, 362e3
in circuit, 335
connected in parallel, 335e6, 336f
and relay flasher unit and circuit, 408f
Car wheels, types of, 290, 290f
Carbon canister, 70, 70f
Carbon dioxide, 77
global warming and, 91
Carbon monoxide, 77
Carburation, 81
Carburettors, 81e6
acceleration, 83
cold starts, 83, 83f
constant-choke, 82
compensating jet and well, 82e3, 82f
diffuser tube, 82
constant-vacuum, 84e5, 85f
idling, 83, 84f
rich and weak, 82
strength, keeping constant, 82
progression, 83, 84f
running on, 83e4, 85f
simple, 81e2, 81f
limitation of, 81e2, 82f
Carburizing, 54
Career prospects, 458e9
Carrier axle casing, 227, 228f
Cartridge filter, 120, 120f, 121f
Case hardening, 54
Castle nut, 436f
Castor action, 281
Castor gauge, 281e2, 281f, 298f
Catalysts, 78
Catalytic converter, 77
Cathode ray oscilloscope, 450e1, 450f
sensors, 451
Cavitation, 142
Central door-locking systems, 392e3
circuit protection, 392
maintenance and fault tracing, 393
manual operation, 392
motor, 392
remote controller, 392
remote operation, 392
solenoid, 392
Centre-point steering, 279e80, 279f
camber, 279e80, 279f
kingpin inclination (KPI), 279, 280, 280f
Centrifugal advance mechanism, checking, 386
Centrifugal fan, 129
Centrifugal pump, 135f
Centrifugal filter, 121
Chain and sprocket camshaft drive, 23, 24f
Chassis drop test, 299f
Choke, 81
Choke tube, 74
Circuit breakers, 413
Circuits, 408e16, 412f
cable sizes, 411
circuit protection fuses, 411e14
circuit breaker, 413, 415f
connectors, 415e16
other circuit protection, 414
repair and maintenance, 416
colour code, 411
diagrams, 408e9, 411
electric circuit, 408f
elements list, system diagram, 410f
for headlamp, 407f
for indicator lamp, 407f
limit switch circuit for ‘off’ position of wiper arm, 395f
non-standard circuit symbols, 409f
for rear fog lamp, 407f
symbols, 326f, 409f
wiring loom (harness), 411
Circular arc cam, 19
Clearance drill, 436
Clearance fit, 453
Clearance hole, 436
Clock, 310
Closed carbon cycle, 79
Clutch, 208e11
diaphragm-spring clutch, 208e10, 209f
friction-plate construction, 210
friction-plate materials, 210
hydraulic linkage, 211, 211f, 212f
linings, xix, 210e11
mechanical linkage, 211, 212f
multi-plate, 242f
multi-spring clutch, 208, 209f
operating mechanisms, 211e13
types of bearings used in, 231e4
wear properties, 210
Clutch drag, 210, 212
Clutch faults, 212
Clutch judder, 210
Clutch linings, xix
Clutch slip, 212
Clutch vibration, 52
Coasting, overrun braking, 76
Coded ignition key and engine immobilizer system, 399
Coefficient of friction, 110, 110f
Coil ignition systems, 357
Coil polarity, 363, 363f
Coil springs, 248e9, 249f, 250f
Cold filter plugging point (CFPP). See Cloud point
Cold starting, 83, 83f, 94e5, 376, 376f, 377f
aids, 188e9
electrical connections, 189, 189f
heater plugs, 188, 188f
thermo-start unit, 188, 189f
Colour code, 411
Colour coding of resistors, 326f
Index 467Combined radial and one-way thrust bearing, 232, 234f
diesel engine, 172, 174f
gas leak, 146e7, 147f
chemical analysis for, 146e7
petrol engine, 75
Combustion chambers, 40
design, factors that influence, 41e2
shapes, 43f
types of, 42e4
Combustion knock sensors, 367e8
Common rail diesel fuel system, 189e93, 190f, 191f
fuel rail and pressure-relief valve, 192
high-pressure pump, 191, 192f
pressure-regulating valve, 192
safety precautions, 192e3
sensors, 192e3
Compensating jet and well air bleed system, 82e3, 82f
Compensator, 265
Compressed air equipment, xix
Compression height of piston, 27
Compression ignition engine. See Diesel engine
Compression pressure, 201t
Compression ratio, 10, 12f, 42, 42f
Computer, components of, 310e11, 311f
computer memory, 310
internal details of, 311, 313f
Computer (ECU)-controlled systems, 310e23
automotive computer system, 310e18
computer memory, 310
diagnostics on, 424
electric throttle, 320e1
engine management systems, 318e20, 318f
stability control, 322e3
traction control, 320
Computer-controlled transmission system, 312f
Computer memory, 310
clock, 310
EEPROMs, 310
keep-alive memory (KAM), 310
read and write, or random access memory (RAM), 310
read-only memory (ROM), 310
Conductivity, 337
Conductors, 324
current entering and leaving, 330f
Connecting rod, 30e2, 31f, 49e50
alignment checking, 32f
big-end eye dimensions, 32, 32f
condition checks, 30e2
gudgeon pin and small-end bush, 32
weight, 32
Connectors, 415e16
Constant-choke carburettor, 82
compensating jet and well, 82e3, 82f
diffuser tube, 82
Constant-energy ignition system, 364, 364f
Constant-load synchromesh mechanism, 217f
Constant mesh gearbox, 215e19
dog clutch for, 217f
principle, 217f
Constant-pressure cycle, 169
Constant-vacuum carburettor, 84e5, 85f
Constant-velocity universal joints, 225e7, 225
plunge joints, 226e7
Rzeppa-type CV joint, 226, 226f
speed variation, 225, 225f
Tracta CV joints, 226, 226f
Weiss CV joint, 227
Contact breaker ignition systems, 335, 336f, 380e4
capacitor, testing, 383
contact points, condition of, 382
electrical condition of ignition coil, 383e4
fault-finding principles, 380
high-tension (HT) leads, 383f, 384
HT sparking, checking for, 381, 381f
points gap, adjusting, 386e7, 387f
rotor, checking, 381e2, 381f
safety, 380
‘six-step’ approach, 380e1
visual checks, 381, 381f
voltage on the CB side of the coil, 382, 382f
Contact-breaker-type distributor, servicing, 388, 388f
Contact points, 382
Continuity tests, 427
Controller Area Network (CAN), 313e14
bus, 314
data transmission rates on, 314
layout, 314
cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error detection, 315
error protection, 315
nodes, 314e15, 314f
types, 315
voltages, 314, 314f, 314t
Converter lock-up clutch, 239f
Coolant temperature sensor, 94
thermistor type, 95f
Cooling fan, 355, 355f. See also Fans
Cooling systems, 126e54
antifreeze, 142e3
corrosion in, 142
engine air-cooling system, 128
engine core plugs, 144e5, 145f
engine operating temperature ranges, 126f
engine temperature gauge, 143e4
fan belts, 142
fans, 138e42
heating and ventilation, 149
direct ventilation, 149
indirect ventilation, 149
heat loss, 153
heat transfer, 127, 127f
interior heating and air conditioning, 149e53
liquid cooling, 130e1
over-cooling, 127e8
overheating, 126e7
pressurized cooling system, 136e8, 137f
radiator and heater matrix, 132e4, 133f
radiator blinds and shutters, 141, 142f
service and maintenance, 145e9
combustion gas leak, 146e7, 147f
fault diagnosis and repair, 145
low coolant levels and leaks, 145e6
poor coolant circulation, 147e9
pressure check, 146, 146f
thermostat, 135e6
types of, 128
water pump, 134e5
Corrosion in cooling system, 142
cavitation, 142
direct attack, 142
electromechanical attack, 142
mineral deposits, 142, 143f
Corrosion inhibitors, 244e5
Couples, 52f
and distance between crank throws, 50
Cracks in engines, condition check, 40, 41f
468 IndexCrankcase, 44, 44f, 46
Crankpins, 57
connecting rod eye, 57
diameter measurement, 57f
dimensions, 57
flywheel, 57e8, 57f
oil seals, 58, 58f
Crankshaft, 30, 31f, 54e8, 54f
bearings, 55, 55f
bearing metals, 55
copperelead, 55
leadebronze, 55
tinealuminium, 55
bearing shells fitting, 55, 55f
condition checks, 56
end float, 56, 56f
main bearings, 56, 56f
crankpins, 57
connecting rod eye, 57
diameter measurement, 57f
dimensions, 57
flywheel, 57e8, 57f
oil seals, 58, 58f
four-cylinder engine, 55f
heat treatment, 54
layout, 47e8
six-cylinder-in-line crankshaft and firing order, 47e8, 48f
v8 crankshaft and firing order, 48, 48f
nitriding, 54e5
thrust bearing, 448f
Crankshaft damper, 52, 52f
Crankshaft sensor, checking, 430f
Crash gearboxes, 215
Crown wheel and pinion, 228, 230f, 232f
Crown wheel teeth workings, 231f
Cruising speed, light engine load, 76
Crumple zones, 2e4
Current, measurement, 328e9
categories, xxii
informed, xxii
new, xii
non-informed, xiiexxii
regular, xxii
Customer’s collection points, xiv
Cutting out, 388
Cycle of operations, engine, 8
Cylinder balance test, 200f
Cylinder block, 44, 44f
bore wear, 45f
condition checks, 45
wet liner protrusion for clamping, 45e6, 45f
Cylinder head, 8, 39, 39f
bolt-tightening sequence, 39, 41f, 201f
condition checks, 39e40
flatness checking, 202f
gasket failure, 198e202, 199f
causes of, 202t
condition check, 40, 40f, 41f
Cylinder leakage test, 146, 146f
Cylinder liners, 44e5, 44f
Cylinder pressure vs. crank angle, 161e2, 162e3f
Damper. See Suspension systems
Darlington pair, 340, 340f
Dashboard fusebox, 415f
Data (control bus), 314
Dead axle, 227
Decarbonising, 389
Degas system, 137f
Delegating, xxi
Delivery valve, 180
Detergent/dispersant additives, 112
Detonation, 42, 388
Diagnostic and control unit (DCU), 419e20
Diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs), 200, 373, 373f, 374t, 424
limitations of, 425e6, 426f
structure of, 424e5
Diagonal split, braking system, 266
Dial test indicators (DTIs), 228, 231f, 447, 447f
brake disc run-out, 447
crank shaft end float, 447
Diaphragm-spring clutch, 208e10, 209f
Die nut, 437, 438f
Die stock, 435
Dielectric, 334
Dies, 435, 437f
Diesel cycle, 169, 170f
Diesel engine, 168e76, 169f
combustion, 172, 174f
products, 174
construction, 170e1
diesel cycle, 169, 170f
diesel fuel, 172
dual combustion cycle, 169e70, 170f
emission control, 175e6, 175f
emission limits, 174e5, 174t
four stroke, 168
turbulence, 172
induction stroke, 172, 173f
two stroke, 170, 170f
Diesel fuel, 172
cloud point, 172
flash point, 172
pour point, 172
Diesel fuel systems, 177e89, 177f, 178f
bleeding, 183
cold starting aids, 188e89
common rail diesel fuel system, 189e93, 190f, 191f
DPA or rotary fuel injection pump, 184e5, 184f, 185f, 186f
fuel filters, 178e9, 179f
injector pump, 179e82
lift pump, 177e8
lubrication, 182e183
phasing and calibration, 182
spill timing, 183, 183f
Diesel knock, 172
Diesel particulate filters (DPFs), 79
Differential, 228e9, 232f
Differential lock, 222, 223f
Diffuser tube air bleed system, 82
air bleed compensation, 82f
Digital electronic ignition, 365
Digital (programmed) ignition system, 364e5, 365f
Digital meter, 428
Digital multimeter, 451e4
applications of number, 452e4
accuracy, approximations and degrees of, 452
angular measurement, 454, 454f
fits, 453e4, 453f
limits, 453
testing low oil sensor by, 452, 452f
using, 451e2
Diode, principle, 351f
Diode protection resistor, 338
Dipped beam principle, 404f
Index 469Direct current (DC), 352
Direct drive, 219
Direct ignition systems, 366, 368f
engine construction, 170e1, 171f
testing, 373
Direct petrol injection, 96e7, 97f
idling and light load crushing, 96
medium and full-load conditions, 96e7
Direction indicator lamps, 407e8
Disc brake, 264, 264f
Disc filter, 120e1, 121f
Discipline, xxi
Distributor cam, 375
Distributor pump application (DPA) fuel injection pump. See Rotary
fuel injection pump
Distributor shaft, 364
Distributor-type ignition system, testing, 372, 372f
Distributorless ignition system, 366, 367f
testing, 372e373, 372f, 373t
Dog clutch, 217f
Door mirrors, electrically operated, 399e400, 400f
Dopants, 337
Doping, 337
Double-acting wheel cylinder, 265, 265f
Double-row journal bearing, 231, 234f
self-aligning, 231e2, 234f
Double springs, 21e2, 22f
Downstream oxygen sensor, 318e19, 319f
Drag, 141
Drag coefficient, 4
Drag link, 282
Drilling sizes, 436, 437t
Drive belt tension, 356f
Drive pulley, 355, 355f
Drive shafts, 225
Driving hub assembly, 288, 289f
Drop forging, 54
Drum brake, 263, 263f
Dry sump lubrication, 121e2, 121f
Dual combustion cycle, 168, 169e70, 170f
Dual mass flywheel, 52e3, 53f
Dummy first motion shafts, 57
Dunlop optical alignment gauge, 283f
Duty cycle, 96, 96f
Dwell angle, 373e4, 374f, 375f, 386, 387f
Dynamic ignition timing, 385e6
for high-speed engines, 158e67
for low-speed engines, 158f
Earth circuit
voltage drop on, checking, 359f
EEPROMs, 310
Electric current, 324
effects of, 325e8
Electric fuel pump, 68f
Electric horns, 400e2
air horns, 401e2
basic principles, 401f
wind tone horns, 401
Electric motor effect, 331e2, 331f, 332f
Electric power-assisted steering, 303e4, 305f
Electric shock, 380
Electric throttle, 320e1
drive by wire, 320e1
Electrical circuits, fault tracing in, 426e32
actuator tests, 430e1, 430f
breakout box, 428e30
continuity tests, 427
digital multimeter, 426, 426f
intermittent faults, 431
logic probe, 431, 431f
resistance tests, 428, 428f
sensor tests, 430
voltage drop test, 427, 427f
Electrical connections, 189, 189f
Electrical fuel pump, 68f
Electrical overload, 397
effects of, 397
Electrical power sources, 325f
Electrical safety, xix
Electrical units, 325e8
Electrically operated door mirrors, 399e400, 400f
Electrically operated windows, 402, 402e3f
Electricity, 329e32
Electrochemical effect, 346
Electrolyte, relative density, 349
Electromagnetic clutch, 153f
Electromagnetic induction, 330e1, 331f
Electromagnetic pulse generators, 364
constant-energy ignition system, 364
digital (programmed) ignition system, 364e5, 365f
Electromechanical attack, 142
Electromotive force, 324e5
Electronic control module (ECM), 192, 313, 368, 392
controlled electric fan, 148f
Electronic control unit (ECU), 87. See also
Computer (ECU)-controlled systems
fault codes, 246
-controlled power-assisted steering, 303, 304f
servotronic operation, 303
Electronic ignition system, 363
Electronic module, 369, 369f
Electronic principles, 336e42
Electronic type distributor, servicing, 370e1
Electronically controlled automatic transmission, 227e46, 237f
automatic gearbox, 239e43
fluid couplings, 237e9
maintenance and fault tracing, 243e6
Electronic-type distributor, servicing, 370e1, 371f
static timing, setting, 370e1
Electrons, 324, 324f, 337
Emission control, 77
End float, 56
End-of-life (ELV) directive, 4
implementation of, 5
meaning of, 4
Engine core plugs, 144e5, 145f
Engine immobilizer system, 399f
Engine management systems, 318e20, 318f
downstream oxygen sensor, 318e19, 319f
exhaust gas recirculation, 319e20, 319f
Engine oil, SAE viscosity classification, 112
Engine power, 158
Engine speed ratio, 164
Engine speed sensor, 94, 95f
Engine temperature gauge, 143e4
fusebox, 414f
wiring loom, 413f
components, 8, 9f
dimensions, 9f
operating range, 164
performance, characteristics, 162e3, 163f
Epicyclic differential, 224e5, 224f
470 IndexEpicyclic gear ratios, 239, 240f
Epicyclic gear set, 241f
principle used for locking elements of, 241f
Epitrochoid, 16
Ethylene-glycol anti-freeze solution, 142
European emission standards EURO, 4, 76
European on-board diagnostics (EOBD), 99, 317e18
EVAP system, 71e2
Evaporator, 150
Excess fuel device, 181e2
Excessive fuel consumption, 388
Exhaust catalyst, 318
Exhaust emissions, 97, 99
EU5 regulations, 97
in-service stage, 97e8
Exhaust gas analyser, 97
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), 77e8, 78f, 96, 176, 176f, 319e20,
Exhaust oxygen sensor vaults, 99
Exhaust valve, 8
Exhaust valve lead, 10
Expansion tank, 138
Failure to start, 389
Fan belts, 142
Fans, 138e42
automatically-controlled, 140
directly driven, 140
drives, 140e1
free-wheeling, 140
torque limiting, 141
variable pitch, 141
variable speed, 140e1, 141f
electrically driven, 138, 139f, 140f
fan blades, 138e9, 140f
surrounded by cowl or attached to radiator, 139e40
with swept tips, 139
free-wheeling, 140
Fault codes, 312e13
Fault diagnosis, engine, 198e207
engine faults, 198
mechanical conditions, 198e204
components, 198, 199f
Feeler gauges, 441e7, 442f
non magnetic, 441
F-gas, 149
Filter circuits, 341
Filters, 70
Final drive, 227e8
hypoid bevel, 227e8
servicing and adjustments, 228
spiral bevel, 227
straight bevel, 227, 230f
worm and wheel, 228
Firing interval, 50
Firing orders, 47
Flasher unit, 408
Fleming’s rule, 332, 332f
Flight recorder (data logger) function, 431e2, 431f, 432f
Fluid couplings, 237e9
fluid flywheel, 237e8, 238f
torque converter, 238, 239f
Fluid flywheel, 237e8, 238f
Fluke multimeters, 426f
Flywheel, 57e8, 57f
assembly, 30
Fog lamp circuit, 407f
Followers, 19
Forward bias, 337
currentevoltage in, 338f
Four cylinder in-line engine balance, 50, 50f
Four-cylinder-in-line engine crankshaft, 47f
Four stroke compression ignition engine, 168, 169f
Four stroke cycle of operations, 9
Four wheel drive layout, 7, 7f
advantages, 6
disadvantages, 6
Four wheel steering, 304e9, 305f, 306f
Four-wheel drive system
power transmission, 221e2
operation, 222
steering, 304e9, 305f, 306f
ECU inputs and outputs, 306f
front steering sensors, 305e7
Free electrons, 324
Free-wheeling device, 140
Friction, 110
coefficient of, 110, 110f
reduction of, 110e11
Friction brakes, 263
Friction clutch, 208
Friction pad wear indicator, 270
Friction plate
construction, 210
materials, 210
Front axle and one rear wheel split, braking system, 266
Front engine, rear wheel drive layout, 5e6, 6f
advantages, 5
disadvantages, 6
Front-hub assemblies
driving hubs, 288, 289f
non-driving hubs, 288, 288f
Front main steering angle sensor, 305e6
Front/rear split, braking system, 266, 266f
Front screen washers, 397f
Front steering sub-sensor, 306e7, 307f
Front wheel drive layout, 5, 5f
advantages, 5
disadvantages, 5
Front-wheel drive system
gearbox, 219e20, 222f
Fuel cell, 79, 80f
Fuel consumption, excessive, 388
Fuel delivery, 98
Fuel filters, 98
Fuel gallery, 69
Fuel-injected engine air intake system, 103e4, 103f
air flow meter, 103e4, 104f
air intake manifold, 104, 105f
idle air control, 104, 105f
throttle position sensor, 104, 104f
Fuel lift pump, 177e8
Fuel-line pressure, 98, 98f
Fuel pipes, 98
Fuel pump, 68e9
mechanical, 69, 69f
Fuel rail and pressure-relief valve, 192
Fuel retrievers, 71, 71f
draining without, 71
Fuel return, 69, 69f
Fuel system. See Diesel fuel systems; Petrol fuel system
Fuel tank, 67e8
fixings, 68f
Fuelling map, 88, 88f
Full-flow filter, 120, 120f
Full-flow system, 118
Index 471Full load, 96e7
Full-wave rectifier, 352, 352f
Fully-sealed pressurized cooling system, 138
Fundamental frequency, 50
Fuse types, 413f
Fusebox, 414f
Garage industry, xv
Gas discharge lamps, 405e7, 406f
Gas-pressurized dampers, 258
Gasket failure, 198e202, 199f
Gasket-type plug seat, 378e9, 379f
Gear lever, 215
Gear pump, 117, 117f
Gear ratio, 214, 214f, 219, 219f
Gear selection mechanisms, 217e18, 218f
Gear train camshaft drive, 23, 25f
Gearbox, 214e15, 216f
baulk ring synchromesh, 216, 217f
constant load synchromesh, 217f
constant mesh, 215e19
interlocking mechanism, 218f
Generator, principle, 351f
Global warming and CO2, 91
Gudgeon pin
diameter of, 32f
offset, 27, 28f
Half-wave rectifier, 352, 352f
Hall effect
sensor, 364e5, 366f
distributor, 371f
pulse generator, 371
Hall element, 365
Handbrake (parking brake), 265, 266f
Harmonic balancer, 50
Harmonics, 50, 51f
Header tank, 133, 134f
alignment, 405
screws, 406f
using marked wall, 405f
circuit, 407f
dipping, 405
ordinary twin-filament headlamp bulb, 403
quartz halogen twin-filament headlamp bulb, 404, 404f
sealed beam headlamp unit, 405f
Health and safety, xvi
topics, xvi
Heat energy balance, 166
Heat exchangers, 122, 122f
Heat loss, 153
Heat path, 378
Heat sink, 340e1, 341f
Heat transfer, 127, 127f
Heater plugs, 188, 188f
Heating and ventilation system, 149, 150f
direct ventilation, 149
indirect ventilation, 149
Height corrector, 254
Helical gear, 117
Helicoil inserts, 437, 438f
Hemispherical combustion chamber, 44
Hesitation, 388
High-pressure pump, 191, 192f
High rate discharge tester, 349
High-speed, heavy load running, 76
High tension (HT)
leads, 384
sparking, 381
High-voltage electrical energy, distribution, 374e6, 375f, 376f
Holes, 337
Honda valve system, 11e12, 13f
Horizontally opposed engine, 37, 38f
Hotchkiss drive, 221f
Hybrid vehicles, 1
Hydraulic accumulator, 254
Hydraulic chain tension adjuster, 24f
Hydraulic cylinder, 265
Hydraulic dynamometer, 159f
Hydraulic fluid, 302
Hydraulic linkage, 211, 211f, 212f
Hydraulic power-assisted steering, 302e3, 302f
Hydraulic system of brakes, 264e5
master cylinder, 264e5, 264f, 265f
principle, 264, 264f
Hydraulic tappet, 23, 23f
Hydrocarbons (HC), 75e6, 77
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 111
Hydrogas suspension, 254, 254f
Hydrogen, 79e80
Hydrolastic suspension, 253, 254f
Hydrometer, 349f
Hydro-pneumatic suspension. See Hydrogas suspension
Idle air control, 104, 105f
Idle speed control, 95, 95f
Idling, 76, 83, 84f, 96
Ignition circuit, 317f, 363f
Ignition coil, 362f
primary and secondary circuit of, 362f, 363f
Ignition systems, 361e90
adaptive ignition, 368e9
capacitor, 362e3
coil polarity, 363, 363f
direct ignition systems, 366, 368f
distributorless ignition system, 366, 367f
electromagnetic pulse generators, 364
electronic ignition systems, 363
fault tracing
in contact breaker ignition systems, 380e4
maintenance and repair of, 369e80
inducing high-tension (HT) secondary voltage, 361e2
knock sensing, 367e8
opto-electronic sensing, 365e6, 366f, 367f
principle of operation, 361
producing high voltage to cause ignition, 361
refinements, 366
secondary circuit, 362
for spark ignition engines, 361e9, 362f
Ignition timing, 12e14, 15f, 384e6
dynamic timing, 385e6
setting, 12, 385
static timing, 384e5
Impedance, 336, 337f
Independent front suspension, 250
Independent rear suspension, 250
Independent suspension systems, 250e7
active (live) hydropneumatic suspension, 254e5, 255f
air suspension, 255e7, 258f
axle location, 252e3, 253f
hydrogas suspension, 254, 254f
hydrolastic suspension, 253, 254f
rear wheel ‘suspension steer’, 255, 256f, 257f
rubber suspension, 253, 253f
Indicated power, 159, 160f
472 Indexcalculation of, 160
Indicators, 407e8
circuit, 407f
‘flasher’ unit, 408
Indirect injection engines
construction, 171, 171f
Inductance, 333
Induction stroke, 172, 173f
Inductive reactance, 334, 334f
Inductive-type ignition pulse generator, 369, 369f
Hall-type sensor tests, 370, 370f, 371f
opto-electronic trigger sensor, 370, 371f
resistance check, 370, 370f
Informed customers, xxii
Injector pump, 179e82
cam shapes, 182, 182f
delivery value, 181, 181f
excess fuel device, 181e2
multi-element, 179e81, 180f, 181f
Injector test bench, 100f
Injectors. See Multi-hole injectors; Single-hole injectors
Inlet valve lag, 10
In-line engine, 37, 38f
four-cylinder layout, 38f
Instrument displays, types of, 419f
Instrumentation, 416e18
thermal type gauges, 416e17
vacuum fluorescent display gauge, 417e18
vehicle condition monitoring (VCM), 418
voltage stabilizer, 417
Insulators, 324
Intake manifold, 104, 105f
Integrated circuits (I/C), 341. See also Circuits
Intercooler, 107, 107f
Interference fit, 453
Interior heating, 149e53
Intermittent faults, 431
Intermittent wiper control, 395e6, 396f
Internal combustion engines, 1, 158e7
altitude effect on engine performance, 166e7
brake mean effective pressure, 165, 165f
brake power, torque and sfc, comparison, 164
brake thermal efficiency, petrol vs. diesel, 165, 166t
cylinder pressure vs. crank angle, 161e2, 162e3f
dynamometer for high-speed engines, 158e67
engine performance, characteristics, 162e3, 163f
engine power, 158
brake power, 158
heat energy balance, 166
horsepower, 159
indicated power, 159, 160f
calculation of, 160
mean effective pressure, 159e60
mechanical efficiency of engine, 162
Morse test, 162, 162t
number of working strokes, 160e1
pferdestrake, 159
specific fuel consumption vs. engine speed, 163e4, 164f, 164t
thermal efficiency, 165
indicated, 165
torque vs. engine speed, 163, 163f
volumetric efficiency and air flow, 163, 163f
Internal micrometer, 444, 446f
Inertia switch, 70
ISO 9141 diagnostic bus system, 315
Jack, xvii
Job card, xxii
Joule, 153
Journal bearing, 231e2
Judder, 213
Jump starting, 414
Keep-alive memory (KAM), 310
Kevlar body panel, 3f
Kingpin inclination (KPI), 279, 280, 280f, 298f
K-line diagnostic bus, 316f
Knock sensing, 367e8, 368f
combustion knock sensors, 367e8
Knocking, 75
‘L’ split, 266
Lambda (l), 88
Laser type tracking equipment, 297, 298f
Layshaft gears, 215
Lead acid vehicle battery, 347
Leaf springs, 248, 249f
Lenz’s law, 333
Levelling valves, 254
Leverage, 214, 215f
Lift pumps, 177e8
Lifting equipment, xvii
Light load crushing, 96
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), 338e9
voltage and current in, 339
Light vehicles, 1
types of, 2f
wheels, 288e90, 290f
Lighting, 402e8
circuit components bulbs, 402e5
ordinary twin-filament headlamp bulb, 403, 404f
quartz halogen twin-filament headlamp bulb, 404, 404f
sealed beam units, 404e5
stop and tail lamps, 404
circuit tests, 427
direction indicators, 407e8
‘flasher’ unit, 408
alignment, 405
circuit, 407, 407f
dipping, 405
gas discharge lamps, 405e7
rear fog light circuit, 407, 407f
regulations for, 402
safety, 406
Limit switch circuit, for off position of wiper arm, 395f
Liquid cooling system, 130e1
advantages, 131e2
disadvantages, 132
fault chart, 144t
pump-assisted circulation, 130e1, 131f
thermo-syphon system, 130
Liquid crystal displays (LCD), 418
Liquified petroleum gas (LPG), 79
Live axle, 227
Load dump, 414
Location notch, in bulb base, 404f
Lock nuts, 435, 436f
Logic devices, 341e2
Logic gates, 343
circuit, 342f
Logic probe, 431, 431f
Lost spark system, 366
Low compression in engine cylinders
causes, 201t
Low oil sensor, 451f
Index 473Low power, 388
Low-profile tyres, 292
Lubricants, xix, 110e11
friction, 110
Lubrication system, 113e22, 114f, 182e3
dry sump lubrication, 121e2, 121f
main components, 114
oil coolers, 122, 122f
oil filter, 118e21, 119f
oil function, 114e15, 115f, 116f
oil level indicators, 115e16, 116f
oil pump, 116e18
pressure-relief valve, 118, 118f
sump function, 115, 116f
total loss lubrication, 122
Lucas headlamp alignment machine, 405f
Magnetic field
around straight conductor, 330, 330f
caused by coil of wire, 330, 331f
direction of, 330f
Magnetic poles, attraction and repulsion of,
Magnetism, 329e32
Manual brake adjuster, 269, 269f
Master cylinder, 264e5, 264f, 265f
tandem, 266e7, 267f
Mean effective pressure, 159e60
Measuring instruments, 441e7, 442f
belt tension gauge, 450, 450f
calipers, 447, 447f
cathode ray oscilloscope, 450e1, 450f
dial test indicators, 447, 447f
digital multimeter, 451e4
feeler gauges, 441e7
internal micrometer, 444, 446f
Mercer cylinder gauge, 444
metric external micrometer, 442e4, 443f
micrometers, 442
pressure gauges, 448e9
vernier calipers, 441
Mechanical defects, 397e9
arms, 399
blades, 397e9
linkage, 399
Mechanical efficiency of engine, 162
Mechanical fuel pump, 69, 69f
Mechanical linkage, 211, 212f
defects, 399
Mercer cylinder gauge, 444, 446f
Meters. See individual entries
Methanol-based anti-freeze, 142
Metric external micrometer, 442e4, 443f
Microcontroller, 311
Micrometers, 442
for larger diameters, 444, 445f
reading in, 443e4, 444f
scales, 444f, 445f
Microprocessor-controlled vehicle system semiconductors, 337f
Mineral deposits, 142, 143f
Mineral oil, 111
Misfiring, 388
Mixture enrichment, 76
Modern clutch lining materials, 211
Modern motor vehicle qualifications, 457e8
courses, 458
levels, 457
modern apprenticeships, 458
advanced modern apprenticeship, 458
foundation modern apprenticeship, 458
Modulator, 273f
Morse test, 162, 162t
Motor defects, 397
Motor fuels, 74e80
airefuel ratio, 75
calorific value, 74
combustion, 74
products, 74e5
detonation, 75
emissions, causes of, 76e7
exhaust emissions, factors affecting, 75e6
controlling methods, 77e80
octane rating, 75
petrol engine combustion, 75
pre-ignition, 75
properties, values of, 74t
Motor industry organizations, xv, 459
Motor trade business, 458e9
Motor vehicle maintenance and repair industry, xiv
type of work in, xvi
Moulded linings, 210e11
Multi-cylinder engines, 37e46
cylinder arrangements, 37
structure, 37e46
Multi-element injection pump, 181e2
Multi-grade oils, 112
Multi-hole injectors, 187, 187f
Multiple-plate clutches, 213
in automatic gearbox, 242f
Multiplexing, 316e17, 317f
Multi-point injection, 91e6, 91f
air-flow sensor, 93e4
catalyst, 92
cold start, 94e5
continuous, 91e2
coolant temperature sensor, 94
duty cycle, 96, 96f
engine speed and piston position sensor, 94, 95f
exhaust gas recirculation, 96
fuel requirement, 93
idle speed control, 95, 95f
oxygen sensor, 92e3
petrol injector, 95e6, 96f
sequential, 92
throttle position sensor, 93, 93f
Multi-spring clutch, 208, 209f
Mutual induction, 384
National Occupational Standards, 457
National Vocational Qualification (NVQ), 457e8
Natural frequency of vibration, 21
Naturally aspirated engines, 105
Needle roller bearing, 234, 234f
Needle valve, 185
Negative castor, 281, 281f
Negative offset, 280
Negative steering roll radius, 280
Negative temperature coefficient of resistance semiconductor, 338, 338f
Neon test lamp, 381
Networking and bus systems, 313
Neutral pressure zones, 149
New customers, xxii
Nitriding, 54e5
Nitrogen oxides (NOx), 76e7
Non-driving hub assembly, 288, 288f
Non-independent suspension systems, 248e50
474 Indexcoil springs, 248e9, 249f, 250f
leaf springs, 248, 249f
torsion bar, 250, 251f
Non-informed customers, xxii
Non-standard circuit symbols, 409f
NOR gate, 342f
Nozzle, 187e8, 187f
N-type semiconductor, 337
Nucleus, 324
Number of working strokes, 160e1
Nuts, dimensions of, 434
Nyloc self-locking nut, 436f
OBD2, 317
Occasional four-wheel-drive system
gearbox, 222, 223f
Octane rating, 75
Offset, 27, 28f
Ohm, 325
Ohm’s law, 327, 327f
Ohmmeter, 328, 329f
Oil, xvii
control piston ring, 29f
coolers, 122, 122f
film, 114
filter, 114, 118e21, 119f, 120f
cartridge filter, 120, 120f, 121f
centrifugal filter, 121
disc filter, 120e1, 121f
full-flow filter, 120, 120f
gallery, 114
handling and waste disposal, 113, 113f
pressure indicator, 114
pressure test, 204f
quantity, 112
seals, 58, 58f
sources, 111e12
types of, 112e13
Oil coolers, 122, 122f
Oil filters, 118e21, 119f, 120f
Oil function, 114e15, 115f, 116f
Oil level indicator, 115e16, 116f
Oil pressure test, 204f, 448e9, 449f
Oil pump, 114, 116e18
gear pump, 117, 117f
rotary pump, 117e18, 117f
vane type pump, 118, 118f
Oil seals, 58, 58f
Oil wedge, 115
On-board diagnostics (OBD), 424e6
fault codes (DTCs), 424
scan tool, 424
Open circuit, 329, 329f
Open-loop systems, 89
Opposed piston engine, 140
Opto-electronic sensing, 365e6, 366f, 367f
Oscilloscope, 429e30
cathode ray, 450e1, 450f
Otto four-stroke cycle, 8
compression ratio, 10, 12f
engine, 8, 10f
ignition timing, 12e14, 15f
operation, 9, 11f
valve timing, 10
and emissions, 11e12
setting, 10e11, 13f
variable valve lift, 12, 13f
variable valve timing, 12, 13f, 14f
Over-cooling, 127e8
Overdrive, 219
types of, 220f
Overhead camshaft engines (OCE), 22e3, 22f, 60
Overhead value engines (OHV)
operating mechanism, 22, 22f
valve train, 59, 59f
Overheating, 126e7, 388
Oxidation inhibitors, 244
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), 76e7
Oxygen sensor, 92e3
second exhaust, 93f
Pen junction, 337, 338f
diode behaviour, 337e8
P-type semiconductor, 337
Panhard rod, 252
Parallel-roller journal bearing, 232, 234f
Particulate matter, 77
Particulate trap, 175e6
Passenger protection, 1e4
crumple zones, 2e4
side impact protection, 4
Passive systems, 79
Pawl-type free-wheel, 182
Pent roof combustion chamber, 43
Permanent four-wheel drive system
gearbox, 222, 223f, 224f
via viscous coupling, 223, 224f
Permanent magnet motor, 393
Permanent magnets, 329e30
Permittivity, 335
Petrol air mixture, 15
Petrol engine
combustion process, 75
compression test, 200f
emissions, 90e1, 90f
Petrol fires, xix
Petrol fuel system, 67e73, 67f
carbon canister, 70, 70f
filters, 70
fuel retrievers, 71, 71f
draining without, 71
fuel return, 69, 69f
fuel tank, 67e8
inertia switch, 70
maintenance and repair, 71e2
pipes, 69e70
precautions, 71
pump, 68e9
mechanical fuel pump, 69, 69f
safe use of, 70e1
Petrol injection system, 95e6, 87f, 96f
airefuel ratio values, 88
direct petrol injection, 96e7, 97f
fuelling map, 88
lambda, 88
maintenance and repair, 97e9
exhaust emissions, 97
performance checks, 99
service checks and repairs, 98
multi-point injection, 91e6, 91f
oscilloscope pattern for, 98f
principle, 87
sequential, 92
single point injection, 89e91, 90f
types of, 89, 89f
Pferdestrake, 159
Index 475Phasing, 182
Photo-diode, 339
Pick-up assembly, 364f
Piezo-electric combustion knock sensor, 369f
Pinking, 388
Pintaux nozzles, 187e8, 187f
Pintle, 187, 187f
Pipes/pipelines, 69e70
Piston rings, 27e29, 29f
side clearance of, 29e30, 30f, 33f
Piston skirt, 27, 27f
damage at, 30f
Piston slap, 27
Pistons, 25e30, 26f, 49e50
condition checks, 29e30
diameter measurement, 29, 29f
melting temperature, 25e6, 26f
offset gudgeon pin, 27, 28f
position sensor, 94
structure, 26e7, 27f
thermal expansion, 26
thrust side of, 27, 28f
Pivot points, 281
Plain bearings, 231
Plastigage, 56
Platinum, 78
Plenum chamber, 128
Plug reach, 378
Plunge joints, 226e7
Ply, 291
Pneumatic spring, 254
Polarity, 363
company, xvi
safety, xvi, xix
Poor coolant circulation, 147e9
blocked air passages through radiator grill, 149
blocked radiator, 148e9, 148f
defective fan, 147
defective thermostat, 147
defective water pump, 147
electric fan, 147e8, 148f
Poor starting, 389
Poppet valves, 19
Positive castor, 281
Potentiometer, 104
Potentiometer-type air-flow sensor
oscilloscope trace for, 425f
Pour point depressants, 112
Power-assisted steering, 302e9
control valve, 303f
diagnostics, 309
ECU-controlled, 303, 304f
electric, 303e4, 305f
four-wheel steering, 304e9, 305f, 306f
hydraulic, 302e3
problems, 308t
Power curves, 164, 196f
Power resistors, 325
Power transmission
by clutch, 213
to driving wheels, 219e25
differential lock, 222
four-wheel drive, 221e2
front-wheel drive, 219e20
occasional four-wheel-drive system, 222
permanent four-wheel drive system, 222, 223
rear-wheel drive, 220e1, 222f
transfer box, 222, 222f, 223f
viscous coupling and epicyclic differential, 224e5
Powerbus, 317f
Pre-ignition, 127, 388e9
causes, 42
Pressure cap, 136e7, 137f
testing, 146, 146f
Pressure checks, 246
cooling system, 146
Pressure gauges, 448e9
engine compression test, 448, 449f
oil pressure checks, 448e9, 449f
radiator pressure cap test, 449, 449f
Pressure plate, 208
Pressure-regulating valve, 192
Pressure regulator, 90
Pressure-relief valve, 118, 118f
Pressure test on cooling system, 146
Pressure valve, 136
Pressurized cooling system, 136e8, 137f
fully-sealed system, 138
pressure cap, 136e7, 137f
semi-sealed system, 138, 138f
operation of, 420f
pyrotechnic seatbelt pre-tensioners, 422
Primary circuit, 362f, 363f
Primary force, 49, 49f
Primary winding, 325, 333
Problem solving, six step approach, 380
Progression, 83, 84f
Propeller shafts, 225, 225f
Protection diode, in cable connector, 416f
Pulse generators, 369
Pulse width modulation, 95
Pump-assisted circulation, 130e1, 131f
Purging the canister, 70
Pyrotechnic device, for air bags inflation, 421f
Pyrotechnic seatbelt pre-tensioners, 422
Quality control, xxiii
Quartz halogen bulb
locating, 404f
twin-filament headlamp bulb, 404, 404f
Rack and pinion gearbox, 285e6
Rack and pinion steering, 286f, 305f
Radial flow fan, 129, 130f
Radial flow pump, 135, 135f
Radiator, 132e4, 133f
cross-flow, 133, 133f
film core, 132
separate coolant tubes, 132e3
separate expansion or header tanks, 133, 134f
tube and corrugated film, 132, 134f
tube and fin, 132
Radiator blinds and shutters, 141, 142f
Radiator matrix, 132e4
Radio interference, 384
Random access memory (RAM), 310
Read-only memory (ROM), 310
Rear engine, rear wheel drive layout, 6, 7f
advantages, 6
disadvantages, 6
Rear fog lamp circuit, 407f
Rear hub bearing and axle shaft arrangements, 229e30
fully floating axle, 230, 233f
lubrication, 230
476 Indexsemi-floating axle, 229, 233f
three-quarter floating axle, 229e30, 233f
Rear main steering angle sensor, 307e9, 308f
Rear screen washer, 396, 397f
Rear steering actuator, 307, 307f
Rear wheel drive, 5e6, 220e1
Rear-wheel drive system
gearbox, 220e1
with coil spring suspension, 221, 222f
Rear wheel suspension steer, 255, 256f, 257f
Reception, xxi
Reciprocating engines, 8
Recirculating ball gearbox, 284e5, 285f
Records, xxiii
Rectifier, 353e4
Refrigerant, 149
Regenerative braking, 394, 396f
Regular customers, xxii
Regulating valve, 184
Relay, 330
Release bearing, 208
Relief value, 114
Reluctor, 364f
Remote central locking system, 394f
block circuit diagram for, 393f
Resistance, 99
tests for, 428, 428f
at control unit and sensor, 428, 429f
Resistance value, 326, 429
Resistors, 325e6
colour coding of, 326f
in parallel, 328, 328f
in series, 327e8, 327f
Retarders, 263
Reverse gear arrangement, 216, 218f
Rhodium, 78
Ride height, 300f
Ride height levellers, 256
Ridge dodger, 28
Road springs, 258
Road test, 246
Rocker cover, 38e9, 39f
Rocker shaft, 284
Roller bearings, 231
Roller-type brake tester, 271f
Rolling friction, 110, 111f
Rotary engines, 16, 16f
Rotary fuel injection pump, 184e5, 184f, 185f, 186f
injectors, 185e8
operation method, 186
Rotary pump, 117e18, 117f
Rotor arm, 375f
Rotor checking, 381e2
Rotor field winding, 354
Rotor of alternator, 352e3, 353f
Routine maintenance, 198
Routine service, 61
Rubber bushes, 253
Rubber suspension, 253, 253f
Rule of, 9, 61
Running on, 388
Rust and corrosion inhibitors, 112
Rzeppa joint, 227
Rzeppa-type CV joint, 226, 226f
SAE viscosity classification, 112
Safe working practices, 384
Safety (Health and Safety at Work), xv, 204
Scavenging, 42
Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ), 457
Screen washers, 396e9
electrical defects, 397
effects of, 397
electrical overload, 397
maintenance and repair, 396e7
mechanical defects, 397e9
arms, 399
blades, 397e9
linkage, 399
motor defects, 397
motor, 397
switch, 397
rear screen washer, 396
repairs and fault tracing, 397
Screen wipers, 393e6, 395f
blades parking, 393e4
control of, 393
operating current testing using ammeter, 398f
operation, 393
intermittent operation, 395e6
two-speed operation, 395
regenerative braking, 394
Screws, 437e8, 439f
heads, 439f
strength, 438, 439f
threads, 434
pitch and angle, 435f
pitch gauges, 435f
Sealed beam units, 404e5, 405f
Seals, 40, 58, 58f, 62f
Second gear ratio, 220f
Secondary cell, 346
Secondary force, 49, 49f
balancer, 50, 51f
Secondary ignition circuit, 362
Secondary voltage, 361e2
Secondary winding, 333, 325
Selective catalyst reduction (SCR) system, 78e9, 79f, 175e6
Self adjusting hydraulic tappet, 23, 23f
Self induction, 362
Semiconductors, 324
Semi-permanent keep alive memory (KAM), 310
Semi-sealed pressurized cooling system, 138, 138f
Sensor tests, 430
Sensors, 192e3, 427
flap, 104
unit, 416
Sequential injection, 92
Service bay, xxiii, xxiv
Shaft lubrication, 111f
Shells, 324
Short-circuit, 329, 329f
Shroud, 139
Shutter, 141
Shuttle valve solenoid, 272
Side impact protection, 4, 4f
Silencer, 102
Silicon, 324, 337
Silicone fluid, 141
Simple carburettor, 81e2, 81f
limitation of, 81e2, 82f
Single-acting wheel cylinder, 265
Single-cylinder engine rotating parts, balance of, 50
couples, 50, 52f
crankshaft damper, 52, 52f
dual mass flywheel, 52e3, 53f
Index 477Single-cylinder engine rotating parts, balance of (Continued)
individual components, 50e1
torsional vibration, 52, 52f
vibration damper, 52, 53f
Single coil spring, 21, 22f
Single-hole injectors, 187
Single point injection, 89e1, 90f
emissions and control by feedback, 90e1
global warming and CO2, 91
Single-row deep groove radial or journal bearing, 231, 234f
Six-cylinder-in-line crankshaft and firing order, 47e8, 48f
Six diode rectifier, 353e4, 354f
Six step approach to problem solving, 380
Sliding contacts, 111
Sliding mesh gearbox
four gear ratios of, 216f
Slip, 44, 212, 238e9
Slip ring, 355
Slow running, idling system, 75
Solenoid, 95, 330, 358f
shift valves, 245f
Solenoid contacts, 358e9
dimensions of, 434
and thread diameter, 435t
Spark gap (electrode gap), 378, 377f
Spark ignition, 361e9, 362f
Spark timing, 12e14
Sparking plugs, 376
cleaning, 379e80
compression pressure, 376e8, 377f
construction, 377f
electrodes gap, 379e80
electrodes polarity, 363
gasket or tapered seat, 378e9, 379f
heat range of, 378, 378f
maintenance and servicing, 379e80, 379f, 380f
over-heated, 389
plug reach, 378, 378f
spark gap, 377f, 378
temperature, 376
testing, 380
Specific fuel consumption vs. engine speed, 163e4, 164f, 164t
Specific gravity, relative density, 349
Specific heat capacity (SHC), 153
Speed sensor, 308f
Spigot bearing, 57, 208
Spill cut-off, 180
Spill timing, 183, 183f
Splash lubrication, 116f
Split axle casing, 227, 228f
Split braking systems, 265e6
diagonal split, 266
front/rear split, 266, 266f
Split casing, 227
Spur gear, 117
Squish, 43, 171
Stability control, 322e3, 322f
CAN connections for, 322f
Stall test, 245e6
Stalling speed, 237
Starter motor, 356e60, 356f
circuits, testing, 357
gear ratio, 356f
operating lever, 357f
pinion over-run protection, 357f
starter solenoid, 357f
starter terminal voltage, 357e9
voltage test, 358f
Starting, 107
failure, 389
problems, 389
Static timing, 384e5, 385f
checking, with engine running, 386
Hall effect pulse generator, 371, 371f
variable-reluctance pulse generator, 371
setting, 385
Stator, 353, 353f
Ackerman layout, 278, 278f, 279f
alignment, tracking and toe in, 282
angles, 297f
beam-axle, 276f
centre-point, 279e80
gearboxes, 282e7
ball-joints, 287, 287f
cam and peg, 284
rack and pinion, 285e6, 286f
recirculating ball, 284e5, 285f
steering rack adjustment, 286e7, 286f, 287f
worm and roller, 284, 285f
geometry, 278
layouts, for light vehicle, 277, 277f
rack adjustment, 286e7, 286f, 287f
roll radius, 280, 280f, 281f
toe-out on turns, 282
track, 294
Stop and tail lamps, 404
Stop lamp switch, 270
Stratified charge formation, 96
Streamlining, 4
Stroboscopic timing lamp, 386f
Studs, 434, 435f
removal of broken, 436
removers, 434
strength, 438
SU carburettor, 85
Sulphur dioxide, 77
Sump, 46, 46f, 114
Supplementary restraint systems (SRS), 418e22
air bags and seat-belt pre-tensioners, 420e1
rotary coupler, 421
components, 420f, 421
handling, 421
safety precautions, 421e2
storage, 421e2
Surge protection in relay, 333e4, 334f
Suspension arm, 221, 254
Suspension dampers, 248
gas-pressurized dampers, 258
materials used in, 258e60
operation, checking, 258
twin-tube telescopic damper, 257e8
Suspension links, 258
Suspension systems, 248e62
alignment and geometry, 260
independent, 250e7
maintenance checks, 260
materials used, 258e60
non-independent, 248e50
suspension dampers, 248
unsprung mass, 248
Swept volume, 8
Swing beam steering, 278f
Swivel axis inclination, 280
Synchromesh gearbox, 215e16
478 IndexSynthetic oil, 112e13
grades, 113
Tandem master cylinder, 266e7, 267f
Taper roller bearing, 232e4, 234f
Tapered-type plug seat, 378e9, 379f
Tappet rotation, 60e1
Tapping drill, 436
Tapping sizes, 436, 437t
Taps, 435, 437f
Telescopic shock absorber, 259f
Temperature coefficient of resistance, 329, 329f
Temperature indicators, 143
Temperature sensor, 94
Test card, 359
Texa OBD data logger, 432f
Theft alarm circuit, 400f
Thermal efficiency, 42, 165
indicated, 165
Thermal type gauges, 416e17, 418f
vacuum fluorescent display gauge, 417e18
vehicle condition monitoring (VCM), 418
voltage stabilizer, 417
Thermistor, 94, 417
Thermo-start unit, 188, 189f
Thermostat, 135e6
bellows type, 135e6, 136f
testing, 136, 136f
wax type, 135, 135f
Thermo-syphon system, 130
Third differential, 222, 224f
Thread restoration, 436e7
die nut, 437, 438f
file, 436e7
helicoil inserts, 437, 438f
Three-way catalyst (TWC), 78f, 175
Throat, 74
Throttle, electric motor, 320e1
Throttle body injection, 89
Throttle butterfly valve, 320
Throttle position sensor, 93, 93f, 104, 104f
testing for, 451f
Throttle valve, 81, 83, 87, 106f
Tightening torque, 438, 439t
Time constant for inductive circuit, 334
Time-division multiplexing, 317
Timing device, 177
Timing diagram, 10, 12f
Timing light, 385f
Timing marks, 12, 13f, 371, 384, 385f
Timing of spark, 374
Toe-in optical alignment gauge, 283f, 294, 295f
Toe-out angle on turns, 282, 284f, 294, 296f
Tolerance, 453
Torque, 214, 214f
converter, 238, 239f
vs. engine speed, 163, 163f
Torsion bar, 250, 251f
Torsional vibration, 52, 52f
Total loss lubrication, 122
Tracking, 277, 282
Tracta constant velocity joint, 226, 226f
Traction control, 320, 320f, 321f
Tractive effort, 214f
Transfer gearbox, 6, 222, 223f
Transfer pump, 184
Transformer, 332e3, 333f
Transient voltages, 414
Transistor, 339, 340f
circuit used in automotive applications, 340
current flow in, 339, 340f
current gain in, 339
Transistors, 95, 339, 340, 341e2
Transmission, 208e36
axles and axle casings, 227
clutch, 208e11
constant mesh and synchromesh gearbox, 215e19
constant-velocity universal joints, 225e7
differential, 228e9
engine match to road-going needs, 213e14
gear ratio, 214
leverage and torque, 214
final drive, 227e8
gearbox, 214e15
operating mechanisms, 211e13
adjustment, 211e12
clutch drag, 212
clutch faults, 212
clutch slip, 212
hydraulic linkage, 211, 211f, 212f
mechanical linkage, 211, 212f
multiple-plate clutches, 213
power transmission by clutch, 213
vibration or judder, 213
overdrive, 219
power transmission to driving wheels, 219e25
propeller shafts and drive shafts, 225
rear hub bearing and axle shaft arrangements,
Tread wear patterns, 294, 294f
inflation pressures, 294
Truth tables, 342, 343f
Turbocharging, 105e6, 106f
intercooler, 107, 107f
maintenance, 107
wastegate, 107, 107f
Turbulence, 42
diesel engine, 172
Turns ratio, 333
Twin-filament headlamp bulb, ordinary, 403
Twin-tube telescopic damper, 257e8
Twisted pair, 314f
Two-plate clutch, 213f
Two-speed wiper control, 395, 396f
Two stroke compression ignition engine, 170, 170f
Two-stroke cycle, 14
first stroke, 14e15
second stroke, 15
Two-stroke engine, 15f, 16f
compression ignition engine, 170
with valves, 15e16
Tyres, 291e3
balance, 293
cross-ply tyre, 291, 292, 292f
inspection for wear and damage, 294
load and speed ratings, 292e3
maintenance, 294e5
markings, 293f
pressures, 294e5
radial-ply tyre, 291, 292, 292f
regulations, 293
sizes, 292
tread wear indicators (TWI), 293
Unitary construction, 1, 3f
Universal joint
Index 479Universal joint (Continued)
constant-velocity, 225
Hooke’s type, 225
Unsprung mass, 248
V engine, 37, 38f
V8 crankshaft and firing order, 48, 48f
Vacuum advance mechanism, checking, 386
Vacuum fluorescent display gauge, 417e18
Vacuum valve, 136
Valve clearance, 61, 61f
shims, 60f
Valve collets, 19
Valve control methods, 11
Valve gear layout, 60f
Valve guide, 21f
condition check, 39e40, 41f
Valve oil seals
condition check, 40, 41f
Valve overlap, 10
Valve period, 10
Valve seating, 187
Valve springs, 20e2
double springs, 21e2, 22f
single coil spring, 21, 22f
variable rate spring, 21, 22f
Valve stem seals, 19, 62f
Valve surge, 21
Valve timing, 10
diagrams, 10
and emissions, 11e12
setting, 10e11, 13f
Valve timing actuator, 12, 14f
Valve train, 59e60
Valves, 19, 20f
operating mechanisms, 22e3
operations, 21f
seats, 20f
condition check, 40, 40f, 41f, 42f
Vane-type pump, 118, 118f
Vapour lock, 70
Variable rate spring, 21, 22f
Variable reluctance pulse generator, 370
Variable resistor sender unit, 418f
Variable valve lift, 12, 13f
Variable valve timing, 12, 13f, 14f
Variable-length induction tract, 104e5, 106f
Vee cylinder arrangements, 38f
Vegetable oil, 111e12
Vehicle alternator, 332f
Vehicle braking systems, 263
Vehicle condition monitoring (VCM), 418
Vehicle construction, 1
Vehicle electrical systems, 346e59
alternator, 350e6
batteries, 346e50
starter motor, 356e60, 356f
Vehicle frame, 3f
Vehicle hoists, xvii
Vehicle shape, 4
Vehicle structure, 1
force that act on, 2f
Ventilation, 149, 150f
Vernier calipers, 441
reading in, 441e2, 443f
Vibration damper, 52, 53f
and engine balance, 49e53
pistons and connecting rods, 49e50
single-cylinder engine rotating parts,
balance of, 50
Viscosity index improvers, 244
Viscosity modifiers, 112
Viscosity of oil, 111
and temperature, 112, 112f
Viscous coupling, 224e5, 224f
Volt, 325
amplifier, 340, 340f
divider, 341, 341f
drop test, 427, 427f
engine to chassis earth lead, 427
at lamp connections, 425e6
measurement, 328e9
regulator, 354
stabilizer, 417
surge protection, by Zener diode, 416f
Voltaic oxygen sensor, 92, 92f
Voltmeter, 328, 328f, 335, 382f
Volume control screw, 438
Volumetric efficiency, 163, 163f
Wankel-type rotary engine, 16f
Warm-up, 102
Washer, spring, 435, 436f
Wastegate, 107, 107f
Water cooling system. See Liquid cooling system
Water pump, 134e5
axial flow, 134e5
radial flow, 135, 135f
Watt, 327e8
Wear indicators, 270, 270f
Wear properties, 210
Wedge-shaped chamber, 43
Weiss CV joint, 227
Wheel alignment, 282
track adjustment, 282
toe-out angle on turns, 282, 284f
Wheel and tyre balance, 293
Wheel balancer, 293
Wheel cylinders, 265
double-acting, 265, 265f
single-acting, 265
Wheel nut torque, 291
Wheel sensors, 272, 273f
Wheel speed sensor, 272e4
Wheel trims, 291f
types, 290, 290f
Wiggle test, 430, 430f
Wind tone horns, 401
Windows, electrically operated, 402, 402e3f
Windscreen wipers, 396
Wire wheels, 291, 291f
Wiring diagram. See Circuits
Wiring harness, 411
Wiring loom, 413f
Workshop activities, xxii
Worm and roller gearbox, 284, 285f
Woven linings, 210
Zener diode, 338, 339f, 416f
Zero emission vehicles (ZEVs), 80
Zirconia, 318
480 Index
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