بحث بعنوان A New Welding Modeling Approach in Simulation Driven Design

بحث بعنوان  A New Welding Modeling Approach in Simulation Driven Design
اسم المؤلف
Andreas Pahkamaa, Jonas Pavasson
التاريخ
6 سبتمبر 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
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بحث بعنوان
A New Welding Modeling Approach in Simulation Driven Design
Andreas Pahkamaa
Jonas Pavasson
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION . 13
2 THEORY 15
2.1 WELDING 15
2.1.1 History of welding . 16
2.1.2 MMA 16
2.1.3 MIG/MAG . 16
2.1.4 TIG 16
2.1.5 Laser welding 16
2.1.6 Electron beam welding 17
2.2 EFFECTS OF WELDING . 18
2.2.1 Thermal . 18
2.2.2 Metallurgical . 20
2.2.3 Mechanical 21
2.3 RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENT METHODS 22
2.3.1 X-ray diffraction 22
2.3.2 Neutron diffraction 22
2.3.3 Contour . 22
2.3.4 Strain gauge 22
2.3.5 Hole drilling 23
2.4 THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 24
2.5 WELDING SIMULATIONS . 25
2.5.1 Material modelling 27
2.5.2 Non-linear deformation and constitutive model 29
2.6 HEAT TRANSFER . 30
2.6.1 Conduction 30
2.6.2 Convection 30
2.6.3 Radiation . 30
2.7 MODELLING 31
2.7.1 Software 33
3 NET BENCHMARK . 35
3.1 RESULTS . 38
3.1.1 Thermal calibration 41
3.1.2 Residual stress analysis . 44
3.2 CONCLUSIONS – NET BENCHMARK 51
4 VCE REAR AXLE BRIDGE CASE STUDY 53
4.1 MANUFACTURING METHODOLOGY . 54
4.2 WELDING SIMULATIONS . 58
4.2.1 Material model 59
4.2.2 Welding parameters 60
4.3 RESULTS – VCE REAR AXLE BRIDGE . 63
4.3.1 Thermal calibration 64
4.3.2 Deformation analysis 66
4.4 CONCLUSIONS – VCE REAR AXLE BRIDGE CASE STUDY 69
5 DISCUSSION . 71
6 BIBLIOGRAPHY .
APPENDIX A – STAINLESS STEEL AISI 316L 75
APPENDIX B – REAR AXLE BRIDGE DRAWING . 76
APPENDIX C – FUSION BOUNDARY REPORTS . 77
APPENDIX D – ADDED MATERIAL . 89
APPENDIX E – STEEL S420N . 90
APPENDIX F – FILLER METAL ESAB OK 12.63 91
APPENDIX G – CONCENTRICITY MATLAB CODE .
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