A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) – Seventh Edition

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) – Seventh Edition
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A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) – Seventh Edition
THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE
Table of Contents
THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Purpose of The Standard for Project Management
1.2 Key Terms and Concepts
1.3 Audience for this Standard
2 A SYSTEM FOR VALUE DELIVERY
2.1 Creating Value
2.1.1 Value Delivery Components
2.1.2 Information Flow
2.2 Organizational Governance Systems
2.3 Functions Associated with Projects
2.3.1 Provide Oversight and Coordination
2.3.2 Present Objectives and Feedback
2.3.3 Facilitate and Support
2.3.4 Perform Work and Contribute Insights
2.3.5 Apply Expertise
2.3.6 Provide Business Direction and Insight
2.3.7 Provide Resources and Direction
2.3.8 Maintain Governance
2.4 The Project Environment
172.4.1 Internal Environment
2.4.2 External Environment
2.5 Product Management Considerations
3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES
3.1 Be a Diligent, Respectful, and Caring Steward
3.2 Create a Collaborative Project Team Environment
3.3 Effectively Engage with Stakeholders
3.4 Focus on Value
3.5 Recognize, Evaluate, and Respond to System
Interactions
3.6 Demonstrate Leadership Behaviors
3.7 Tailor Based on Context
3.8 Build Quality into Processes and Deliverables
3.9 Navigate Complexity
3.10 Optimize Risk Responses
3.11 Embrace Adaptability and Resiliency
3.12 Enable Change to Achieve the Envisioned Future State
References
18A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF
KNOWLEDGE (PMBOK® GUIDE)

  1. INTRODUCTION
    1.1 Structure of the PMBOK® Guide
    1.2 Relationship of the PMBOK® Guide and The Standard
    for Project Management
    1.3 Changes to the PMBOK® Guide
    1.4 Relationship to PMIstandards+
  2. PROJECT PERFORMANCE DOMAINS
    2.1 Stakeholder Performance Domain
    2.1.1 Stakeholder Engagement
    2.1.2 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
    2.1.3 Checking Results
    2.2 Team Performance Domain
    2.2.1 Project Team Management and Leadership
    2.2.2 Project Team Culture
    2.2.3 High-Performing Project Teams
    2.2.4 Leadership Skills
    2.2.5 Tailoring Leadership Styles
    2.2.6 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
    2.2.7 Checking Results
    2.3 Development Approach and Life Cycle Performance
    Domain
    2.3.1 Development, Cadence, and Life Cycle
    Relationship
    2.3.2 Delivery Cadence
    192.3.3 Development Approaches
    2.3.4 Considerations for Selecting a Development
    Approach
    2.3.5 Life Cycle and Phase Definitions
    2.3.6 Aligning of Delivery Cadence, Development
    Approach, and Life Cycle
    2.3.7 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
    2.3.8 Measuring Outcomes
    2.4 Planning Performance Domain
    2.4.1 Planning Overview
    2.4.2 Planning Variables
    2.4.3 Project Team Composition and Structure
    2.4.4 Communication
    2.4.5 Physical Resources
    2.4.6 Procurement
    2.4.7 Changes
    2.4.8 Metrics
    2.4.9 Alignment
    2.4.10 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
    2.4.11 Checking Results
    2.5 Project Work Performance Domain
    2.5.1 Project Processes
    2.5.2 Balancing Competing Constraints
    2.5.3 Maintaining Project Team Focus
    2.5.4 Project Communications and Engagement
    2.5.5 Managing Physical Resources
    2.5.6 Working with Procurements
    2.5.7 Monitoring New Work and Changes
    202.5.8 Learning throughout the Project
    2.5.9 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
    2.5.10 Checking Results
    2.6 Delivery Performance Domain
    2.6.1 Delivery of Value
    2.6.2 Deliverables
    2.6.3 Quality
    2.6.4 Suboptimal Outcomes
    2.6.5 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
    2.6.6 Checking Results
    2.7 Measurement Performance Domain
    2.7.1 Establishing Effective Measures
    2.7.2 What to Measure
    2.7.3 Presenting Information
    2.7.4 Measurement Pitfalls
    2.7.5 Troubleshooting Performance
    2.7.6 Growing and Improving
    2.7.7 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
    2.7.8 Checking Results
    2.8 Uncertainty Performance Domain
    2.8.1 General Uncertainty
    2.8.2 Ambiguity
    2.8.3 Complexity
    2.8.4 Volatility
    2.8.5 Risk
    2.8.6 Interactions with Other Performance Domains
    2.8.7 Checking Results
  3. TAILORING
    3.1 Overview
    3.2 Why Tailor?
    3.3 What to Tailor
    3.3.1 Life Cycle and Development Approach Selection
    3.3.2 Processes
    3.3.3 Engagement
    3.3.4 Tools
    3.3.5 Methods and Artifacts
    3.4 The Tailoring Process
    3.4.1 Select Initial Development Approach
    3.4.2 Tailor for the Organization
    3.4.3 Tailor for the Project
    3.5 Tailoring the Performance Domains
    3.5.1 Stakeholders
    3.5.2 Project Team
    3.5.3 Development Approach and Life Cycle
    3.5.4 Planning
    3.5.5 Project Work
    3.5.6 Delivery
    3.5.7 Uncertainty
    3.5.8 Measurement
    3.6 Diagnostics
    3.7 Summary
  4. MODELS, METHODS, AND ARTIFACTS
    4.1 Overview
    4.2 Commonly Used Models
    224.2.1 Situational Leadership Models
    4.2.2 Communication Models
    4.2.3 Motivation Models
    4.2.4 Change Models
    4.2.5 Complexity Models
    4.2.6 Project Team Development Models
    4.2.7 Other Models
    4.3 Models Applied Across Performance Domains
    4.4 Commonly Used Methods
    4.4.1 Data Gathering and Analysis
    4.4.2 Estimating
    4.4.3 Meetings and Events
    4.4.4 Other Methods
    4.5 Methods Applied Across Performance Domains
    4.6 Commonly Used Artifacts
    4.6.1 Strategy Artifacts
    4.6.2 Logs and Registers
    4.6.3 Plans
    4.6.4 Hierarchy Charts
    4.6.5 Baselines
    4.6.6 Visual Data and Information
    4.6.7 Reports
    4.6.8 Agreements and Contracts
    4.6.9 Other Artifacts
    4.7 Artifacts Applied Across Performance Domains
    References
    APPENDIX X1
    23CONTRIBUTORS AND REVIEWERS OF THE STANDARD
    FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND A GUIDE TO THE
    PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE –
    SEVENTH EDITION
    X1.1 Contributors
    X1.2 PMI Staff
    APPENDIX X2
    SPONSOR
    X2.1 Introduction
    X2.2 The Sponsor Role
    X2.3 Lack of Engagement
    X2.4 Sponsor Behaviors
    X2.5 Conclusion
    X2.6 Suggested Resources
    APPENDIX X3
    THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE
    X3.1 Introduction
    X3.2 The PMO Value Proposition—Why Have One?
    X3.3 Key PMO Capabilities
    X3.4 Evolving for Stronger Benefits Realization
    X3.5 Learn More about PMOs
    X3.6 Suggested Resources
    APPENDIX X4
    PRODUCT
    X4.1 Introduction
    X4.2 Global Market Shifts
    X4.3 Impact on Project Delivery Practices
    24X4.4 Organizational Considerations for Product
    Management
    X4.5 Summary
    X4.6 Suggested Resources
    APPENDIX X5
    RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE STANDARD
    FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
    X5.1 Introduction
    X5.2 The Move to a Principle-Based Standard
    X5.3 Research for The Standard for Project Management
    X5.4 Standard Development Process
    X5.5 Validating the Standard
    X5.6 Summary
    GLOSSARY
  5. Inclusions and Exclusions
  6. Common Acronyms
  7. Definitions
    25List of Figures and Tables
    THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
    Figure 2-1. Example of a System for Value Delivery
    Figure 2-2. Components of a Sample System for Value
    Delivery
    Figure 2-3. Example of Information Flow
    Figure 2-4. Sample Product Life Cycle
    Figure 3-1. Overlap of Project Management and General
    Management Principles
    Figure 3-2. Be a Diligent, Respectful, and Caring
    Steward
    Figure 3-3. Create a Collaborative Project Team
    Environment
    Figure 3-4. Effectively Engage with Stakeholders
    Figure 3-5. Focus on Value
    Figure 3-6. Recognize, Evaluate, and Respond to System
    Interactions
    Figure 3-7. Demonstrate Leadership Behaviors
    Figure 3-8. Tailor Based on Context
    Figure 3-9. Build Quality into Processes and
    Deliverables
    Figure 3-10. Navigate Complexity
    26Figure 3-11. Optimize Risk Responses
    Figure 3-12. Embrace Adaptability and Resiliency
    Figure 3-13. Enable Change to Achieve the Envisioned
    Future State
    27A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF
    KNOWLEDGE (PMBOK® GUIDE)
    Figure 1-1. Relationship between Project Management
    Principles and Project Performance Domains
    Figure 2-1. Stakeholder Performance Domain
    Figure 2-2. Examples of Project Stakeholders
    Figure 2-3. Navigating Effective Stakeholder
    Engagement
    Figure 2-4. Team Performance Domain
    Figure 2-5. Components of Emotional Intelligence
    Figure 2-6. Development Approach and Life Cycle
    Performance Domain
    Figure 2-7. Development Approaches
    Figure 2-8. Iterative and Incremental Development
    Figure 2-9. Sample Predictive Life Cycle
    Figure 2-10. Life Cycle with an Incremental Development
    Approach
    Figure 2-11. Life Cycle with Adaptive Development
    Approach
    Figure 2-12. Community Center Life Cycle
    Figure 2-13. Planning Performance Domain
    Figure 2-14. Estimate Range Decreases over Time
    Figure 2-15. Low Accuracy, High Precision
    Figure 2-16. Fast Tracking Examples
    Figure 2-17. Release and Iteration Plan
    Figure 2-18. Budget Build Up
    28Figure 2-19. Project Work Performance Domain
    Figure 2-20. Delivery Performance Domain
    Figure 2-21. Scenario for Developing a Smart Watch
    Figure 2-22. Cost of Change Curve
    Figure 2-23. Measurement Performance Domain
    Figure 2-24. Earned Value Analysis Showing Schedule
    and Cost Variance
    Figure 2-25. Mood Board
    Figure 2-26. Forecast of Estimate at Completion and
    Estimate to Complete
    Figure 2-27. Dashboard Example
    Figure 2-28. Information Radiator
    Figure 2-29. Task Board or Kanban Board
    Figure 2-30. Burnup Chart
    Figure 2-31. Planned and Actual Spend Rates
    Figure 2-32. Uncertainty Performance Domain
    Figure 2-33. Risk Reduction over Time
    Figure 2-34. Risk-Adjusted ROI Curve
    Figure 3-1. Details of the Steps in the Tailoring Process
    Figure 3-2. Selecting the Initial Development Approach
    Figure 3-3. Tailoring the Approach for the Organization
    Figure 3-4. Assessing the Organizational and Project
    Factors When Tailoring
    Figure 3-5. Tailoring the Approach for the Project
    Figure 3-6. Implement Ongoing Improvement
    Figure 3-7. The Tailoring Process
    29Figure 3-8. Tailoring to Fit the Project Context
    Figure 4-1. Tailoring to Fit the Project Context and
    Environment
    Figure X4-1. Global Business Trends Influencing the
    Management of Products
    Figure X4-2. The Changing Relationship Between an
    Organization and Its Customers
    Figure X4-3. Supporting Strategies for Continuous Value
    Delivery
    Table 2-1. Types of Communication
    Table 2-2. Checking Outcomes—Stakeholder
    Performance Domain
    Table 2-3. Checking Outcomes—Team Performance
    Domain
    Table 2-4. Delivery Cadence and Development
    Approach
    Table 2-5. Checking Outcomes—Development
    Approach and Life Cycle Performance
    Domain
    Table 2-6. Checking Outcomes—Planning Performance
    Domain
    Table 2-7. Checking Outcomes—Project Work
    Performance Domain
    Table 2-8. Checking Outcomes—Delivery Performance
    Domain
    Table 2-9. Checking Outcomes—Measurement
    Performance Domain
    Table 2-10. Checking Outcomes—Uncertainty
    Performance Domain
    30Table 3-1. Common Situations and Tailoring
    Suggestions
    Table 4-1. Mapping of Models Likely to Be Used in
    Each Performance Domain
    Table 4-2. Mapping of Methods Likely to Be Used in
    Each Performance Domain
    Table 4-3. Mapping of Artifacts Likely to Be Used in
    Each Performance Domain
    Table X4-1. Views of Project and Product Management
    Table X4-2. Unique Characteristics of Projects,
    Programs, and Products
    Glossary
    • INCLUSIONS AND EXCLUSIONS
      This combined glossary includes definitions of terms and acronyms from the
      following:
      The Standard for Project Management
      A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) –
      Seventh Edition
      This glossary includes terms that are:
      Unique or nearly unique to project management (e.g., minimum viable
      product, work breakdown structure, Gantt chart), and
      Not unique to project management but used differently or with a narrower
      meaning in project management than in general everyday usage (e.g., release
      planning, contingency reserve).
      This glossary generally does not include:
      Application-area-specific terms,
      Terms used in project management that do not differ in any material way from
      everyday use (e.g., calendar day, delay),
      Compound terms whose meanings are clear from the meanings of the
      component parts,
      Variants when the meaning of the variant is clear from the base term, and
      Terms that are used only once and are not critical to understanding the point of
      the sentence. This can include a list of examples that would not have each term
      defined in the glossary.
  8. COMMON ACRONYMS
    AC actual cost
    BAC budget at completion
    CCB change control board
    CFD cumulative flow diagram
    COQ cost of quality
    CPAF cost plus award fee
    CPFF cost plus fixed fee
    CPI cost performance index
    CPIF cost plus incentive fee
    CPM critical path method
    CV cost variance
    DoD definition of done
    EAC estimate at completion
    EEF enterprise environmental factors
    EMV expected monetary value
    ETC estimate to complete
    EV earned value
    EVA earned value analysis
    FFP firm fixed price
    FPEPA fixed price with economic price adjustment
    FPIF fixed price incentive fee
    IDIQ indefinite delivery indefinite quantity
    LCA life cycle assessment
    MVP minimum viable product
    NPS® Net Promotor Score®
    OBS organizational breakdown structure
    OPA organizational process assets
    PMB performance measurement baseline
    PMBOK Project Management Body of Knowledge
    PMO project management office
    PV planned value
    RAM responsibility assignment matrix
    RBS risk breakdown structure
    SOW statement of work
    SPI schedule performance index
    304SV schedule variance
    SWOT strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
    T&M time and materials contract
    VAC variance at completion
    VDO value delivery office
    WBS work breakdown structure
  9. DEFINITIONS
    Many of the words defined here have broader, and in some cases, different
    dictionary definitions. In some cases, a single glossary term consists of multiple words
    (e.g., root cause analysis).
    Acceptance Criteria. A set of conditions that is required to be met before
    deliverables are accepted.
    Accuracy. Within the quality management system, accuracy is an assessment of
    correctness.
    Activity List. A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity
    description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so
    project team members understand what work is to be performed.
    Actual Cost (AC). The realized cost incurred for the work performed on an activity
    during a specific time period.
    Adaptive Approach. A development approach in which the requirements are subject
    to a high level of uncertainty and volatility and are likely to change throughout the
    project.
    Affinity Diagram. A diagram that shows large numbers of ideas classified into
    groups for review and analysis.
    Affinity Grouping. The process of classifying items into similar categories or
    collections on the basis of their likeness.
    Agile. A term used to describe a mindset of values and principles as set forth in the
    Agile Manifesto.
    Alternatives Analysis. A method used to evaluate identified options in order to select
    the options or approaches to use to perform the work of the project.
    Ambiguity. A state of being unclear, having difficulty in identifying the cause of
    events, or having multiple options from which to choose.
    305Analogous Estimating. A method for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or
    a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.
    Artifact. A template, document, output, or project deliverable.
    Assumption. A factor in the planning process that is considered to be true, real, or
    certain, without proof or demonstration.
    Assumption and Constraint Analysis. An assessment that ensures assumptions and
    constraints are integrated into the project plans and documents, and that there is
    consistency among them.
    Assumption Log. A project document used to record all assumptions and constraints
    throughout the project.
    Authority. The right to apply project resources, expend funds, make decisions, or
    give approvals.
    Backlog. An ordered list of work to be done.
    Backlog Refinement. Progressive elaboration of the content in the backlog and
    (re)prioritization of it to identify the work that can be accomplished in an upcoming
    iteration.
    Baseline. The approved version of a work product, used as a basis for comparison to
    actual results.
    Basis of Estimates. Supporting documentation outlining the details used in
    establishing project estimates such as assumptions, constraints, level of detail, ranges,
    and confidence levels.
    Benchmarking. The comparison of actual or planned products, processes, and
    practices to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate
    ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
    Benefits Management Plan. The documented explanation defining the processes for
    creating, maximizing, and sustaining the benefits provided by a project or program.
    Bid Documents. All documents used to solicit information, quotations, or proposals
    from prospective sellers.
    Bidder Conference. The meetings with prospective sellers prior to the preparation of
    a bid or proposal to ensure all prospective vendors have a clear and common
    understanding of the procurement. Also known as contractor conferences, vendor
    conferences, or pre-bid conferences.
    Blocker. See impediment.
    306Budget. The approved estimate for the project or any work breakdown structure
    (WBS) component or any schedule activity.
    Budget at Completion (BAC). The sum of all budgets established for the work to be
    performed.
    Burn Chart. A graphical representation of the work remaining in a timebox or the
    work completed toward the release of a product or project deliverable.
    Business Case. A value proposition for a proposed project that may include financial
    and nonfinancial benefits.
    Business Model Canvas. A one-page, visual summary that describes the value
    proposition, infrastructure, customers, and finances. These are often used in Lean
    Startup situations.
    Business Value. The net quantifiable benefit derived from a business endeavor that
    may be tangible, intangible, or both.
    Cadence. A rhythm of activities conducted throughout the project.
    Cause-and-Effect Diagram. A visual representation that helps trace an undesirable
    effect back to its root cause.
    Change. A modification to any formally controlled deliverable, project management
    plan component, or project document.
    Change Control. A process whereby modifications to documents, deliverables, or
    baselines associated with the project are identified, documented, approved, or
    rejected.
    Change Control Board (CCB). A formally chartered group responsible for
    reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project, and for
    recording and communicating such decisions.
    Change Control Plan. A component of the project management plan that establishes
    the change control board, documents the extent of its authority, and describes how the
    change control system will be implemented.
    Change Control System. A set of procedures that describes how modifications to the
    project deliverables and documentation are managed and controlled.
    Change Log. A comprehensive list of changes submitted during the project and their
    current status.
    Change Management. A comprehensive, cyclic, and structured approach for
    transitioning individuals, groups, and organizations from a current state to a future
    state with intended business benefits.
    307Change Request. A formal proposal to modify a document, deliverable, or baseline.
    Charter. See project charter.
    Check Sheet. A tally sheet that can be used as a checklist when gathering data.
    Closing Process Group. The process(es) performed to formally complete or close a
    project, phase, or contract.
    Communications Management Plan. A component of the project, program, or
    portfolio management plan that describes how, when, and by whom information about
    the project will be administered and disseminated.
    Complexity. A characteristic of a program or project or its environment that is
    difficult to manage due to human behavior, system behavior, and ambiguity.
    Confirmation Bias. A type of cognitive bias that confirms preexisting beliefs or
    hypotheses.
    Conformance. The degree to which the results meet the set quality requirements.
    Constraint. A limiting factor that affects the execution of a project, program,
    portfolio, or process.
    Contingency. An event or occurrence that could affect the execution of the project,
    which may be accounted for with a reserve.
    Contingency Reserve. Time or money allocated in the schedule or cost baseline for
    known risks with active response strategies.
    Continuous Delivery. The practice of delivering feature increments immediately to
    customers, often through the use of small batches of work and automation technology.
    Contract. A mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide the
    specified product, service, or result and obligates the buyer to pay for it.
    Control. The process of comparing actual performance with planned performance,
    analyzing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating
    possible alternatives, and recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.
    Control Chart. A graphic display of process data over time and against established
    control limits, which has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values
    toward either control limit.
    Cost Baseline. The approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding
    any management reserves, which can be changed only through formal change control
    procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
    Cost-Benefit Analysis. A financial analysis method used to determine the benefits
    308provided by a project against its costs.
    Cost Management Plan. A component of a project or program management plan that
    describes how costs will be planned, structured, and controlled.
    Cost of Quality (COQ). All costs incurred over the life of the product by investment
    in preventing nonconformance to requirements, appraisal of the product or service for
    conformance to requirements, and failure to meet requirements.
    Cost Performance Index (CPI). A measure of the cost efficiency of budgeted
    resources expressed as the ratio of earned value to actual cost.
    Cost Plus Award Fee Contract (CPAF). A category of contract that involves
    payments to the seller for all legitimate actual costs incurred for completed work, plus
    an award fee representing seller profit.
    Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract (CPFF). A type of cost-reimbursable contract where
    the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are
    defined by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).
    Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contract (CPIF). A type of cost-reimbursable contract
    where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs
    are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined
    performance criteria.
    Cost-Reimbursable Contract. A type of contract involving payment to the seller for
    the seller’s actual costs, plus a fee typically representing the seller’s profit.
    Cost Variance (CV). The amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time,
    expressed as the difference between the earned value and the actual cost.
    Crashing. A method used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental
    cost by adding resources.
    Criteria. Standards, rules, or tests on which a judgment or decision can be based or
    by which a product, service, result, or process can be evaluated.
    Critical Path. The sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a
    project, which determines the shortest possible duration.
    Critical Path Method (CPM). A method used to estimate the minimum project
    duration and determine the amount of schedule flexibility on the logical network paths
    within the schedule model.
    Cumulative Flow Diagram (CFD). A chart indicating features completed over time,
    features in other states of development, and those in the backlog.
    Cycle Time. The total elapsed time from the start of a particular activity or work item
    309to its completion.
    Cycle Time Chart. A diagram that shows the average cycle time of the work items
    completed over time.
    Daily Standup. A brief, daily collaboration meeting in which the team reviews
    progress from the previous day, declares intentions for the current day, and highlights
    any obstacles encountered or anticipated.
    Dashboard. A set of charts and graphs showing progress or performance against
    important measures of the project.
    Data Gathering and Analysis Methods. Methods used to collect, assess, and
    evaluate data and information to gain a deeper understanding of a situation.
    Decision Tree Analysis. A diagramming and calculation method for evaluating the
    implications of a chain of multiple options in the presence of uncertainty.
    Decomposition. A method used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and
    project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.
    Definition of Done (DoD). A checklist of all the criteria required to be met so that a
    deliverable can be considered ready for customer use.
    Deliverable. Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a
    service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project.
    Delivery Performance Domain. The performance domain that addresses activities
    and functions associated with delivering the scope and quality that the project was
    undertaken to achieve.
    Development Approach. A method used to create and evolve the product, service, or
    result during the project life cycle, such as a predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or
    hybrid method.
    Development Approach and Life Cycle Performance Domain. The performance
    domain that addresses activities and functions associated with the development
    approach, cadence, and life cycle phases of the project.
    DevOps. A collection of practices for creating a smooth flow of deliveries by
    improving collaboration between development and operations staff.
    Digital Product. A product or service that is delivered, used, and stored in an
    electronic format.
    Discretionary Dependency. A relationship that is based on best practices or project
    preferences.
    310Duration. The total number of work periods required to complete an activity or work
    breakdown structure component, expressed in hours, days, or weeks. Contrast with
    effort.
    Earned Value (EV). The measure of work performed expressed in terms of the
    budget authorized for that work.
    Earned Value Analysis (EVA). An analysis method that uses a set of measures
    associated with scope, schedule, and cost to determine the cost and schedule
    performance of a project.
    Effort. The number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work
    breakdown structure component, often expressed in hours, days, or weeks. Contrast
    with duration.
    Emotional Intelligence. The ability to identify, assess, and manage the personal
    emotions of oneself and other people, as well as the collective emotions of groups of
    people.
    Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEF). Conditions, not under the immediate
    control of the team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project, program, or
    portfolio.
    Epic. A large, related body of work intended to hierarchically organize a set of
    requirements and deliver specific business outcomes.
    Estimate. A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome of a variable,
    such as project costs, resources, effort, or durations.
    Estimate at Completion (EAC). The expected total cost of completing all work
    expressed as the sum of the actual cost to date and the estimate to complete.
    Estimate to Complete (ETC). The expected cost to finish all the remaining project
    work.
    Estimating Methods. Methods used to develop an approximation of work, time, or
    cost on a project.
    Executing Process Group. Those processes performed to complete the work defined
    in the project management plan to satisfy the project requirements.
    Expected Monetary Value (EMV). The estimated value of an outcome expressed in
    monetary terms.
    Explicit Knowledge. Knowledge that can be codified using symbols such as words,
    numbers, and pictures.
    External Dependency. A relationship between project activities and non-project
    311activities.
    Fast Tracking. A schedule compression method in which activities or phases
    normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their
    duration.
    Feature. A set of related requirements or functionalities that provides value to an
    organization.
    Firm Fixed Price Contract (FFP). A type of fixed-price contract where the buyer
    pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), regardless of the seller’s
    costs.
    Fixed Duration. A type of activity where the length of time required to complete the
    activity remains constant regardless of the number of people or resources assigned to
    the activity.
    Fixed-Price Contract. An agreement that sets the fee that will be paid for a defined
    scope of work regardless of the cost or effort to deliver it.
    Fixed Price Incentive Fee Contract (FPIF). A type of contract where the buyer pays
    the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), and the seller can earn an
    additional amount if the seller meets defined performance criteria.
    Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment Contract (FPEPA). A fixed-price
    contract, but with a special provision allowing for predefined final adjustments to the
    contract price due to changed conditions, such as inflation changes, or cost increases
    (or decreases) for specific commodities.
    Flow. The measure of how efficiently work moves through a given process or
    framework.
    Flowchart. The depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and
    outputs of one or more processes within a system.
    Forecast. An estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the project’s future
    based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast.
    Function Point. An estimate of the amount of business functionality in an
    information system, used to calculate the functional size measurement of a software
    system.
    Gantt Chart. A bar chart of schedule information where activities are listed on the
    vertical axis, dates are shown on the horizontal axis, and activity durations are shown
    as horizontal bars placed according to start and finish dates.
    Governance. The framework for directing and enabling an organization through its
    312established policies, practices, and other relevant documentation.
    Grade. A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use
    but do not share the same requirements for quality.
    Hierarchy Chart. A chart that begins with high-level information that is
    progressively decomposed into lower levels of detail.
    Histogram. A bar chart that shows the graphical representation of numerical data.
    Hybrid Approach. A combination of two or more agile and nonagile elements,
    having a nonagile end result.
    Impact Mapping. A strategic planning method that serves as a visual roadmap for the
    organization during product development.
    Impediment. An obstacle that prevents the team from achieving its objectives. Also
    known as a blocker.
    Incremental Approach. An adaptive development approach in which the deliverable
    is produced successively, adding functionality until the deliverable contains the
    necessary and sufficient capability to be considered complete.
    Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ). A contract that provides for an
    indefinite quantity of goods or services, with a stated lower and upper limit, within a
    fixed time period.
    Influence Diagram. A graphical representation of situations showing causal
    influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and
    outcomes.
    Information Radiator. A visible, physical display that provides information to the
    rest of the organization, enabling timely knowledge sharing.
    Initiating Process Group. Those processes performed to define a new project or a
    new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or
    phase.
    Internal Dependency. A relationship between two or more project activities.
    Interpersonal Skills. Skills used to establish and maintain relationships with other
    people.
    Issue. A current condition or situation that may have an impact on the project
    objectives.
    Issue Log. A project document where information about issues is recorded and
    monitored.
    313Iteration. A timeboxed cycle of development on a product or deliverable in which all
    of the work that is needed to deliver value is performed.
    Iteration Plan. A detailed plan for the current iteration.
    Iteration Planning. A meeting to clarify the details of the backlog items, acceptance
    criteria, and work effort required to meet an upcoming iteration commitment.
    Iteration Review. A meeting held at the end of an iteration to demonstrate the work
    that was accomplished during the iteration.
    Iterative Approach. A development approach that focuses on an initial, simplified
    implementation then progressively elaborates adding to the feature set until the final
    deliverable is complete.
    Kanban Board. A visualization tool that shows work in progress to help identify
    bottlenecks and overcommitments, thereby allowing the team to optimize the
    workflow.
    Kickoff Meeting. A gathering of team members and other key stakeholders at the
    outset of a project to formally set expectations, gain a common understanding, and
    commence work.
    Knowledge. A mixture of experience, values and beliefs, contextual information,
    intuition, and insight that people use to make sense of new experiences and
    information.
    Lag. The amount of time whereby a successor activity will be delayed with respect to
    a predecessor activity.
    Last Responsible Moment. The concept of deferring a decision to allow the team to
    consider multiple options until the cost of further delay would exceed the benefit.
    Lead. The amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect
    to a predecessor activity.
    Lead Time. The time between a customer request and the actual delivery.
    Lead Time Chart. A diagram showing the trend over time of the average lead time of
    the items completed in work.
    Lean Startup Canvas. A one-page template designed to communicate a business
    plan with key stakeholders in an efficient and effective manner.
    Lessons Learned. The knowledge gained during a project, which shows how project
    events were addressed or should be addressed in the future, for the purpose of
    improving future performance.
    314Lessons Learned Register. A project document used to record knowledge gained
    during a project, phase, or iteration so that it can be used to improve future
    performance for the team and the organization.
    Life Cycle. See project life cycle.
    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A tool used to evaluate the total environmental
    impact of a product, process, or system.
    Log. A document used to record and describe or denote selected items identified
    during execution of a process or activity. Usually used with a modifier, such as issue,
    change, or assumption.
    Make-or-Buy Analysis. The process of gathering and organizing data about product
    requirements and analyzing them against available alternatives including the purchase
    or internal manufacture of the product.
    Management Reserve. An amount of the project budget or project schedule held
    outside of the performance measurement baseline for management control purposes
    that is reserved for unforeseen work that is within the project scope.
    Mandatory Dependency. A relationship that is contractually required or inherent in
    the nature of the work.
    Measurement Performance Domain. The performance domain that addresses
    activities and functions associated with assessing project performance and taking
    appropriate actions to maintain acceptable performance.
    Measures of Performance. Measures that characterize physical or functional
    attributes relating to system operation.
    Method. A means for achieving an outcome, output, result, or project deliverable.
    Methodology. A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those
    who work in a discipline.
    Metric. A description of a project or product attribute and how to measure it.
    Milestone. A significant point or event in a project, program, or portfolio.
    Milestone Schedule. A type of schedule that presents milestones with planned dates.
    Minimum Viable Product (MVP). A concept used to define the scope of the first
    release of a solution to customers by identifying the fewest number of features or
    requirements that would deliver value.
    Modeling. Creating simplified representations of systems, solutions, or deliverables,
    such as prototypes, diagrams, or storyboards.
    315Monitor. Collect project performance data, produce performance measures, and
    report and disseminate performance information.
    Monitoring and Controlling Process Group. Those processes required to track,
    review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in
    which changes to the plan are required; and initiate corresponding changes.
    Monte Carlo Simulation. A method of identifying the potential impacts of risk and
    uncertainty using multiple iterations of a computer model to develop a probability
    distribution of a range of outcomes that could result from a decision or course of
    action.
    Mood Chart. A visualization chart for tracking moods or reactions to identify areas
    for improvement.
    Multipoint Estimating. A method used to estimate cost or duration by applying an
    average or weighted average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates
    when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.
    Net Promoter Score®. An index that measures the willingness of customers to
    recommend an organization’s products or services to others.
    Network Path. A sequence of activities connected by logical relationships in a
    project schedule network diagram.
    Objective. Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be
    attained, a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or
    a service to be performed.
    Opportunity. A risk that would have a positive effect on one or more project
    objectives.
    Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS). A hierarchical representation of the
    project organization, which illustrates the relationship between project activities and
    the organizational units that will perform those activities.
    Organizational Process Assets (OPA). Plans, processes, policies, procedures, and
    knowledge bases that are specific to and used by the performing organization.
    Osmotic Communication. Means of receiving information without direct
    communication by overhearing and through nonverbal cues.
    Outcome. An end result or consequence of a process or project.
    Parametric Estimating. An estimating method in which an algorithm is used to
    calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters.
    Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB). Integrated scope, schedule, and cost
    316baselines used for comparison to manage, measure, and control project execution.
    Phase Gate. A review at the end of a phase in which a decision is made to continue to
    the next phase, to continue with modification, or to end a project or program.
    Plan. A proposed means of accomplishing something.
    Planned Value (PV). The authorized budget assigned to scheduled work.
    Planning Performance Domain. The performance domain that addresses activities
    and functions associated with the initial, ongoing, and evolving organization and
    coordination necessary for delivering project deliverables and results.
    Planning Process Group. Those processes required to establish the scope of the
    project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the
    objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.
    Portfolio. Projects, programs, subsidiary portfolios, and operations managed as a
    group to achieve strategic objectives.
    Portfolio Management. The centralized management of one or more portfolios to
    achieve strategic objectives.
    Precision. Within the quality management system, precision is an assessment of
    exactness.
    Predictive Approach. A development approach in which the project scope, time, and
    cost are determined in the early phases of the life cycle.
    Prioritization Matrix. A scatter diagram that plots effort against value so as to
    classify items by priority.
    Prioritization Schema. Methods used to prioritize portfolio, program, or project
    components, as well as requirements, risks, features, or other product information.
    Probabilistic Estimating. A method used to develop a range of estimates along with
    the associated probabilities within that range.
    Probability and Impact Matrix. A grid for mapping the probability of occurrence of
    each risk and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs.
    Procurement Management Plan. A component of the project or program
    management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services
    from outside of the performing organization.
    Product. An artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end item in
    itself or a component item.
    Product Breakdown Structure. A hierarchical structure reflecting a product’s
    317components and deliverables.
    Product Life Cycle. A series of phases that represent the evolution of a product, from
    concept through delivery, growth, maturity, and to retirement.
    Product Management. The integration of people, data, processes, and business
    systems to create, maintain, and evolve a product or service throughout its life cycle.
    Product Owner. A person responsible for maximizing the value of the product and
    accountable for the end product.
    Product Scope. The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or
    result.
    Program. Related projects, subsidiary programs, and program activities that are
    managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing
    them individually.
    Program Management. The application of knowledge, skills, and principles to a
    program to achieve the program objectives and obtain benefits and control not
    available by managing program components individually.
    Progressive Elaboration. The iterative process of increasing the level of detail in a
    project management plan as greater amounts of information and more accurate
    estimates become available.
    Project. A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or
    result.
    Project Brief. A high-level overview of the goals, deliverables, and processes for the
    project.
    Project Calendar. A calendar that identifies working days and shifts that are
    available for scheduled activities.
    Project Charter. A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally
    authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the
    authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
    Project Governance. The framework, functions, and processes that guide project
    management activities in order to create a unique product, service, or result to meet
    organizational, strategic, and operational goals.
    Project Lead. A person who helps the project team to achieve the project objectives,
    typically by orchestrating the work of the project. See also project manager.
    Project Life Cycle. The series of phases that a project passes through from its start to
    its completion.
    318Project Management. The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to
    project activities to meet the project requirements.
    Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). A term that describes the
    knowledge within the profession of project management.
    Project Management Office (PMO). A management structure that standardizes the
    project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources,
    methodologies, tools, and techniques.
    Project Management Plan. The document that describes how the project will be
    executed, monitored and controlled, and closed.
    Project Management Process Group. A logical grouping of project management
    inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs. The Project Management Process Groups
    include Initiating processes, Planning processes, Executing processes, Monitoring and
    Controlling processes, and Closing processes.
    Project Management Team. The members of the project team who are directly
    involved in project management activities.
    Project Manager. The person assigned by the performing organization to lead the
    team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives. See also project lead.
    Project Phase. A collection of logically related project activities that culminates in
    the completion of one or more deliverables.
    Project Review. An event at the end of a phase or project to assess the status,
    evaluate the value delivered, and determine if the project is ready to move to the next
    phase or transition to operations.
    Project Schedule. An output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with
    planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources.
    Project Schedule Network Diagram. A graphical representation of the logical
    relationships among the project schedule activities.
    Project Scope. The work performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the
    specified features and functions.
    Project Scope Statement. The description of the project scope, major deliverables,
    and exclusions.
    Project Team. A set of individuals performing the work of the project to achieve its
    objectives.
    Project Vision Statement. A concise, high-level description of the project that states
    the purpose and inspires the team to contribute to the project.
    319Project Work Performance Domain. The performance domain that addresses
    activities and functions associated with establishing project processes, managing
    physical resources, and fostering a learning environment.
    Prototype. A working model used to obtain early feedback on the expected product
    before actually building it.
    Quality. The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.
    Quality Management Plan. A component of the project or program management
    plan that describes how applicable policies, procedures, and guidelines will be
    implemented to achieve the quality objectives.
    Quality Metrics. A description of a project or product attribute and how to measure
    it.
    Quality Policy. The basic principles that should govern the organization’s actions as it
    implements its system for quality management.
    Quality Report. A project document that includes quality management issues,
    recommendations for corrective actions, and a summary of findings from quality
    control activities and may include recommendations for process, project, and product
    improvements.
    Register. A written record of regular entries for evolving aspects of a project, such as
    risks, stakeholders, or defects.
    Regression Analysis. An analytical method where a series of input variables are
    examined in relation to their corresponding output results in order to develop a
    mathematical or statistical relationship.
    Regulations. Requirements imposed by a governmental body. These requirements
    can establish product, process, or service characteristics, including applicable
    administrative provisions that have government-mandated compliance.
    Relative Estimating. A method for creating estimates that are derived from
    performing a comparison against a similar body of work, taking effort, complexity,
    and uncertainty into consideration.
    Release. One or more components of one or more products, which are intended to be
    put into production at the same time.
    Release Plan. The plan that sets expectations for the dates, features, and/or outcomes
    expected to be delivered over the course of multiple iterations.
    Release Planning. The process of identifying a high-level plan for releasing or
    transitioning a product, deliverable, or increment of value.
    320Report. A formal record or summary of information.
    Requirement. A condition or capability that is necessary to be present in a product,
    service, or result to satisfy a business need.
    Requirements Documentation. A record of product requirements and other product
    information, along with whatever is recorded to manage it.
    Requirements Management Plan. A component of the project or program
    management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and
    managed.
    Requirements Traceability Matrix. A grid that links product requirements from
    their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.
    Reserve. A provision in the project management plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule
    risk, often used with a modifier (e.g., management reserve, contingency reserve) to
    provide further detail on what types of risk are meant to be mitigated.
    Reserve Analysis. A method used to evaluate the amount of risk on the project and
    the amount of schedule and budget reserve to determine whether the reserve is
    sufficient for the remaining risk.
    Resource Breakdown Structure. A hierarchical representation of resources by
    category and type.
    Resource Management Plan. A component of the project management plan that
    describes how project resources are acquired, allocated, monitored, and controlled.
    Responsibility. An assignment that can be delegated within a project management
    plan such that the assigned resource incurs a duty to perform the requirements of the
    assignment.
    Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM). A grid that shows the project resources
    assigned to each work package.
    Result. An output from performing project management processes and activities. See
    also deliverable.
    Retrospective. A regularly occurring workshop in which participants explore their
    work and results in order to improve both the process and product.
    Rework. Action taken to bring a defective or nonconforming component into
    compliance with requirements or specifications.
    Risk. An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative
    effect on one or more project objectives.
    321Risk Acceptance. A risk response strategy whereby the project team decides to
    acknowledge the risk and not take any action unless the risk occurs.
    Risk-Adjusted Backlog. A backlog that includes product work and actions to address
    threats and opportunities.
    Risk Appetite. The degree of uncertainty an organization or individual is willing to
    accept in anticipation of a reward.
    Risk Avoidance. A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to eliminate
    the threat or protect the project from its impact.
    Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS). A hierarchical representation of potential sources
    of risks.
    Risk Enhancement. A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to
    increase the probability of occurrence or impact of an opportunity.
    Risk Escalation. A risk response strategy whereby the team acknowledges that a risk
    is outside of its sphere of influence and shifts the ownership of the risk to a higher
    level of the organization where it is more effectively managed.
    Risk Exploiting. A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to ensure that
    an opportunity occurs.
    Risk Exposure. An aggregate measure of the potential impact of all risks at any given
    point in time in a project, program, or portfolio.
    Risk Management Plan. A component of the project, program, or portfolio
    management plan that describes how risk management activities will be structured
    and performed.
    Risk Mitigation. A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to decrease
    the probability of occurrence or impact of a threat.
    Risk Register. A repository in which outputs of risk management processes are
    recorded.
    Risk Report. A project document that summarizes information on individual project
    risks and the level of overall project risk.
    Risk Review. The process of analyzing the status of existing risks and identifying
    new risks. May also be known as risk reassessment.
    Risk Sharing. A risk response strategy whereby the project team allocates ownership
    of an opportunity to a third party who is best able to capture the benefit of that
    opportunity.
    322Risk Threshold. The measure of acceptable variation around an objective that reflects
    the risk appetite of the organization and stakeholders. See also risk appetite.
    Risk Transference. A risk response strategy whereby the project team shifts the
    impact of a threat to a third party, together with ownership of the response.
    Roadmap. A high-level time line that depicts such things as milestones, significant
    events, reviews, and decision points.
    Role. A defined function to be performed by a project team member, such as testing,
    filing, inspecting, or coding.
    Rolling Wave Planning. An iterative planning method in which the work to be
    accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is
    planned at a higher level.
    Root Cause Analysis. An analytical method used to determine the basic underlying
    reason that causes a variance or a defect or a risk.
    Scatter Diagram. A graph that shows the relationship between two variables.
    Schedule. See project schedule.
    Schedule Baseline. The approved version of a schedule model that can be changed
    using formal change control procedures and is used as the basis for comparison to
    actual results.
    Schedule Compression. A method used to shorten the schedule duration without
    reducing the project scope.
    Schedule Forecasts. Estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project’s
    future based on information and knowledge available at the time the schedule is
    calculated.
    Schedule Management Plan. A component of the project or program management
    plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and
    controlling the schedule.
    Schedule Model. A representation of the plan for executing the project’s activities
    including durations, dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce a
    project schedule along with other scheduling artifacts.
    Schedule Performance Index (SPI). A measure of schedule efficiency expressed as
    the ratio of earned value to planned value.
    Schedule Variance (SV). A measure of schedule performance expressed as the
    difference between the earned value and the planned value.
    323Scope. The sum of the products, services, and results to be provided as a project. See
    also project scope and product scope.
    Scope Baseline. The approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown
    structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary that can be changed using formal
    change control procedures and is used as the basis for comparison to actual results.
    Scope Creep. The uncontrolled expansion to product or project scope without
    adjustments to time, cost, and resources.
    Scope Management Plan. A component of the project or program management plan
    that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and
    validated.
    S-Curve. A graph that displays cumulative costs over a specified period of time.
    Self-Organizing Team. A cross-functional team in which people assume leadership
    as needed to achieve the team’s objectives.
    Sensitivity Analysis. An analysis method to determine which individual project risks
    or other sources of uncertainty have the most potential impact on project outcomes by
    correlating variations in project outcomes with variations in elements of a quantitative
    risk analysis model.
    Servant Leadership. The practice of leading the team by focusing on understanding
    and addressing the needs and development of team members in order to enable the
    highest possible team performance.
    Simulation. An analytical method that models the combined effect of uncertainties to
    evaluate their potential impact on objectives.
    Single-Point Estimating. An estimating method that involves using data to calculate
    a single value which reflects a best guess estimate.
    Specification. A precise statement of the needs to be satisfied and the essential
    characteristics that are required.
    Sponsor. A person or group who provides resources and support for the project,
    program, or portfolio and is accountable for enabling success.
    Sprint. A short time interval within a project during which a usable and potentially
    releasable increment of the product is created. See also iteration.
    Stakeholder. An individual, group, or organization that may affect, be affected by, or
    perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project, program,
    or portfolio.
    Stakeholder Analysis. A method of systematically gathering and analyzing
    324quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken
    into account throughout the project.
    Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix. A matrix that compares current and
    desired stakeholder engagement levels.
    Stakeholder Engagement Plan. A component of the project management plan that
    identifies the strategies and actions required to promote productive involvement of
    stakeholders in project or program decision making and execution.
    Stakeholder Performance Domain. The performance domain that addresses
    activities and functions associated with stakeholders.
    Stakeholder Register. A project document that includes information about project
    stakeholders including an assessment and classification of project stakeholders.
    Standard. A document established by an authority, custom, or general consent as a
    model or example.
    Statement of Work (SOW). A narrative description of products, services, or results
    to be delivered by the project.
    Status Meeting. A regularly scheduled meeting to exchange and analyze information
    about the current progress of the project and its performance.
    Status Report. A report on the current status of the project.
    Steering Committee. An advisory body of senior stakeholders who provide direction
    and support for the project team and make decisions outside the project team’s
    authority.
    Story Map. A visual model of all the features and functionality desired for a given
    product, created to give the team a holistic view of what they are building and why.
    Story Point. A unit used to estimate the relative level of effort needed to implement a
    user story.
    Strategic Plan. A high-level document that explains an organization’s vision and
    mission plus the approach that will be adopted to achieve this mission and vision,
    including the specific goals and objectives to be achieved during the period covered
    by the document.
    Strategy Artifacts. Documents created prior to or at the start of the project that
    address strategic, business, or high-level information about the project.
    Swarm. A method in which multiple team members focus collectively on resolving a
    specific problem or task.
    325SWOT Analysis. Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of an
    organization, project, or option.
    Tacit Knowledge. Personal knowledge that can be difficult to articulate and share
    such as beliefs, experience, and insights.
    Tailoring. The deliberate adaptation of approach, governance, and processes to make
    them more suitable for the given environment and the work at hand.
    Task Board. A visual representation of the progress of the planned work that allows
    everyone to see the status of the tasks.
    Team Charter. A document that records the team values, agreements, and operating
    guidelines, as well as establishes clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by
    project team members.
    Team Performance Domain. The performance domain that addresses activities and
    functions associated with the people who are responsible for producing project
    deliverables that realize business outcomes.
    Technical Performance Measures. Quantifiable measures of technical performance
    that are used to ensure system components meet the technical requirements.
    Template. A partially complete document in a predefined format that provides a
    defined structure for collecting, organizing, and presenting information and data.
    Test Plan. A document describing deliverables that will be tested, tests that will be
    conducted, and the processes that will be used in testing.
    Threat. A risk that would have a negative effect on one or more project objectives.
    Threshold. A predetermined value of a measurable project variable that represents a
    limit that requires action to be taken if it is reached.
    Throughput. The number of items passing through a process.
    Throughput Chart. A diagram that shows the accepted deliverables over time.
    Time and Materials Contract (T&M). A type of contract that is a hybrid contractual
    arrangement containing aspects of both cost-reimbursable and fixed-price contracts.
    Timebox. A short, fixed period of time in which work is to be completed.
    Tolerance. The quantified description of acceptable variation for a quality
    requirement.
    Trend Analysis. An analytical method that uses mathematical models to forecast
    future outcomes based on historical results.
    326Triple Bottom Line. A framework for considering the full cost of doing business by
    evaluating a company’s bottom line from the perspective of profit, people, and the
    planet.
    Uncertainty. A lack of understanding and awareness of issues, events, path to follow,
    or solutions to pursue.
    Uncertainty Domain. The performance domain that addresses activities and
    functions associated with risk and uncertainty.
    Use Case. An artifact for describing and exploring how a user interacts with a system
    to achieve a specific goal.
    User Story. A brief description of an outcome for a specific user, which is a promise
    for a conversation to clarify details.
    Validation. The assurance that a product, service, or result meets the needs of the
    customer and other identified stakeholders. See also verification.
    Value. The worth, importance, or usefulness of something.
    Value Delivery Office (VDO). A project delivery support structure that focuses on
    coaching teams; building agile skills and capabilities throughout the organization; and
    mentoring sponsors and product owners to be more effective in those roles.
    Value Delivery System. A collection of strategic business activities aimed at
    building, sustaining, and/or advancing an organization.
    Value Proposition. The value of a product or service that an organization
    communicates to its customers.
    Value Stream Map. A display of the critical steps in a process and the time taken in
    each step used to identify waste.
    Value Stream Mapping. A lean enterprise method used to document, analyze, and
    improve the flow of information or materials required to produce a product or service
    for a customer.
    Vanity Metric. A measure that appears to show some result but does not provide
    useful information for making decisions.
    Variance. A quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence away from a known
    baseline or expected value.
    Variance Analysis. A method for determining the cause and degree of difference
    between the baseline and actual performance.
    Variance at Completion (VAC). A projection of the amount of budget deficit or
    327surplus, expressed as the difference between the budget at completion and the
    estimate at completion.
    Velocity. A measure of a team’s productivity rate at which the deliverables are
    produced, validated, and accepted within a predefined interval.
    Velocity Chart. A chart that tracks the rate at which the deliverables are produced,
    validated, and accepted within a predefined interval.
    Verification. The evaluation of whether or not a product, service, or result complies
    with a regulation, requirement, specification, or imposed condition. See also
    validation.
    Virtual Team. A group of people with a shared goal who work in different locations
    and who engage with each other primarily through phone and other electronic
    communications.
    Vision Statement. A summarized, high-level description about the expectations for a
    product such as target market, users, major benefits, and what differentiates the
    product from others in the market.
    Visual Data and Information. Artifacts that organize and present data and
    information in a visual format, such as charts, graphs, matrices, and diagrams.
    Voice of the Customer. A planning method used to provide products, services, and
    results that truly reflect customer requirements by translating those customer
    requirements into the appropriate technical requirements for each phase of project or
    product development.
    Volatility. The possibility for rapid and unpredictable change.
    Waste. Activities that consume resources and/or time without adding value.
    WBS Dictionary. A document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and
    scheduling information about each component in the work breakdown structure.
    What-If-Scenario Analysis. The process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict
    their effect on project objectives.
    Wideband Delphi. An estimating method in which subject matter experts go through
    multiple rounds of producing estimates individually, with a team discussion after each
    round, until a consensus is achieved.
    Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). A hierarchical decomposition of the total scope
    of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and
    create the required deliverables.
    Work Package. The work defined at the lowest level of the work breakdown
    328structure for which cost and duration are estimated and managed.

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