A Brief History of Mechanical Engineering

A Brief History of Mechanical Engineering
اسم المؤلف
Uday Shanker Dixit, Manjuri Hazarika, J. Paulo Davim
التاريخ
7 يناير 2022
المشاهدات
91
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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A Brief History of Mechanical Engineering
Uday Shanker Dixit, Manjuri Hazarika, J. Paulo Davim
Contents
1 What Is Mechanical Engineering? 1
1.1 Introduction . 1
1.2 Definition of Mechanical Engineering 4
1.3 Scope of Mechanical Engineering . 5
1.4 Mechanical Engineering Profession . 6
1.5 Mechanical Engineering Education 6
1.6 Offshoots of Mechanical Engineering 7
1.6.1 Production Engineering 8
1.6.2 Industrial Engineering . 8
1.6.3 Manufacturing Engineering . 9
1.6.4 Automobile Engineering . 10
1.6.5 Aerospace Engineering 10
1.6.6 Mechatronics 10
1.7 Relation of Mechanical Engineering with Other
Engineering Disciplines 11
1.8 Changes in Mechanical Engineering Education
Through Ages 12
1.9 Conclusion 13
References 13
2 Landmark Revolutionary Inventions in Mechanical Engineering . 15
2.1 Introduction . 15
2.2 Invention of Wheel 16
2.2.1 Mechanics of Wheel Motion 17
2.2.2 Uses of Wheel in Mechanical Engineering . 18
2.3 Invention of Tools 19
2.3.1 Tools of Early Age . 19
2.3.2 Types of Tools 20
2.4 Ship . 22
2.4.1 A Brief Introduction to Boats and Ships . 22
2.4.2 A Historical Note on Boats and Ships . 23
xi2.5 Windmills . 25
2.6 Archimedes’ Screw 27
2.7 Steam Engine 28
2.8 Railways 31
2.9 Internal Combustion Engine . 32
2.10 Aircraft, Rockets, and Satellites 34
2.11 CNC Machines . 35
2.12 Wootz Steel . 37
2.13 Rapid Prototyping . 38
2.14 Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration 40
2.15 Mechatronic Products 43
2.16 Conclusion 44
References 45
3 History of Mechanics 47
3.1 Introduction . 47
3.2 Period of Aristotle 49
3.3 Period of Archimedes 52
3.4 Hero of Alexandria 54
3.5 Period After Hero and Before Galileo . 55
3.6 Period of Galileo . 57
3.7 Period of Newton . 62
3.8 Classical Mechanics After Newton 65
3.9 Relativistic and Quantum Mechanics 70
3.10 Conclusion 71
References 71
4 History of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer . 73
4.1 Introduction . 73
4.2 Developments in Thermal Science Before the Period
of Sadi Carnot . 74
4.3 Father of Thermodynamics: Sadi Carnot (1796–1832) . 78
4.4 Carnot Cycle . 80
4.5 Salient Topics of Thermodynamics 83
4.5.1 The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 83
4.5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics . 84
4.5.3 The Second Law of Thermodynamics . 85
4.5.4 Third Law of Thermodynamics 87
4.5.5 The Zeroth Law 87
4.5.6 Various Thermodynamic Cycles . 88
4.6 Further Developments: Transformation to Quantitative
Science . 90
4.7 A Note on Energy and Exergy . 91
xii Contents4.8 Key Developments in Heat Transfer . 93
4.9 Conclusion 96
References 96
5 Manufacturing Through Ages . 99
5.1 Introduction . 99
5.2 Machining . 100
5.2.1 Evolution of Machine Tools and Cutting Tools 101
5.2.2 Research in Metal Cutting 105
5.3 Forming 108
5.3.1 Evolution of Metal-Forming Processes 108
5.3.2 Theoretical Studies on Metal-Forming Processes . 111
5.4 Casting . 113
5.5 Joining . 113
5.6 Powder Metallurgy 115
5.7 Heat Treatment and Coating . 116
5.8 Advanced Manufacturing . 116
5.9 Micro- and Nanomanufacturing 118
5.10 Robotics in Manufacturing 119
5.11 3D Printing 120
5.12 Conclusion 121
References 121
6 Emergence of Production and Industrial Engineering 127
6.1 Introduction . 127
6.2 A Brief History of Production and Industrial Engineering 129
6.3 Attempts to Improve Quality and Productivity in the Last
100 Years . 135
6.4 The Course Structure of Production and Industrial
Engineering Discipline . 141
6.5 The New Frontiers 142
6.6 Conclusions . 145
References 145
7 History of Mechatronics 147
7.1 Introduction . 147
7.2 A Brief History of Electrical Engineering . 148
7.3 A Brief History of Electronics and Computer Engineering 152
7.4 Emergence of Mechatronics as a Separate Discipline 156
7.5 Current Developments . 157
7.6 Conclusions . 163
References 163
Contents xiii8 Future of Mechanical Engineering 165
8.1 Introduction . 165
8.2 Future Directions in Mechanical Engineering 166
8.3 Challenges Ahead . 170
8.4 Conclusions . 171
References 172
Index 17
Index
A
Adaptive control, 37
Additive manufacturing process, 38
Advanced manufacturing, 116
Aeolipile, 28, 54, 75
Aeronautical engineering, 10
Age hardening, 116
Agriculture engineering, 11
Air-conditioning (AC), 40
American Society of Chemical Engineers, 8
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 7,
165
American Society of Tool and Manufacturing
Engineers (ASTME), 9
Amonton’s law, 76
Archimedes’ principle, 53
Archimedes’ screw, 27
Aristotle’s law, 58
Astronautical engineering, 10
Atkinson cycle, 33
Austenite, 28
Automate, 105
Automatically Programmed Tool (APT), 37,
156
Automobiles, 4, 10
Axle, 18
B
Ballistic Particle Manufacturing (BPM), 39
Bernoulli’s principle, 65
Biofluid mechanics, 12
Biomechanics, 12, 168
Biomedical engineering, 12
Biomedical field, 5
Biot-Savart law, 150
Blanking, 108
Boiler, 5, 79
Bone digester, 75
Bow drill, 21
Boyle’s law, 76
Brayton cycle, 88, 90
British Professional of Civil Engineers, 7
Broaching, 104
C
Caloric theory, 74
Canoe, 22
Carnot cycle, 79
Carnot efficiency, 82
Carnot’s theorem, 79
Cellular manufacturing system, 135
Cementite, 38
Charles’ law, 76
Chemical engineers, 11
Civil Engineering Society, 7
Clausius statement, 86
Cloud computing, 162
Coefficient of rolling, 18
Compressor, 41, 42
Computer-aided design (CAD), 6, 37, 134
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), 37,
134
Computer aided process planning (CAPP), 134
Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM),
134, 144
Computer numerical control (CNC), 3, 35, 134,
156
Concurrent engineering, 133
Condenser, 41, 42, 79
Coriolis force, 65
Coulomb’s coefficient, 57
Cryptography, 2
Dd’
Alembert’s principle, 65
Damascus steel, 37
Darrieus rotor, 26
Deck, 22
Deep drawing, 110
Dialysis machines, 5
Diesel cycle, 81, 88
Diesel engine, 33
Digital manufacturing, 121
Dinghies, 22
Double acting steam engine, 33
Drill bits, 21
Dual cycle, 90
E
Edison effect, 153
Electrical engineering, 11
Electrical Engineering Society, 8
Electro-discharge machining (EDM), 117
Engineering, 1
Enhanced Machine Controller (EMC), 37
Enthalpy, 91
Entropy, 81
Environment engineering, 12
Ergonomics, 132
Ericsson cycle, 90
Euclidean geometry, 52
Euler’s laws, 64
Evaporator, 41, 42
Exergy, 92
Expansion, 41, 42
External combustion engines, 32
F
Finite element method, 112
Flexible manufacturing system
(FMS), 144
Flint, 19
Fluid mechanics, 5, 7
Flywheels, 18
Forming, 108
Fourier’s law, 77
Freon, 43
Functional, 64
Fused deposition modeling (FDM), 39
G
Galilean moons, 61
Galileo’s law of inertia, 63
Galvanizing, 116
Gas shielded metal arc welding, 114
Gas tungsten arc welding, 114
Gas welding, 114
Gears, 18, 25
Gibbs energy, 91
Green engineering, 11
Grinding, 104
Grinding wheel, 19
H
Hamilton’s principle, 67
Hammers, 21
Harmonic drive, 160
Heat, 74
Heat transfer, 74
Heat treatment, 116
Hero of Alexandria, 54, 74
Hero’s formula, 55
High speed steel, 103
Hill’s criterion, 69
Hob, 104
Hull, 22
Hydraulic turbines, 5
I
Industrial engineering, 8, 127
Industrialization, 15
Inertial frame of reference, 63
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 4, 7, 166
Internal combustion engines, 32
Ishikawa diagram, 138
J
Jakob number, 95
Japanese Society for the Technology of
Plasticity (JSTP), 112
Jib, 22
Just in time, 132
K
Keel, 22
Kelvin-Planck statement, 86
Kinetic theory, 74
L
Lagrangian, 66
Lame’s constant, 67
Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM), 39
LASER, 117
Latent heat, 75
Lathe, 21, 101
Law of conservation of energy, 91
Law of conservation of mass, 66
Law of entropy, 86
Law of Galilean relativity, 59
Law of thermodynamics, 84, 85, 87
Laws of elasticity, 62
Laws of friction, 57, 65
Laws of Gay-Lussac, 76
Laws of gravitation, 62
Laws of Kepler, 62
Laws of parallelogram, 62
Layer manufacturing, 38
176 IndexLeagile manufacturing, 135
Lean manufacturing, 133
Lenoir’s gas engine, 33
Lever, 5, 47
Levy-Mises relation, 69
Lincoln index milling, 102
Locomotion, 50
M
Machine design, 7
Machine drawing, 7
Machine tools, 5
Machining, 99
Mach number, 94
Macroscopic thermodynamics, 73
Manufacturing, 7, 99
Manufacturing engineering, 9
Martensite, 38
Maxwell relations, 90
Measuring tool, 20
Mechanical engineering, 3, 15
Mechanics, 47
Mechatronics, 5, 10, 43, 169
Mesopotamia, 16
Metal casting, 9
Metallurgical engineering, 11
Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), 158
Microfluidics, 12
Micro forging, 118
Micro indentation, 119
Micro manufacturing, 118
Microscopes, 21, 61
Milling cutters, 21
Milling machine, 102
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Society,
7, 8
N
Nano-electromechanical system (NEMS), 158
Nanotechnology, 5
Naval vessels, 22
Navier-Stokes equation, 67
Newcomen’s atmospheric engine, 29
Newcomen’s steam engine, 29
Newtonian mechanics, 70
Newton’s ring, 63
Numerical control (NC), 36
Nusselt number, 95
O
Oars, 23
Oldowan, 19
Otto cycle, 33, 81, 88
P
Panemones, 26
Petrol engine, 33
Planer machine, 102
Pliers and wrenches, 21
Poisson’s ratio, 67
Post mill, 25
Powder metallurgy, 115
Prandtle-Reuss equations, 70
Production, 7
Production engineering, 8, 12
Pure rolling, 17
Pulleys, 18
Pulpit, 22
Pulsometer pump, 28, 75
PUMA robot, 120
Punching, 108
Q
Quantum belt, 168
Quick return mechanism, 102
R
Raft, 22
Rankine cycle, 81, 90
Rapid prototyping (RP), 38, 120
Rapid tooling (RT), 39
Reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS),
135
Refrigeration, 40
Relativistic mechanics, 70
Reynolds number, 94
Robot, 120
Robotics, 5
Rolling, 109
S
Sail, 22
Savonius rotor, 26
Schmidt number, 96
Science, 2
Scientist, 3
Screw, 27
Screwdrivers, 21
Selective laser sintering (SLS), 39
Self inductance, 150
Shewhart cycle, 137
Sintered carbides, 103
Slab method, 111
Slip-line model, 106, 111
Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), 9
Solid Ground Curing (SGC), 39
Solid mechanics, 5
Index 177Spokes, 16
Squirting, 110
Stanton number, 94
Statistical quality control, 135
Steam engines, 5, 28, 78
Steam locomotive, 31
Steam turbines, 24, 30
Steel, 37
Stefan-Boltzmann law, 93
Stellite, 103
Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA), 39
Stirling cycle, 81, 88
Strength of materials, 5
Sugar technology, 11
Sumerian civilization, 16
Superstructure, 22
Synthetic biology, 5
Syrakosia, 24
T
Taylor’s equation, 103
Technology/Technologist, 2, 3
Tempo, 60
Thermal engineering, 7
Thermit welding, 114
Thermodynamics, 5, 73
Three dimensional printing, 39
Time study, 131
Tool, 19
Total quality management (TQM), 136
Tower mill, 25
Tresca yield criterion, 68
Troposkein, 26
Tungsten carbides, 103
Tungsten inert gas welding (TIG), 114
Turbine, 19
U
Ultrasonic machining, 116
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), 35, 158
Upper bound theorem, 112
V
Venn diagram, 3
Visioplasticity method, 112
von Mises criterion, 68, 69
W
Westphal’s balance, 58
Wheel, 16
Windmill, 25
Wind turbines, 25
Wire drawing, 109
Wootz steel, 37
Workshop, 7
World Wide Web (WWW), 13
Y
Young’s modulus, 67
Z
Zeroth law of thermodynamics, 87

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