3D Printing and Biofabrication

3D Printing and Biofabrication
اسم المؤلف
Aleksandr Ovsianikov , James Yoo , Vladimir Mironov
التاريخ
15 نوفمبر 2022
المشاهدات
107
التقييم
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3D Printing and Biofabrication
With 164 Figures and 34 Tables
Aleksandr Ovsianikov , James Yoo , Vladimir Mironov
Editors
Reference Series in Biomedical Engineering
Tissue Engineering and Regeneration
Series Editor: Heinz Redl
Contents
Part I 3D Printing 1
Additive Manufacturing for Tissue Engineering 3
Solaleh Miar, Ashkan Shafiee, Teja Guda, and Roger Narayan
Characterization of Additive Manufactured Scaffolds . 55
Giuseppe Criscenti, Carmelo De Maria, Giovanni Vozzi, and
Lorenzo Moroni
Vascular Networks Within 3D Printed and Engineered Tissues 79
Daniel Sazer and Jordan Miller
Computational Methods for the Predictive Design of Bone Tissue
Engineering Scaffolds . 107
Stefan Scheiner, Vladimir S. Komlev, and Christian Hellmich
Quality Control of 3D Printed Resorbable Implants: The 3D Printed
Airway Splint Example 131
Scott J. Hollister, Sarah Jo Crotts, Harsha Ramaraju, Colleen L. Flanagan,
David A. Zopf, Robert J. Morrison, Andrea Les, Richard G. Ohye, and
Glenn E. Green
Bioceramics for Musculoskeletal Regenerative Medicine: Materials
and Manufacturing Process Compatibility for Synthetic Bone
Grafts and Medical Devices 161
Ciro A. Rodriguez, Hernan Lara-Padilla, and David Dean
Medical Imaging for Three-Dimensional Computer-Aided Models 195
Paulo Henrique Junqueira Amorim, Thiago Franco de Moraes, Rodrigo
Alvarenga Rezende, Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva, and Helio Pedrini
Mathematical Modeling of 3D Tissue Engineering Constructs . 223
Henrique Amorim Almeida and Paulo Jorge da Silva Bártolo
ixPart II Biofabrication . 253
Extrusion-Based Biofabrication in Tissue Engineering and
Regenerative Medicine 255
Monika Hospodiuk, Kazim Kerim Moncal, Madhuri Dey, and
Ibrahim T. Ozbolat
Inkjet Printing for Biofabrication . 283
Xinda Li, Jianwei Chen, Boxun Liu, Xiong Wang, Dongni Ren, and
Tao Xu
Laser-Based Cell Printing 303
Lothar Koch, Andrea Deiwick, and Boris Chichkov
Development of Nanocellulose-Based Bioinks for 3D Bioprinting of
Soft Tissue 331
Paul Gatenholm, Hector Martinez, Erdem Karabulut, Matteo Amoroso,
Lars Kölby, Kajsa Markstedt, Erik Gatenholm, and Ida Henriksson
Photopolymerizable Materials for Cell Encapsulation 353
L. Tytgat, Stefan Baudis, H. Ottevaere, R. Liska, H. Thienpont, P. Dubruel,
and S. Van Vlierberghe
Fabrication and Printing of Multi-material Hydrogels . 397
Navein Arumugasaamy, Hannah B. Baker, David S. Kaplan,
Peter C. W. Kim, and John P. Fisher
Scaffold-Free Biofabrication 431
Ana Raquel Verissimo and Koichi Nakayama
Translation and Applications of Biofabrication . 451
Ji Hyun Kim, Anthony Atala, and James Yoo
Bioprinting: The Intellectual Property Landscape 485
Robert W. Esmond and Deborah Sterling
Emerging Business Models Toward Commercialization of
Bioprinting Technology . 513
Yakov M. Balakhovsky, Alexander Yu. Ostrovskiy, and Yusef D. Khesuani
Commercial 3D Bioprinters 535
Frederico David A.S. Pereira, Vladislav Parfenov, Yusef D. Khesuani,
Aleksandr Ovsianikov, and Vladimir Mironov
Index 551
Index
A
Additive manufactured scaffolds
biological properties characterization,
72–74
electrical properties characterization, 72
geometry on degradation kinetics, 62
imaging-based characterization, 59–62
mechanical properties characterization,
62–65
permeability, 70–72
porosity and pore characterization, 58–59
surface properties characterization, 66–69
wettability, 69–70
Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, 5,
165, 174, 178, 184, 212
advantage, 7
biomaterials, 6
bone, 9–12
bottom-up approach, 5
cardiovascular system, 37
cartilage, 24
cartilage tissue, 8
cartilage tissue regeneration, 27
ligament and tendon scaffold synthesis, 36
muscle scaffold synthesis, 34
skeletal muscle regeneration, 26
tendon and ligament reconstruction, 31
Additives, 402, 414, 415
Agarose, 267
Alginate, 261–264, 338, 371, 404, 408,
412–413, 416, 418–421, 423
Alumina, 162, 163
America Invents Act (AIA), 495
Anastomosis, 97, 99
Anatomic model, 228
Angiogenesis, 98
Antioxidative proteins, 385
Apparent tissue surface tension
(ATST), 38
Atomic-force icroscopy (AFM) analysis, 67
Auricular reconstructive surgery, 332–333
Average Intensity Projection (AIP), 209
B
Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), 339
Bathochromic shift, 358, 360
Binder jetting, 22
Bioactive glass, 163, 174, 175, 177
Bioactive properties, 386
Bioceramics
bioactive, 162, 163
bioresorbable, 162
clinical and economic relevance, 164
historic perspective, 163–164
load-bearing implants, 166–167
passive, 162, 166
synthetic bone grafts (see Synthetic bone
grafts, bioceramics)
void filling, bone substitutes for, 167
Bio-compatible scaffold, 498
Biodegradation, 108
Biofabrication, 196, 211, 214, 216, 470–472
nerve graft, 335
Bioglass1, 162, 163
Bioimaging, 496–499
Bioimplant materials, 504
Bio inks, 261–270, 309–310, 399, 401–405,
408, 410, 413–422, 452, 477, 493,
499–502
bacterial endotoxin and in vitro cytotoxicity
testing, 345–346
cell laden hydrogels, 336–338
commercialization, 346–348
Bio inks (cont.)
complex constructs, 342, 344
crosslinking, 342–344
crosslinking time, 340
development work flow chart, 347
growth factor, 419, 422, 423
heterogeneous, 414, 420, 423
mechanical properties, 343–345
primary manufacturers of, 521
printability, 341–344
properties, 337
rheological properties, 338–342
S-test, 341
viscosity and rheological properties,
337–338
Biological heart valve prostheses, 40
bioLogic team, 525
Biomaterial implants, 497
Biomimetic, 217
Biomimicry, 217
Biomodels, 212
Biomonitoring, 509–510
Biopaper(s), 319, 499–502
Bioplotters, 18, 33, 261
Bioprinter(s), 452, 507
patents, 499–502
prices, 519
software, 519
Bioprinting
additional patentable innovation, 510
cartilage tissue, 332–334
3D patent landscape, 5, 9, 37, 56, 87, 196,
214, 216, 304, 399, 452, 486–487,
493–495
nerve tissue, 334–335
industry and market development, 515–518
in-situ, 266, 273
skin tissue, 335–336
technology, 515–532
Bioprinting Station, 507
Bioreactor, 509–510
Bioresorbable airway splint, 136
Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), 168, 177
Bisacylphosphineoxide (BAPO), 358
Bladder, 80
Blood vessels, 440–441, 468–470
Blueprint patents, 496–499
Body-on-a-chip systems, 320
Bone, 459–461
bioceramics (see Synthetic bone grafts,
bioceramics)
Bone morphogenetic protein 2, 91
Bone tissue engineering scaffolds
multi-scale modeling, 112–121
numerical modeling approaches, 110–112
C
Calcium phosphate, 163, 168, 177
Calcium sulfate, 186
Cancer research, 473, 476–477
Cannulation, 100
Capillaries, 84, 97, 98
Carboxylic acid moieties, 370, 375, 376
Cardiac tissue, 470–471
Carrageenan, 373
Cartilage, 80, 443, 461–464
tissue engineering, 24
Cell aggregates, 270
scaffold-free, 271
Cell-cell interaction studies, 317–319
CELLINK, 348
Cell laden hydrogels, 336–337, 401, 404
Cell-laden scaffolds, 26
CELLMIXER, 346–348
Cell properties, in 2D and 3D structure, 522
Cell sheets, 434, 435, 440, 442, 443, 445
Cell sorting, 38
Cell source, 478
Cellulose, 338, 372
Cell viability, 338, 346, 400, 402, 404–407,
413, 416, 419, 420
Chain-growth photopolymerization, 370
Chemotaxis, 98
Chitosan, 266–267
Chondrocytes, 383
Chondroitin sulphate (CS), 377, 378
Clinical design hypothesis (CDH),
135–137
Clinical trials, 441, 443
Coaxial extrusion, 87–89
Collagen, 310, 364
Collagen type I, 265
crosslinking mechanism, 265
fabrication, 265
Computer aided design (CAD), 496–499
models, 247
Computer-aided tissue engineering, 497
Confocal laser scanning microscopy, 68
Construct design, 437–438
Continuous inkjet (CIJ) printers, 284
Contrast enhancement, 200, 203, 204
Copyright, 488
Cornea, 80
Covalent incorporation of proteins, 383
Creep and stress relaxation tests, 65
552 IndexCrosslink, 398–401, 405–410, 412, 414,
419, 422
alginate, 412
entangle, 406, 411
ionic, 405, 406, 408–409, 412, 423
thermal, 408, 411, 412, 423
Customized porous scaffold, 10
Cyborg organs, 274
D
Darcy equation, 110
Decell, 409–411
Decellularized extracellular matrix, 271
Dental implant, 167
Depyrogenation, 345
Design control waterfall, 135
Design model output (DMO), 148–149
Design patent, 488–489
Design verification, 134
Dexamethasone, 379
Dextran, 373
Dicalcium silicate, 183
DICOM format, 199, 200
Digital image correlation (DIC), 64
Digital light processing (DLP), 14, 178, 543
Digital micromirror device (DMD), 93
Digital volume correlation (DVC), 64
3D inkjet bioprinting, 379
Direct ink writing/robocasting (DIW), 175
Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), 22
Direct micromirror device (DMD), 175, 178
Direct volume rendering, 207–211
Direct-write technologies [DWDT, 509
Direct writing, 10
Distinctive, 492
Double-network (DN), 368, 369
Droplet-based bioprinting, 273
Droplet-based printing, 286
Droplet volume control, 311–313
Drug delivery, 398, 399
Drug discovery, 472
Drug formulation, 296
Drug screening, 473
Dynamic mechanical analysis, 65
Dynamic release layer, 308–309
E
ECM, see Extracellular matrix (ECM)
Edge detection, 200, 202
Electron beam melting (EBM), 7, 18
Electroprocessed collagen, 504, 505
Electrospinning (ELS), 81, 92, 175, 176, 508
Electrostatic inkjet printing, 285, 286
Encompassing, 495
Endotoxin-mediated pyrogen test, 345
Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, 60
Engineered biological nerve graft, 500
Environmental scanning electron microscopy
(ESEM), 60
Envisiontec, 506
Eosin Y, 359, 361, 375, 382
Extracellular matrix (ECM), 354, 364, 366,
373, 375, 377, 378, 382, 383, 387
Extrusion-based bioprinting, 540–542
biomaterials, 257
3D constructs, 260
dispensing, 257
3D scaffold, 256, 257–261
gelation, 272
printing stage, 261
shear-thinning, 260
tissue construct, 257
Extrusion-based manufacturing, 30
Extrusion bioprinters, 400, 402, 404, 408, 410,
412, 416, 421, 422
Extrusion printing, 304
F
Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA), 143
Fibrin, 265–266, 409, 423
in-situ bioprinting, 266
Fibrin gel, 310
Fibrinogen, 381, 386, 409, 420, 421
Finite element modelling, 66
Fractal, 85
Fused deposition modeling (FDM), 16, 25, 171,
175, 176, 536
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) method, 11
G
Gartner’s Hype Cycle, 515, 518
Gas foaming, 81
Gelatin, 264–265, 366, 399, 404, 407,
409, 412, 413, 415, 417, 419,
421, 423
Gelatin methacrylamide Gel-MOD, 360, 366,
369, 374
Gelatin methacrylate (GelMA), 338, 412,
414–419, 421
Gelation, 272
Gellan gum, 368
Geometric transformations, 206
Index 553Granular, hydroxyapatite-based biomaterial,
114–121
Growing technique, 205
H
Hardware, 494
Heart valve, 470–471
Heparin, 375
Heterotypic interactions, 89
Hierarchical branching, 84, 89, 93, 95
High throughput screening and cancer research,
295
Hip, 163, 178
Homogenization
of conglomerate stiffness, 117–119
of granule stiffness, 117
of hydroxyapatite matrix stiffness, 116–117
Humanitarian device exemption (HDE), 134,
137, 155
Human mesenchymal stem cells, 380
Human nasoseptal chondrocytes (hNC), 340
Human organism, 495
Hyaluronic acid (HA), 268–269, 374,
413–414, 423
Hyaluronic acid methacrylate (HA-MA), 414
Hybrid hydrogel, 374
Hydrogel(s), 333, 336, 354, 355, 357, 358, 360,
363, 366, 368, 375, 378, 380, 385,
399–405
cell laden, 336, 346
characteristics and limitations, 261
constructs using stereolithography, 505
degradation, 270
multi-chamber single-nozzle unit, 269
multi-material printing, 265
synthetic, 269
Hydroxyapatite (HAP), 162, 163, 167, 169,
174, 176, 177
2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate, 359
I
Image preprocessing, 200
Image registration, 206
Image segmentation, 205
Imaging techniques, 196, 197
Inflammation, 101
Inkjet bioprinters, 400–402, 410, 412, 416, 418,
422, 540
Inkjet-mediated gene transfection (IMGT), 294
Inkjet printing (3DP), 174, 175, 304
applications, 295
characteristics, 287
cytocompatibility of, 290
and functional repair, 297
planar cell patterns, 288
print proteins, 292
regenerative medicine in, 296
and structural repair, 296
technology, 24
technology map, 284, 285
of tissues and cells, 506, 508
2D and 3D cell pattern fabrication, 86, 291
of viable cells, 500
In situ biofabrication, 545
In-situ bioprinting, 266, 273, 545
In situ printing, 323
Integrated global layout, 498
Intellectual property (IP) protection, 487–493
copyright, 488
design patent, 488
hardware, 494
materials, 493
methods, 494
product, 495
software, 494
trade dress, 491
trade mark, 489
trade secret, 492
utillity patents, 493
InVesalius, 196
In vitro bioprinted muscle, 32
In vitro tissue/organ model, 471–473
Irgacure 2959, 357, 358, 360, 363, 367, 369,
372, 374, 375, 378, 380, 382, 383,
386, 387
Isosurface rendering, 207–208
J
Joint replacement (arthroplasty), 163, 178
K
Kenzan method, 440, 441
Kidneys, 441–442
Knee, 163, 178
L
Laser-assisted bioprinters (LABs), 323, 400,
402, 403, 412
Laser-based biofabrication, 256
Laser-based bioprinters, 542–543
Laser-based cell printing techniques
554 Indexapplications, 314–323
laser-guided direct write, 305–306
laser-induced forward transfer, 306–308
Laser Doppler, 99
Laser-guided direct write (LGDW), 305–306
Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT),
306–308, 542
Laser parameters, 310–311
Laser printing, 12
Laser surface scanners, 336
Liquid-frozen deposition manufacturing
(LFDM), 25, 26
Liver, 442
Local microstructure topology optimization,
498
Low-temperature deposition manufacturing
(LDM), 18
Low-temperature deposition modeling (LDM),
175
M
Macroporosity, 499
Magnetic bioprinting technology, 539
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 257
Manufacturing process compatibility and
bioceramics, see Bioceramics
Material extrusion
bioplotter and 3D plotter, 18
fused deposition modeling, 16
LDM, 18
precision extruding deposition, 17
robocasting, 16
Matrigel, 267–268, 319, 411, 421–423
Maturongens, 509–510
Maximum intensity difference accumulation
(MIDA), 209
Maximum intensity projection (MIP), 209
Mechanical micro-extrusion, 259
Mechanotransduction, 98
Medical imaging, modalities, 196
Melt electrospinning (MES), 175, 176, 536
Melt extrusion, 81, 92
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), 334, 335
Methacrylate, 372
Methylcellulose (MC), 269–270
Michael-type addition, 354, 376, 386
Microcarriers, 270
Micro computed tomography, 61
Microfluidic organs-on-a-chips, 471
Microporosity, 499
Microwave sintering, 11
Minimum intensity projection (MinIP), 209
Mini-organs, 471
Modification of biomaterial surfaces, 502
Modular fabrication systems and methods,
501, 505
Modular implant manufacturing, 7
Modular tissue engineering, 8
Modulus, 412, 413, 416, 420, 421
Mohr-Coulomb-type criteria, 113
Monoacylphosphineoxide (MAPO), 358
Multicellular aggregates, 86
Multi-material hydrogels, 409–422
Multi-photon polymerization, 95
Multi-photon processing, 543
Multi-scale modeling, bone tissue engineering
bone regeneration kinetics, 120
micromechanical model representation,
114–115
micromechanical stiffness estimation,
116–119
micromechanical strength estimation, 119
motivation, 112
numerical studies, 120–121, 123–125
N
Nanocellulose, 338
alginate composite biomaterial, 339
biomedical application, bacterial, 339
viscosity curves, 340
Nanocellulose-alginate bioinks, 346
Nano-hydroxyapatite, 183, 188, 323
Nanoindentation, 345
Nanoporosity, 499
Near-infrared light (NIR), 356
Near-infrared (NIR) lasers, 311
Needle arrays, 440
Neovascularization, 3D printed and engineered
tissues, 271
Nerve, 466–468
Noise filtering, 200, 202
Non-adhesive scaffold surface, 67
Non-neuronal autologous tissues, 334
Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, 61
Nucleus pulposus tissue engineering, 371
O
Octacalcium phosphate, 173
One-photon-initiators (1PIs), 356, 357
Organ biofabrication line, 217, 543–544
Organ fabrication, 272
Organ modules, 274
Organoids, 471
Index 555Organ-on-a-chip devices, 274
Organ printing, 215, 217
Organ transplants, demand for, 514
Osteogenic differentiation, 90, 91
P
2PA cross-section, 360, 362
Parenchyma, 38, 91, 469
P2CK, 362, 367
PEG diacrylate (PEG-DA), 375, 378, 380
Perfusion culture, 81, 82, 87, 91, 94
Periodontal regeneration, 442–443
Pharmaceutics, 273
Photo-crosslinkable, 401, 407
Photoencapsulation, 382
Photoinitiators (PIs), 87, 354, 402, 404, 406,
407, 421
two-photon-initiators, 360
type I one-photon-initiators, 357
type II one-photon-initiators, 358
Photolithography, 82, 84
Photonic explorers by biologically localized
embedding (PEBBLEs), 68
Photopolymerizable materials, cell
encapsulation
PEG derivatives, 378
and photoinitiators, 356
poloxamer, 385
polysaccharides, 371
proteins, 364
PVA derivatives, 382
Photopolymerization, 354, 355, 368, 370, 371,
376, 378, 380, 382, 384, 387
Piezoelectric inkjet printing method, 286
PIs, see Photoinitiators (PIs)
Pluronic F127, 409, 422
Pluronic1 polymer, 90, 266
Pneumatic-based extrusion, 257
Poloxamer, 385
Polyamide, 183
Polycaprolactone, 183, 186, 188
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), 268, 378, 409,
412, 414, 418, 419, 423
Polylactide acid, 186, 188
Poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide), 186
Poly(propylene fumarate), 188
Polysaccharides, 371
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), 382
Porosity, 58
Porous PLA screw-like scaffold with
hydroxyapatite coating, 35
Powder bed and inkjet, 3D printing (PBIH), 22
Powder bed fusion
DMLS, 22
electron beam melting, 18
selective heat sintering, 21
selective laser sintering, 19
Precision extruding deposition (PED), 17, 175
Pre-market approval (PMA) pathway, 134
Pressure assisted dispensing (PAD), 175
Pressure-assisted micro syringe (PAM) method,
11
Printed multicellular arrays, 317–319
Printed skin tissue, 320–323
Printed stem cell grafts, 315
Process impact, cells, 313–314
Production of three-dimensional structure of
cells, 502
Product of nature, 495
Progenitor cells, 508
Proteins, 364
PVA-Tyr hydrogels, 384
R
Radiometric transformations, 206
Rapid prototyping, 212
Reconstructive surgery, 167
Regeneration, 454
Regenerative medicine, 454
Regenova, 440
Replica molding, 83–85
Representative volume element (RVE), 112,
115, 118
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
(RT-PCR) analysis, 73
Rheology, 338
Robocasting, 16, 499
Rotating bioreactor, 509, 510
Runge-Kutta method, 110
S
Sacrificial templating, 89–92
Scaffold(s), 214, 217, 360
Scaffold design, 247
computer-aided porous, 227
heterogeneous porous, 225, 228, 229
Scaffold fabrication, 30
Scaffold-free
advantages and challenges, 443–445
aggregation/spheroid-based approaches,
435–437
bioprinting methods and equipment,
438–440
556 Indexblood vessels, 440
cartilage, 443
classification, 434–435
kidney, 441
liver regeneration, 442
multicellular spheroids and construct
design, 437–438
periodontal regeneration, 442
tissue engineering, 432–434
Scaffold’s tensile stress ratio, 238
Scanning electron microscopy, 60
Schoen surfaces, 235, 238, 242, 245, 246
Schwarz surfaces, 234, 238
Selective heat sintering (SHS), 21
Selective laser melting (SLM), 174, 175
scaffolds, 71
Selective laser sintering (SLS), 11, 19, 96, 175
Self-assembling cell aggregates, 499, 500
Self-assembling multicellular bodies, 499
Self-assembly, 434, 435, 445
Self-organization, 434
Sericin, 385
Shear stress, 272
Shear-thinning, 91, 260
Shear viscosity curve, 338
Single-action three-dimensional model printing
methods, 496
Skeleton, 179
Skin, 80, 464–466
Slide, 173
Slurry, 95, 96
Soft lithography, 84, 85, 100
Software, 494–495
Solenoid micro-extrusion, 259
Solid-scaffold-free, 214
Sphere-shaped scaffold model, 232
Spherical cellular bioinks, 39
Spheroid, 435–438
Splint design model, 147
Spray skin, 336
Sr-hardystonite, 183
Stackable biopapers, printed cells, 319–320
Stereolithography (SLA), 13, 93, 94, 175,
400–404, 407, 543
Stress, 399, 400, 404–405
Stroma, 91
Styrenated gelatin, 370
Support, 95, 398, 399, 402–404, 407, 410, 411,
420
Suture strength, 92
Synthetic bone grafts, bioceramics, 167–170
additive manufacturing methods, 174–177
graded materials, 178–179
high resolution manufacturing processes
and composites, 178
molds, bioceramic devices in, 173–174
morphology and mechanical properties of
scaffolds, 170–172
standardized in vivo testing, 179
surface treatment methods, 177
Synthetic hydrogels, 269, 378
T
Technology trigger phase, 516
Tensile/compressive testing, 63–65
Tetracalcium phosphate, 186
Thermal inkjet printer, 285, 286
Thiol-ene photopolymerization, 380
3D bioprinters, 478, 536
components, 538
definition of, 536–537
design and functionality of, 545–546
extrusion-based bioprinters, 540–542
ink-jet technology, 540
in situ biofabrication, 545
laser-based bioprinters, 542–543
organ biofabrication line, 543–544
shape and size of, 538
3D bioprinting, 514
of biosynthetic cellulose (BC), 504
commercialization, 521
in Gartner reports, 516
legal issues of, 525–527
market segments and business models,
518–525
methods and equipment, 439
opportunities, 527–528
Porter’s analysis, industry development,
528–531
technology, 332, 333, 336, 337, 344
(see also Bio inks)
3D Bioprinting Patent Landscape, 493–495
Three-dimensional (3D) models, 196
Three-dimensional printing, 498
Three-dimensional visualization, 197
3D Plotter, 18
3D printed patient specific devices
clinical objectives and clinical design
hypothesis, 135
design and manufacturing processes,
147–151
design control, 133–134
design inputs and risk analysis,
137–143
development planning, 147
Index 5573D printed patient specific devices (cont.)
testing, design verification and design
validation, 151–157
3D printed personalized titanium plates, 7
3D printing, 196, 208, 211, 358, 366
3D printing (laser sintering) splints, 149–151
Thresholding, 205
Tissue engineering, 224, 226, 246, 247, 454,
497
Tissue engineering, additive manufacturing in
cardiovascular system, 35–40
cartilage, 12–26
skeletal muscle regeneration, 26–31
tendon and ligament reconstruction, 31–35
Tissue glue, 100
Tissue vascularization, 37
Toxicity test, 473
Trachea, 80
Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM), 135, 136
Trademark, 489–491
Transfer function, 208, 210
Translation, 454, 472
Translational applications, 454
Transplantation, 455, 514
Triangle mesh, 207, 212
Triazene, 309
Tricalcium phosphate (TCP), 163, 164, 167,
171, 174, 176
Triple periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS), 225
definition, 231
elastic modulus, 238–242
functionally gradient scaffold, 245–248
periodic surface modelling, 232–235
Schoen surface, 235
Schwarz surface, 234–236
shear modulus, 244–245
Tweaking, 494
Two-dimensional slices, 197
Two-photon-absorption (2PA), 356, 360, 362
Two-photon-initiators (2PIs), 356, 360
Two-photon-polymerization (2PP), 357, 360,
367, 368, 387
Two photon printing, 14
Type I one-photon-initiators, 357
Type II one-photon-initiators, 358
U
Ultraviolet (UV) light, 385
Urethra, 80
uSLA, 15
Utility patent landscape, 499
V
VA-086, 358, 367
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), 97
Vascularized tissue, 274
Vascular networks, 468–470
advanced fabrication technologies, 95–97
coaxial extrusion, 87
extrusion of solid materials, 85–87
in vivo integration, 99–101
macroporous scaffolds, 81–83
multiscale vasculature, endothelial matrix
invasion, 97–99
replica molding, 83
sacrificial templating, 89
stereolithography, 92–95
Vasculogenesis, 98
Vat photopolymerization
digital light processing, 14
stereolithography, 13
two photon printing, 14
uSLA, 15
Vertebra (spine), 167
W
Watershed, 206
Z
Zirconia, 162, 163

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