2500 Solved Problems in Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics

2500 Solved Problems in Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics
اسم المؤلف
Jack B. Evett , Cheng Liu
التاريخ
1 سبتمبر 2020
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2500 Solved Problems in Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics
Schaum’s Solved Problems Series
By
Jack B. Evett , Ph.D
Cheng Liu, M.S.
The University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Revised First
Learn the best stra s for solving tough problems in step-by-step detail.
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Contents
To the Student V
List of Abbreviations Vii
List of Conversion Factors Xi
Chapter 1 Properties of Fluids 1
Chapter 2 Fluid Statics 25
Chapter 3 Forces on Submerged Plane Areas 53
Chapter 4 Dams 77
Chapter 5 Forces on Submerged Curved Areas 85
Chapter 6 Buoyancy and Flotation 108
Chapter 7 Kinematics of Fluid Motion 132
Chapter 8 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 157
Chapter 9 Flow in Closed Conduits 197
Chapter 10 Series Pipeline Systems 269
Chapter 11 Parallel Pipeline Systems 278
Chapter 12 Branching Pipeline Systems 302
Chapter 13 Pipe Networks 315
Chapter 14 Flow in Open Channels 356
Chapter 15 Flood Routing 459
Chapter 16 Flow of Compressible Fluids 469
Chapter 17 Flow Measurement 520
Chapter 18 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude 574
Chapter 19 Unsteady Flow 589
Chapter 20 Pumps and Fans 610
Chapter 21 Turbines 638
Chapter 22 Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines 657
Iniv 0 Contents
Chapter 23 Forces Developed by Fluids in Motion 664
Chapter 24 Dynamic Drag and Lift 684
Chapter 25 Basic Hydrodynamics 703
Appendix 709
Index 787index
Angle of glide, 24.86
Atmospheric pressure, 1.127 to 1.130,
2.4, 2.5, 2.10, 2.12 to 2.14,
2.70, 2.90, 2.91, Tables A-7
and A-8
Capillary-height changes, 1.102,
1.104, 1.106, 1.111, 1.112,
1.115, 1.116, 1.124, 1.126,
18.51, 18.58
Cavitation, 1.132, 8.100, 8.118,
9.290, 20.9, 20.10, 20.43,
20.44, 20.47, 20.59
Cavitation index (<r), 20.27, 20.36
to 20.39, 21.25 to 21.28
Center of buoyancy (c.b.), 6.65 to
6.69, 6.72, 6.73, 6.75 to 6.77
Center of gravity (c.g.):
annular disk, 3.58
buoyancy and, 6.65 to 6.77
circle, 3.4, 3.5, 3.13, 3.32, 3.33,
3.44, 3.45, 3.50, 3.64
parabola, 3.43
rectangle, 3.7, 3.8, 3.11, 3.12,
3.17, 3.18, 3.20, 3.21, 3.23 to
3.25, 3.27, 3.29 to 3.31, 3.34,
3.37, 3.39, 3.41, 3.42, 3.47 to
3.49, 3.51 to 3.55, 3.60 to 3.63
trapezoid, 3.22
triangle, 3.1 to 3.3, 3.9, 3.10, 3.14,
3.15, 3.19, 3.26, 3.35, 3.38,
3.40, 3.55, 3.56
Center of pressure (c.p.):
annular disk, 3.58
circle, 3.4, 3.5, 3.13, 3.32, 3.33,
3.44, 3.45, 3.50, 3.55, 3.56,
Note: Numbers following index entries refer to problem numbers,
not page numbers.
Abrupt waves, 15.16
Absolute pressure, 2.12 to 2.15, 2.22,
2.23, 2.38 to 2.40, 2.42 to 2.44,
2.70, 2.85, 2.91, Tables A-7
and A-8
Absolute viscosity (M), 1.65, 1.66,
1.68, 1.72, 1.96, 1.97, 9.40,
9.102, 9.160, 18.33, 24.58, Fig.
A-l, Tables A-l to A-8
Acceleration:
convective, 7.10, 7.17, 7.21
force and, 1.1 to 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 1.12
to 1.15
Barometric pressure, 2.4, 2.22, 2.23
Bending moments, 24.2, 24.6, 24.9,
24.35, 24.47, 24.53, 24.54
Bernoulli equation, 8.50 to 8.53, 8.61
to 8.63, 8.65 to 8.84, 8.86 to
8.106, 8.108 to 8.132, 8.135 to
8.151, 9.295, 14.81, 14.151 to
14.155, 14.258
Binomial theorem, 16.18
Blasius equation, 9.44
Blowers, air, 20.25, 20.26, 20.64,
20.65, 20.67
Boiling temperature of water, 1.127
to 1.131
Borda tubes, 17.52, 17.56
Bores, 14.351, 14.375, 14.376
Brinkman number (NR), 18.1
Bubbles, 18.4
Buckingham pi theorem, 18.50 to
18.58, 18.61 to 18.66
Bulk modulus of elasticity (£)> 1-25
to 1.35, 1.47, 16.61, 16.63,
16.64, Tables A- l and A-2
Buoyancy and flotation:
buoyant force, 6.1 to 6.11, 6.15,
6.17, 6.19 to 6.22, 6.24, 6.28,
6.30 to 6.54, 6.56 to 6.60, 6.62
to 6.70, 6.72, 6.73, 6.75, 18.69,
24.15
center of buoyancy (c.b.), 6.65 to
6.69, 6.72, 6.73, 6.75 to 6.77
equilibrium:
stable, 6.65, 6.67, 6.71, 6.73 to
normal, 7.11, 7.79
tangential, 7.11
velocity and, 7.8 to 7.15, 7.17 to
7.22
Adiabatic compression of gases, 1.47,
16.51
Adiabatic expansion of gases, 16.41
to 16.44
Adiabatic flow of gases, 16.95,
16.106, 16.113, 16.114, 16.118,
16.120, 16.221
Adiabatic frictional duct flow of
. gases, Table A-24
Air, physical properties of, Tables
A-4 to A-8
Air blowers, 20.25, 20.26, 20.64,
20.65, 20.67
Air compressors, 20.66, 23.37, 23.38
Air pumps, 20.74
Air resistance, 24.20 to 24.23
Aircraft:
angle of attack for, 24.73 to 24.76,
24.78, 24.79, 24.88, 24.90
glider, 24.86
jet, 23.46, 23.48 to 23.51, 24.69
landing speed of, 24.81
stall speed of, 24.81, 24.89
takeoff speed of, 24.89
wings of, 24.43, 24.44, 24.73 to
24.76, 24.78, 24.79, 24.81 to
24.83, 24.85, 24.86, 24.88,
24.90
Airfoils, 24.83, 24.86, Figs. A-66 to
3.64
dam, 3.6, 3.34
gate, 3.7 to 3.15, 3.17, 3.20, 3.21,
3.23, 3.26, 3.30 to 3.33, 3.35,
3.39, 3.44 to 3.47, 3.49, 3.54 to
3.56, 3.60, 3.64
parabola, 3.43, 3.57
rectangle, 3.6 to 3.8, 3.11, 3.12,
3.16, 3.17, 3.20, 3.21, 3.23,
3.27 to 3.31, 3.39, 3.46 to 3.49,
3.51, 3.54, 3.55, 3.59, 3.60
tank, 3.16, 3.19, 3.29, 3.48
triangle, 3.1 to 3.3, 3.9, 3.10, 3.14,
3.15, 3.19, 3.26, 3.35, 3.38,
6.77
static, 6.54, 6.59, 6.64
unstable, 6.66, 6.68, 6.69
hydrometers, 6.12, 6.25 to
6.27, 6.43, 6.55
metacenter (me), 6.65 to 6.72,
6.75 to 6.77
neutral buoyancy, 6.34, 6.39
righting moments, 6.65, 6.67,
6.70, 6.72
Buoyant force, 6.1 to 6.11, 6.15, 6.17,
6.19 to 6.22, 6.24, 6.28, 6.30 to
6.54, 6.56 to 6.60, 6.62 to 6.70,
6.72, 6.73, 6.75, 18.69, 24.15
3.40
trough, 3.40
Centerline velocity, 9.104, 9.119,
9.125, 9.126, 9.156
Centrifugal pumps, 18.7
Channel flow (see Open-channel
flow)
Cipolletti weirs, 17.179, 17.185,
17.186, 17.196, 17.210
Clark Y airfoil, 24.83, 24.86, Fig.
A-70
Angle of attack, 24.73 to 24.76,
24.78, 24.79, 24.88, 24.90 A-67
787788 0 INDEX
Coefficients:
compressibility (0), 1.30
discharge (Q), 8.84, 8.90
drag (Q>), Figs. A-38, A-39, A-50
to A-67, A-70, and A-71, Tables A-20 to A-23
lift (Q), Figs. A-66, A-67, A-70,
and A-71
loss (K), Figs. A-7 to A-12, Tables
A-l 1 and A-12
thermal expansion (a), 1.21 to
1.24
nonuniform flow in open rectangular channels, 14.267 to
14.269
17.84, 17.117, 17.132, 17.135,
17.142, 17.144, 17.145, 17.147
to 17.151, 17.156, 17.159 to
17.165, 17.173, 17.174, 20.24
Diffusers, 7.64, 9.244, 16.170,
16.203, 16.204, Fig. A-31
Dimensional analysis, 1.103, 1.133 to
1.138, 7.37, 18.1 to 18.4, 18.8
to 18.10, 18.50 to 18.58, 18.60
to 18.71, 18.76
Discharge (see Volume flow rate)
Discharge coefficient (Q), 8.84, 8.90
Disk meters, 17.237, 17.238
Drag:
steady state flow in open rectangular, trapezoidal, or triangular channels, 14.278,
14.279
Continuity of flow, 7.23 to 7.39,
14.151, 25.1, 25.3 to 25.6,
25.8, 25.13, 25.16
Convective acceleration, 7.10, 7.17,
7.21
Convergent nozzles, 7.6, 7.9, 8.15,
16.124 to 16.129, 16.132,
16.133, 16.135, 16.136, 16.139,
16.140, 16.143, 16.151, 16.152,
16.154, 16.155, 16.162, 16.164,
16.179, 16.180, 16.222
Converging-diverging nozzles, 16.130,
16.131, 16.134, 16.137 to
16.142, 16.144, 16.153, 16.156,
16.158, 16.161, 16.163, 16.167,
16.178, 16.181, 16.182
Critical-depth meters, 14.274, 17.241
Critical-flow meters, 14.398, 14.399
Critical Reynolds number (NR), 9.55,
14.116, 24.15, 24.16
Culverts, 14.359 to 14.365
Curvature of water surface, 1.107,
thrust, 20.77
Colebrook equation, 9.73, 9.74, 9.259
Compressibility, coefficient ([Gft]) of, coefficients (CD) of, Figs. A-38,
A-39, A-50 to A-67, A-70, and
A-71, Tables A-20 to A-23
on cylinders, 24.25, 24.72
on flat plates, 24.3, 24.4, 24.7,
24.8, 24.10, 24.11, 24.29 to
24.34, 24.41, 24.42, 24.45,
24.56, 24.77, 24.83
friction, 24.4, 24.11 to 24.14,
24.32 to 24.34, 24.43 to 24.46
induced, 24.85, Fig. A-69
on keels, 24.62, 24.63, 24.66
on nets, 24.49
pressure, 24.67
on projectiles, 24.27, 24.28, 24.55
skin, 24.62 to 24.66
on spheres, 1.135, 24.1, 24.5,
24.15, 24.24, 24.52, 24.59 to
24.61, 24.69
viscous, 24.37, 24.38
Dropdown in open-channel flow,
14.326
1.30
Compression of gases:
adiabatic, 1.47, 16.51
isentropic, 1.55, 1.62, 16.6 to 16.8,
16.10, 16.21, 16.32, 16.46,
16.47
isothermal, 1.47, 1.54, 1.55, 1.63,
16.52
Compressors, air, 20.66, 23.37, 23.38
Computer programs:
depth of flow:
open circular section, 14.17 to
14.19
open rectangular channel, 14.7
to 14.9
flow rates:
branching pipeline system,
12.10
individual pipe, 9.295 to
9.297, 20.82
open circular section, 14.17
to 14.19
pipe network, 13.28 to 13.32
pipes in parallel, 11.12
head loss in pipes in parallel,
11.12
homologous pump characteristics, 20.17
hydraulic jumps in open trapezoidal channels, 14.346
isentropic flow of compressible
fluids, 16.92 to 16.94
isothermal flow of compressible
fluids, 16.71 to 16.73
pipe flow transients, 19.7, 19.9
pipe size, 9.295 to 9.297, 20.82
reservoir drainage using short
pipes, 17.57
Runge-Kutta integration, 19.4,
19.23, 19.24
surge-tank transients, 19.24
U-tube oscillations, 19.4, 19.21,
19.23
water-hammer transients, 19.9
water-surface profiles:
1.108
Damping torque, 1.74, 1.75
Dams:
center of pressure (c.p.) of, 3.6,
3.34
eccentricity of, 4.2 to 4.7
factor of safety (F.S.) for:
against overturning, 4.1, 4.5 to
4.7
against sliding, 4.1, 4.5 to 4.7
force on, 3.6, 3.44, 4.1 to 4.8, 5.11
ice thrust on, 4.8
pressure on, 2.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 to
Drops of liquids, 1.101, 1.103
Duct flow of compressible fluids,
16.192, 16.193, 16.197, 16.199,
16.202, 16.205, 16.207 to
16.239, Tables A-10, A-24,
and A-25
Dynamic similarity, 18.11, 18.14,
18.16, 18.18, 18.21, 18.25,
18.28 to 18.30, 18.44, 18.46 to
18.48, 20.63
4.7
Darcy formula, 18.10
Darcy-Weisbach equation, 9.78,
9.261, 9.264
Density, mass (p), 1.1, 1.3, 1.5,
1.8, 1.10, 1.11, 1.16, 1.18, 1.19,
1.36, 1.38, 1.42, 1.44 to 1.46,
1.56, 1.61, 2.6, 2.7, 2.89, 8.5,
8.23, 8.41, 16.2, 25.5, Tables
A-l to A-8
Differential manometers, 2.50 to
2.52, 2.58 to 2.66, 2.71, 2.72,
2.75 to 2.78, 2.85 to 2.87, 2.92,
2.96, 8.81, 8.84, 8.85, 8.90,
8.92, 8.96, 8.97, 8.119, 8.120,
9.205, 17.10, 17.16, 17.33,
17.42, 17.58, 17.70 to 17.72,
Eccentricity of dams, 4.2 to 4.7
Efficiency (v ):
propeller, 23.64
pump, 20.5, 20.11 to 20.13, 20.29,
20.32 to 20.35, 20.40, 20.51 to
20.53, 20.56, 20.63, 20.70,
20.72, 20.84, Figs. A-40 and
A-41
turbine, 21.10 to 21.13, 21.20,
21.21, 21.29, 21.57, 21.64,
Figs. A-44 to A-46 and A-48INDEX 0 789
Elasticity, bulk modulus ( K) of, 1.25
to 1.35, 1.47, 16.61, 16.63,
16.64, Tables A-l and A-2
equivalent source method for,
25.18 to 25.20
friction factor (/) for, 9.43, 9.44,
9.48, 9.73, 9.74, 9.149, 9.183,
9.258, 9.259, 14.115, 14.142,
14.199, 14.212, 14.237
Froude number (NF) for, 14.24,
14.47, 14.80, 14.81, 14.151,
14.182, 14.195, 14.222, 14.281,
14.345, 14.381, 14.386 to
14.388, 18.23, 18.36, 18.42 to
18.44
steady (steady-state), 7.13,
7.36, 7.39, 7.40, 7.62, 7.63,
8.27, 9.6, 14.201, 14.202
streamlines of, 7.6, 7.21, 7.67
to 7.78, 25.4, 25.6 to 25.9,
25.11, 25.13 to 25.19
subcritical, 8.104, 8.105, 14.24,
14.47, 14.66, 14.73, 14.74,
14.80, 14.81, 14.82, 14.86,
14.119, 14.130, 14.134,
14.136, 14.141, 14.151,
14.152, 14.184, 14.252,
14.253, 14.255, 14.265,
14.266, 14.284, 14.301 to
14.303, 14.351, 14.392, Fig.
A-19
subsonic, 16.3
supercritical, 8.104, 8.105,
14.80, 14.81, 14.85, 14.134,
14.136, 14.141, 14.145,
14.151, 14.153, 14.186,
14.187, 14.254, 14.255,
14.266, 14.284, 14.301,
14.302, 14.374, 14.392, Fig.
A-19
tranquil, 14.232 to 14.234
transient (see Unsteady flow)
turbulent, 9.1, 9.5, 9.8, 9.10,
9.11, 9.13, 9.19, 9.21, 9.79,
9.114, 9.136, 9.180, 9.224,
9.225, 9.230, 9.236, 9.282,
9.283, 14.212
unsteady (see Unsteady flow)
vortex, 7.29, 25.2, 25.3, 25.9,
25.13
Flow measurement:
Borda tube, 17.52, 17.56
critical-depth meter, 14.274,
17.241
critical-flow meter, 14.398, 14.399
disk meter, 17.237, 17.238
diverging tube, 17.47 to 17.51
flow nozzle, 8.84, 8.85, 17.58 to
17.76, Figs. A-20 to A-24,
A-34, Table A-18
manometer (see Manometers)
orifice, 17.77 to 17.140, 18.8,
19.35, 19.36, Figs. A-24 to
A-29, A-33, Table A-19
orifice nozzle, 17.45, 17.46
Parshall flume, 17.229 to 17.234
piezometer, 2.26, 2.27, 2.29, 2.30,
2.94, 17.3, 17.4, 17.12, 17.14,
17.15, 17.30 to 17.32
Pitot measuring device, 17.3 to
17.6, 17,13 to 17.24, 17.27,
17.29 to 17.36, 17.39, 17.40,
17.42 to 17.44, 17.87, 17.90,
17.117
Prandtl tube, 17.16, 17.35
pressure gages and, 17.9 to 17.11
short tube, 17.53 to 17.55, 17.57
Energy:
internal, 16.5, 16.6, 16.50
kinetic, 8.57 to 8.59
potential, 8.55, 8.56, 8.58, 8.59
specific, 14.129, 14.189, 14.219,
14.225, 14.252, 14.253, 14.255,
14.257, 14.276, 14.349, 14.350,
14.352, 14.353, 14.382
Energy grade lines, 14.276, 14.279,
14.284, 22.1 to 22.8, 22.10
Energy heads, 9.235
Enthalpy (h) y 16.5 to 16.7, 16.9,
16.20, 16.30, 16.39, 16.100
Entropy (5), 16.23, 16.31, 16.39,
16.45, 16.48, 16.193, 16.195
gas:
adiabatic, 16.95, 16.106,
16.113, 16.114, 16.118,
16.120, 16.221
isentropic, 16.88 to 16.94,
16.96 to 16.105, 16.107 to
16.111, 16.116, 16.117,
16.119, 16.121 to 16.123,
16.170 to 16.173 isothermal, 16.67 to 16.87, 16.237
incompressible, 7.21, 7.23 to
7.32, 7.36, 7.37, 7.39 to
7.41, 7.66, 7.74, 8.27, 9.12,
9.14, 9.157, 9.282
irrotational, 7.41, 7.42, 7.45,
7.46, 25.2 to 25.4
laminar, 1.133, 7.35, 7.36,
7.49, 7.61, 8.28, 8.36, 9.2,
9.6, 9.8, 9.9, 9.13, 9.16,
9.18 to 9.20, 9.22 to 9.26,
9.33, 9.35, 9.40, 9.41, 9.49
to 9.53, 9.57 to 9.60, 9.94,
9.99, 9.100, 9.115, 9.156,
9.157, 9.160, 9.162, 9.163,
9.190, 9.191, 9.223, 9.229,
9.235, 9.280, 14.115 to
14.118, 14.156, 14.201 to
14.203
measurement of (see Flow measurement)
open-channel ( see Openchannel flow)
parabolic profile of, 1.69,
1.133, 7.49, 8.28, 8.36,
9.156
pathlines of, 7.80
pipe (see Pipe networks; Pipeline systems; Pipes)
potential function for, 25.4,
25.14, 25.17
Reynolds number ( NR) for (see
Reynolds number)
rotational, 7.41, 25.2, 25.3,
25.9, 25.13 .
shear, 7.33, 7.34
shooting, 14.223
sonic, 16.4
spillway, 8.103
Equilibrium:
stable
static, 6.54, 6.59, 6.64
unstable, 6.66, 6.68, 6.69
Equivalent source method for flow,
25.18 to 25.20
Euler equation, 16.96
Expansion of gases:
adiabatic, 16.41 to 16.44
isentropic, 1.64
isothermal, 1.64
Factor of safety (F.S.) for dams:
against overturning, 4.1, 4.5 to 4.7
against sliding, 4.1, 4.5 to 4.7
Fans, 21.56, 23.62, 23.63, 24.92
Filters, 24.50, 24.51
First law of thermodynamics, 16.23,
16.177, 16.237
Flood routing, 15.1 to 15.16
Floodways, 14.58, 14.59, 14.210
Flotation (see Buoyancy and flotation)
Flow:
Bernoulli equation for
conservation of mass in,
converging, 7.21
in corners, 25.4
duct, of compressible fluids,
16.192, 16.193, 16.197, 16.199,
16.202, 16.205, 16.207 to
16.239, Tables A-10, A-24,
and A-25790 0 INDEX
Friction drag
Friction factor (/) for flow
Friction heads, 9.223 to 9.225
Frictional adiabatic duct flow of
gases, Table A-24
Frictional resistance, 1.89
Frictionless duct flow of gases,
Table A-25
Froude number (NF)
Froude scaling, 18.34, 18.35, 18.49
sluice gate
on gates
jet
lift, 24.80 to 24.92
on nozzles, 23.57, 23.59
on pipe bends, 23.35 to 23.40,
23.42
Venturi meter, 8.90 to 8.93, 8.119,
8.120, 17.67, 17.141 to 17.169,
17.174, 18.5, 18.25, Figs. A-24,
A-26, A-30, A-32, A-34, and
A-35, Table A-18
Venturi nozzle, 17.170 to 17.173,
Figs. A-26 and A-36
weir
Fig. A-37
Flow nets, 25.4, 25.15 to 25.19
Flow nozzles, 8.84, 8.85, 17.58 to
17.76, Figs. A-20 to A-24,
A-34, Table A-18
on pipe reducers, 23.41, 23.42
on sluice gates, 23.13, 23.14
on submerged curved areas:
circular, 5.1 to 5.5, 5.12 to
5.15, 5.26 to 5.28, 5.40,
5.43, 5.44
conical, 5.10, 5.20, 5.29, 5.46
cylindrical, 5.6 to 5.9, 5.18,
5.19, 5.22 to 5.25, 5.31 to
5.33, 5.38, 5.48 to 5.52,
Flow rate:
computer programs for:
branching pipeline system,
12.10
individual pipe, 9.295 to 9.297,
20.82
open circular section, 14.17 to
14.19
pipe network, 13.28 to 13.32
pipes in parallel, 11.12
mass, 7.48 to 7.50, 8.1, 8.2,
8.4, 8.5, 8.10, 8.26, 8.38,
8.40, 8.46, 8.83, 9.25, 9.76,
16.143, 16.146, 16.151 to
16.156, 16.159, 16.162,
16.164, 16.165, 16.179 to
16.182, 16.222, 16.225,
16.227, 16.234, 16.239,
23.24, 23.54
volume (see Volume flow rate)
weight
Gage pressure
Gas constants, 1.39, 1.46, 1.57, 1.58,
Table A-6
5.54
elliptical, 5.41
parabolic, 5.11, 5.30, 5.34 to
5.36, 5.42, 5.47
spherical, 5.16, 5.17, 5.21,
5.37, 5.39, 5.45, 5.53, 5.55
on submerged plane areas:
annular disk, 3.58
circular
parabolic, 3.43, 3.57
rectangular
trapezoidal, 3.22
triangular, 3.9, 3.10, 3.14, 3.15,
3.19, 3.26, 3.35, 3.38, 3.40,
3.55, 3.56
on tanks
thrust
Francis formula, 17.191
Francis turbines
Fig. A-47
Free-fall (terminal) velocity, 18.12,
18.13, 24.15, 24.19, 24.57,
24.61
Free overfall in open-channel flow,
14.326
Gases:
adiabatic compression of, 1.47,
16.51
adiabatic expansion of, 16.41 to
16.44
adiabatic flow of, 16.95, 16.106,
16.113, 16.114, 16.118, 16.120,
16.221
adiabatic frictional duct flow of,
Table A-24
frictionless duct flow of,
Table A-25
ideal, 1.36 to 1.64, 1.134, 8.25,
8.34
isentropic compression of
isentropic expansion of, 1.64
isentropic flow of
isothermal compression of
isothermal expansion of, 1.64
isothermal flow of, 16.67 to 16.87,
16.237
mean free path (L) of, 1.134
perfect, 18.71, Fig. A-72,
Tables A-16 and A-17
physical properties of, Table A-6
reversible polytropic processes for,
16.22, 16.33 to 16.35
Flumes:
Parshall
triangular, 14.85, 14.127, 14.352
Venturi, 8.86, 14.328 to 14.331
Force:
acceleration and, 1.1 to 1.4, 1.6,
1.7, 1.12 to 1.15
buoyant
on dams, 3.6, 3.44, 4.1 to 4.8, 5.11
drag (see Drag)
on fans, 23.62, 23.63INDEX 0 791
specific heats of ( see Specific
heats)
universal gas constant (Ru) for,
1.39
Jacks, hydraulic, 2.32
Jet aircraft
Jet force in fluids
Homologous pumps, 20.15 to 20.19,
20.34
Homologous turbines, 21.24
Hooke’s law, 23.18
Hydraulic elements of circular sections, Fig. A-18
Hydraulic grade lines, 9.152, 11.15,
11.31, 11.33, 19.8, 19.9, 22.1
to 22.3, 22.5 to 22.13
Hydraulic jacks, 2.32
Hydraulic jumps
Hydraulic radius, 9.27 to 9.29, 14.31,
14.106, 14.115, Fig. A-18
Hydraulically smooth pipes, 9.179
Hydrodynamics, 25.1 to 25.20
Hydrofoils, 24.31 to 24.34, 24.41,
24.42, 24.87, 24.91
Hydrographs, 15.4 to 15.7, 15.11,
15.12
Hydrometers, 6.12, 6.25 to 6.27,
6.43, 6.55
Hypodermic needles, 9.60 to 9.62
Gates:
center of pressure (c.p.)
force on
sluice
Tainter, 5.40
Generators, 21.17, 21.22, 21.35 to
21.38, 21.51
Geometrical similarity, 18.5 to 18.7,
18.24, 18.66, 20.75
Gliders, 24.86
Grade lines:
energy, 22.1 to 22.8, 22.10
hydraulic, 9.152, 11.15, 11.31,
11.33, 19.8, 19.9, 22.1 to 22.3,
22.5 to 22.13
Gravity, 1.12 to 1.15
center of (see Center of gravity)
specific (s.g.)
Table A-3
Gravity waves, 15.13 to 15.15
Kinematic viscosity (»), 1.65, 1.66,
9.52, 18.33, 18.43, Fig. A-2,
Tables A-l, A-2, and A-4
Kinetic energy, 8.57 to 8.59
Kinetic-energy correction factor
(a), 7.63
Kutter formula, 14.240, 14.241,
Table A-15
Laminar flow
Landing speed, 24.81
Lawn sprinklers, 7.58, 7.60, 8.107,
21.48, 21.49, 23.44
Least squares fit, 17.217
Lift coefficients (Q), Figs. A-66,
A-67, A-70, and A-71
Lift force, 24.80 to 24.92
Line doublets, 7.71
Loss coefficients (K), Figs. A-7 to
A-12, Tables A-ll and A-12
ICAO standard atmosphere,
Tables A-7 and A-8
Ice thrust on dams, 4.8
Ideal gases, 1.36 to 1.64, 1.134, 8.25,
8.34
Inclined manometers, 2.74, 2.80
Incompressible flow
Induced drag, 24.85, Fig. A-69
Internal energy, 16.5, 16.6, 16.50
Irrotational flow, 7.41, 7.42, 7.45,
7.46, 25.2 to 25.4
ISA flow nozzles, 17.58, 17.62, 17.63,
17.71, 17.72, 17.76, Figs. A-20
and A-22
Isentropic compression of gases, 1.55,
1.62, 16.6 to 16.8, 16.10,
16.21, 16.32, 16.46, 16.47
Isentropic diffusers, 16.170
Isentropic expansion of gases, 1.64
Isentropic flow of gases, 16.88 to
16.94, 16.96 to 16.105, 16.107
to 16.111, 16.116, 16.117,
16.119, 16.121 to 16.123,
16.170 to 16.173
Isentropic relations for perfect gases,
Table A-16
Isothermal compression of gases,
1.47, 1.54, 1.55, 1.63, 16.52
Isothermal expansion of gases, 1.64
Isothermal flow of gases, 16.67 to
16.87, 16.237
Hardy Cross method, 13.1 to 13.8,
13.10, 13.11, 13.13, 13.16 to
13.19, 13.21, 13.24, 13.26 to
13.32
Hazen-Williams equation, 1.138,
9.263, 9.266, 9.267, 9.269,
9.271 to 9.276, 9.292, 9.293,
13.1 to 13.8, Figs. A-13, A-14,
and A-17, Table A-14
Mach angle (a), 16.56 to 16.58,
16.190
Mach number (N M ) y
Table A-17
Manning equation, 9.262, 9.265,
9.268, 9.270, 9.277 to 9.279,
9.294, 14.98, 14.122, 14.142,
14.157, 14.162, 14.171, 14.237,
Heads:
friction, 9.223 to 9.225
pressure
total energy
Homologous hydraulic machines,
18.6, 18.7792 0 INDEX
14.239, 14.242, Figs. A-15 and
A-16, Table A-13
Manometers, 2.34 to 2.39, 2.41, 2.43
to 2.49, 2.54
hydraulic radius and, 14.31,
14.106, 14.115, Fig. A-18
obstacles on floor and, 14.80
in parabolic channels, 14.79,
14.230, 14.231
in rectangular channels:
cross section, 14.21, 14.27,
14.28, 14.44
depth of flow
dimensions, 14.21, 14.27,
14.28, 14.31 to 14.33,
14.44, 14.52, 14.54, 14.106,
14.111, 14.144, 14.168,
14.178, 14.198, 14.211,
14.213, 14.214, 14.222,
14.248, 14.256, 14.356 to
14.358, 14.396
nonuniform flow, 14.265 to
14.269, 14.271, 14.272
slope
subcritical
supercritical
surge waves, 14.280
transition from trapezoidal section, 14.63
transition to trapezoidal section
Nozzles:
convergent
converging-diverging
flow, 8.84, 8.85, 17.58 to 17.76,
Figs. A-20 to A-24, A-34,
Table A-18
force on, 23.57, 23.59
orifice, 17.45, 17.46
rocket, 16.168, 16.169, 16.174,
16.176, 16.177
supersonic, 16.149, 16.150,
16.158, 16.165, 16.166
velocity in, 7.1, 7.2, 7.6, 7.7, 7.9,
8.15, 8.43, 8.127, 8.143
Venturi, 17.170 to 17.173,
Figs. A-26 and A-36
17.83
differential
inclined, 2.74, 2.80
Mass, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.13, 1.36
Mass density (P)
Tables A-l to A-8
Mass flow rate
Mean free path (£), 1.134
Measurement of flow (see Flow measurement)
Metacenter (me), 6.65 to 6.72, 6.75
to 6.77
Mild slope, 14.315, 14.318, 14.320 to
14.322, 14.341, 14.342,
Fig. A-19
Molecular weight, 16.29, Table A-6
Monoclinal waves, 15.2
Moody formula, 9.73, 9.74, 9.258,
9.259, 14.158, 14.162, 14.172,
14.183, Fig. A-5
Muskingum method, 15.8 to 15.12
Open-channel flow:
in circular sections:
cross section, 14.20, 14.29,
14.43
depth of flow, 14.12, 14.14 to
14.19, 14.40, 14.41, 14.68,
14.70, 14.114, 14.129,
14.174, 14.229, 14.246,
14.320
dimensions,14.20, 14.29, 14.31,
14.38, 14.39, 14.43, 14.56,
14.112, 14.173, 14.180,
14.246, 14.364, 14.365
slope, 14.26, 14.29, 14.41,
14.49, 14.71, 14.195,
14.209, 14.243, 14.244
subcritical, 14.130
supercritical, 14.186
velocity, 14.26, 14.49, 14.113
volume flow rate, 14.10, 14.11,
14.13, 14.17 to 14.19,
14.26, 14.36, 14.37, 14.49,
14.67, 14.69, 14.88, 14.113,
14.163, 14.171, 14.172,
14.175, 14.177, 14.186,
14.196, 14.199, 14.298,
14.364, 14.365
water-surface profiles for,
14.299, 14.339, 14.340
dropdown in, 14.326
flood routing for, 15.1 to 15.16
free overfall in, 14.326
Navier-Stokes equation, 7.57
Neutral buoyancy, 6.34, 6.39
Newton’s law, 24.36, 24.68
Nikuradse’s sand-roughened pipe
tests, Fig. A-6
Normal acceleration, 7.11, 7.79INDEX 0 793
loss coefficients (K) for, Figs. A-7
to A-12, Tables A-11 and A-12
Nikuradse’s sand-roughened pipe
tests for, Fig. A-6
parabolic velocity profile in, 1.69,
I.133, 7.49, 8.36, 9.156
pressure drop in, 9.67 to 9.72,
9.80, 9.81, 9.83, 9.104 to
9.108, 9.111, 9.112, 9.114,
9.115, 9.117, 9.131, 9.151,
9.218, 10.27, 11.10, 11.22,
II.24, 11.25, 11.27, 13.14
roughness («) of, 9.66, 9.73 to
9.76, 9.90, 9.128, 9.137, 9.171,
9.179, 9.181, 9.182, 9.294,
Fig. A-4, Table A-9
size of, 9.71, 9.72, 9.110, 9.140,
9.142, 9.163, 9.168 to 9.170,
9.172, 9.173, 9.177, 9.179,
9.207, 9.213 to 9.215, 9.228,
9.250, 9.257, 9.271, 9.272,
9.276, 9.278, 9.279, 9.291,
9.295 to 9.297, 10.31, 20.82
unsteady (transient) flow in, 19.6,
19.7, 19.9, 19.13 to 19.20,
19.25 to 19.30, 19.37 to 19.57
wall thickness of, 5.48, 5.50, 5.52,
5.53, 19.7, 19.50, 19.51
water-hammer transients in, 19.7,
19.27, 19.53 to 19.56
Pistons, 2.53, 2.81, 2.97, 8.106,
16.159
Pitch diameter of turbines, 21.3 to
volume flow rate, 14.1, 14.65,
14.94, 14.101, 14.102,
14.111, 14.117, 14.118,
14.120, 14.123, 14.142,
14.157, 14.158, 14.166,
14.194, 14.204, 14.210,
14.212, 14.221, 14.223,
14.235, 14.239, 14.240,
14.257, 14.262 to 14.264,
14.270, 14.294, 14.310 to
14.312, 14.338, 14.343,
14.359 to 14.363, 14.389,
14.399, 14.400
water-surface profiles, 14.265
to 14.269, 14.271, 14.272,
14.277, 14.278, 14.281 to
14.288, 14.294, 14.297,
14.301 to 14.307, 14.313,
14.314, 14.324 to 14.327,
14.333, 14.336, 14.337,
14.354
Reynolds number (NR) for,
14.87, 14.88
roughness and, 14.84, 14.87,
14.92, 14.237, 14.239,
14.241, 14.242, 14.261,
14.293
in T-shaped channels, 14.169,
14.170
in trapezoidal channels:
cross section, 14.23, 14.30,
14.46, 14.77
depth of flow, 14.35, 14.42,
14.59, 14.62, 14.84, 14.91,
14.128, 14.143, 14.161,
14.165, 14.181, 14.188,
14.228, 14.250, 14.251,
14.275
dimensions, 14.23, 14.30,
14.31, 14.46, 14.50, 14.53,
14.55, 14.57, 14.77, 14.78,
14.109, 14.110, 14.179
slope, 14.3, 14.30, 14.42,
14.90, 14.99, 14.164,
14.188, 14.251
subcritical, 14.24, 14.253
supercritical, 14.187
transition from rectangular
section, 14.64, 14.273
transition to rectangular section, 14.63
velocity, 14.2, 14.55, 14.250
volume flow rate, 14.2,
14.51, 14.58, 14.89, 14.93,
14.102, 14.160, 14.176,
14.210, 14.245
water-surface profiles for,
14.276, 14.278, 14.279,
14.289, 14.332, 14.334,
14.335
in triangular channels:
cross section, 14.22, 14.45
depth of flow, 14.4, 14.25,
14.61, 14.127, 14.146,
14.167, 14.192, 14.208,
14.232, 14.319
dimensions, 14.22, 14.45,
14.108, 14.206, 14.227
slope, 14.25, 14.127, 14.146,
14.190 to 14.192
subcritical, 14.74
supercritical, 14.85
velocity, 14.25
volume flow rate, 14.191
water-surface profiles for,
14.278
types of profiles for,
Fig. A-19
in Venturi flumes, 8.86,
14.328 to 14.331
wetted perimeter and, 14.5,
14.31, 14.96, 14.107,
14.214, Fig. A-18
Orifice nozzles, 17.45, 17.46
Orifices, 17.77 to 17.140, 18.8, 19.35,
19.36, Figs. A-24 to A-29,
A-33, Table A-19
Parabolic velocity profile, 1.69, 1.133,
7.49, 8.28, 8.36, 9.156
Parshall flumes, 17.229 to 17.234
Partial pressure, 1.60
Pathlines of flow, 7.80
Pelton wheels, 21.11, 21.12, 21.46,
21.54, 21.61
Perfect gases, 18.71, Fig. A-72,
Tables A-16 and A-17
Piezometers, 2.26, 2.27, 2.29, 2.30,
2.94, 17.3, 17.4, 17.12, 17.14,
17.15, 17.30 to 17.32
Pipe networks:
equivalent single pipe replacement,
13.25
Hardy Cross method for, 13.1 to
13.8, 13.10, 13.11, 13.13, 13.16
to 13.19, 13.21, 13.24, 13.26 to
13.32
pressure in, 13.9 13.12, 13.14,
13.20, 13.22, 13.27
Pipeline systems:
branching, 12.1 to 12.19
parallel, 11.1 to 11.54
series, 10.1 to 10.31
21.5
Pitot measuring devices, 17.3 to 17.6,
17.13 to 17.24, 17.27, 17.29 to
17.36, 17.39, 17.40, 17.42 to
17.44, 17.87, 17.90, 17.117
Plungers, 2.33, 8.16 to 8.18
Polytropic processes for gases, reversible, 16.22, 16.33 to 16.35
Potential energy, 8.55, 8.56, 8.58,
8.59
Potential function for flow, 25.4,
25.14, 25.17
Powell equation, 14.235, 14.236
Prandtl tubes, 17.16, 17.35
Prandtl’s soap-film analogy, 1.109,
1.110
Pressure:
absolute, 2.12 to 2.15, 2.22, 2.23,
2.38 to 2.40, 2.42 to 2.44, 2.70,
2.85, 2.91, Tables A-7 and A-8
atmospheric, 1.127 to 1.130, 2.4,
2.5, 2.10, 2.12 to 2.14, 2.70,
2.90, 2.91, Tables A-7 and A-8
barometric, 2.4, 2.22, 2.23
boiling temperature and, 1.127 to
Pipes:
centerline velocity in, 9.119, 9.125,
9.126, 9.156
entrance length of, 9.5, 9.9
equivalent length of, 9.251, 9.281
force on bends in, 23.35 to 23.40,
23.42
force on reducers for, 23.41, 23.42
hydraulically smooth, 9.179
1.131
cavitation and, 1.132, 8.100,
8.118, 9.290
center of (see Center of pressure)794 0 INDEX
specific speed ( Ns) of, 20.1, 20.2,
20.28, 20.30, 20.31, 20.60
torque on, 20.70
unsteady (transient) flow in, 19.8,
19.38, 19.39
volume flow rate for, 20.6, 20.14,
20.20, 20.28, 20.32 to 20.35,
20.45, 20.46, 20.48 to 20.50,
20.54, 20.80 to 20.82, 20.87
conversion of, 2.21, 2.22
on dams, 2.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 to 4.7
difference of, 1.113, 1.114, 8.53
gage, 2.12 to 2.14, 2.22, 2.23,
2.28, 2.29, 2.31, 2.39, 2.40,
2.53, 2.55, 2.67, 2.69, 2.91,
9.84, 9.204, 9.208, 17.9 to
pipe, 9.66, 9.73 to 9.76, 9.90,
9.128, 9.137, 9.171, 9.179,
9.181, 9.182, 9.294, Fig. A-4,
Table A-9
wing, 24.44
Runge-Kutta integration, 19.4, 19.22
to 19.24
17.11
partial, 1.60
pipe wall thickness and, 5.48,
5.50, 5.52, 5.53
saturation, 1.128, 1.129
stagnation, 8.81, 8.115, 8.116,
16.13 to 16.17, 16.103, 16.106,
16.178, 16.197, 16.202, 17.5,
17.6, 17.23 to 17.25, 17.37,
Safety factor for dams (see Factor of
safety for dams)
Saturation pressure, 1.128, 1.129
Shafts:
PrandtFs soap-film analogy for,
1.109, 1.110
rate of twist (a) for, 1.109,
1.110
Shear flow, 7.33, 7.34
Shear stress (r), 1.67 to 1.100,
9.30, 9.35, 9.37, 9.98, 9.118,
9.122, 9.128, 9.132, 9.133,
9.136, 9.141, 9.154, 9.155,
9.158, 9.159, 9.284, 9.285,
14.238, 24.12, 24.17
Shear velocity, 9.158
Shock waves, 16.130, 16.153, 16.161,
16.178, 16.182, 16.183, 16.186
to 16.206, 16.224, Table A-17
Shooting flow, 14.223
Similarity:
dynamic, 18.11, 18.14, 18.16,
18.18, 18.21, 18.25, 18.28 to
18.30, 18.44, 18.46 to 18.48,
20.63
geometrical, 18.5 to 18.7, 18.24,
18.66, 20.75
Siphons, 8.68 to 8.71, 8.148 to 8.151,
9.287 to 9.289
Rehbock formula, 17.192
Resistance:
air, 24.20 to 24.23
frictional, 1.89
rolling, 24.68, 24.89
turbulent, 19.22, 19.23
Resisting torque, 1.82
Reversible polytropic processes for
gases, 16.22, 16.33 to 16.35
Reynolds number (NR):
critical, 9.55, 14.116, 24.15, 24.16
friction factor (/) and, 9.258,
9.259, 14.115
Froude number ( N f ) and, 18.23,
18.43
17.38
static, 17.24 to 17.26, 17.38
in tanks, 2.2, 2.3, 2.6 to 2.9, 2.13
to 2.20, 2.25, 2.27, 2.31, 2.92
to 2.96, 3.36, 9.210, 9.211
vapor, 1.127, 1.132, 2.90, 8.118,
Tables A-l to A-3
water-hammer, 19.27, 19.53 to
19.56
work and, 8.60, 16.22
Pressure drag, 24.67
Pressure heads, 2.3, 2.19, 2.24, 2.25,
2.88, 8.51, 8.52, 8.54 to 8.56,
8.121, 8.123, 8.124, 9.194,
9.231, 9.286, 10.19, 10.20,
13.9, 13.12
Pressure (sound) waves, 16.66, 19.17
to 19.20, 19.27, 19.50 to 19.56
Profiles (see Water-surface profiles)
Propagation speed (velocity), 1.136,
14.147 to 14.153, 14.215 to
14.218, 18.3
Propellers, 20.76 to 20.78, 23.64
Pumps:
air, 20.74
BEP for, 20.51 to 20.53
cavitation effects for, 20.9, 20.10,
20.43, 20.44, 20.47, 20.59
cavitation index (<r) and,
20.27, 20.36 to 20.39
centrifugal, 18.7
cost of, 20.62
efficiency ([G/i]) of, 20.5, 20.11 to
20.13, 20.29, 20.32 to 20.35,
20.40, 20.51 to 20.53, 20.56,
20.63, 20.70, 20.72, 20.84,
Figs. A-40 and A-41
homologous, 20.15 to 20.19, 20.34
NPSH for, 20.9, 20.10, 20.49,
20.59
power of, 20.14, 20.21, 20.46,
20.48, 20.50, 20.55, 20.58,
20.60, 20.69, 20.73 to 20.75,
20.79, 20.83, 20.86, 20.88 to
20.90
rotative speed of, 20.3, 20.4, 20.42
for laminar flow, 9.2, 9.6, 9.8, 9.9,
9.12, 9.13, 9.16, 9.18 to 9.20,
9.22 to 9.26, 9.31, 9.35, 9.40,
9.41, 9.49 to 9.53, 9.57 to 9.60,
9.94, 9.99, 9.100, 9.115, 9.160,
9.162, 9.163, 9.190, 9.191,
9.223, 9.235, 9.280, 14.115 to
14.118, 14.156, 14.203
open-channel, 14.87, 14.88
shear stress and, 1.77
transition, 9.3, 9.4, 9.7
for turbulent flow, 9.1, 9.5, 9.8,
9.10, 9.11, 9.13, 9.19, 9.21,
9.79, 9.114, 9.136, 9.180,
9.230, 9.236, 9.282, 9.283,
14.212, 16.210
Righting moments, 6.65, 6.67, 6.70,
Skin drag, 24.62 to 24.66
Slope:
mild, 14.315, 14.318, 14.320 to
14.322, 14.341, 14.342,
Fig. A-19
steep, 14.83, 14.316, 14.317,
14.319, 14.322, 14.323, 14.341,
14.342, Fig. A-19
Sluice gates, 17.235, 17.236, 23.13,
23.14
6.72
Rockets, 8.25, 16.168, 16.169,
16.174, 16.176, 16.177, 23.45,
23.47, 23.52 to 23.56
Rolling resistance, 24.68, 24.89
Rotational flow, 7.41, 25.2, 25.3,
25.9, 25.13
Rotative speed:
pump, 20.3, 20.4, 20.42
turbine, 21.7, 21.8, 21.19, 21.22,
21.50, 21.54 to 21.56, 21.62,
21.65, 21.67, 21.68, 21,7!
Sonic flow, 16.4
Sonic velocity (speed of sound),
16.11, 16.12, 16.24, 16.25,
16.38, 16.40, 16.53, 16.54,
16.60 to 16.63, 18.2, 24.61
Sound (pressure) waves, 16.66, 19.17
to 19.20, 19.27, 19.50 to 19.56
Specific energy, 14.129, 14.189,
14.219, 14.225, 14.252, 14.253,
14.255, 14.257, 14.276, 14.349,
14.350, 14.352, 14.353, 14.382
Roughness:
commercial-conduit, Table A-9
open-channel, 14.84, 14.87, 14.92,
14.237, 14.239, 14.241, 14.242,
14.261, 14.293INDEX 0 795
Specific gravity (s.g.)» 1-1, 1.3, 1.8,
1.10, 1.16, 1.19, 2.7, 2.17, 2.49,
2.63, 6.1, 6.11, 6.16, 6.42, 6.77,
Table A-3
16.106, 16.178, 16.197, 16.202,
17.5, 17.6, 17.23 to 17.25,
17.37, 17.38
Stagnation temperature, 16.13 to
16.17, 16.103, 16.112, 16.118,
16.178, 17.5, 17.6, 17.25, 17.37
Stall speed, 24.81, 24.89
Static equilibrium, 6.54, 6.59, 6.64
Static height, 1.125
Static pressure, 17.24 to 17.26, 17.38
Steady (steady-state) flow, 7.13, 7.36,
7.39, 7.40, 7.62, 7.63, 8.27, 9.6,
14.201, 14.202
Steep slope, 14.83, 14.316, 14.317,
14.319, 14.322, 14.323, 14.341,
14.342, Fig. A-19
Stokes’ law, 24.52
Stokes-Oseen formula, 1.135
Streamlines of flow, 7.6, 7.21, 7.67 to
7.78, 25.4, 25.6 to 25.9, 25.11,
25.13 to 25.19
Stress, shear (r), 1.67 to 1.100,
9.30, 9.35, 9.37, 9.98, 9.118,
9.122, 9.128, 9.132, 9.133,
9.136, 9.141, 9.154, 9.155,
9.158, 9.159, 9.284, 9.285,
14.238, 24.12, 24.17
Subcritical flow, 8.104, 8.105, 14.24,
14.47, 14.66, 14.73, 14.74,
14.80, 14.81, 14.82, 14.86,
14.119, 14.130, 14.134, 14.136,
14.141, 14.151, 14.152, 14.184,
14.252, 14.253, 14.255, 14.265,
14.266, 14.284, 14.301 to
14.303, 14.351, 14.392,
Fig. A-19
Subsonic flow, 16.3
Supercritical flow, 8.104, 8.105,
14.80, 14.81, 14.85, 14.134,
14.136, 14.141, 14.145, 14.151,
14.153, 14.186, 14.187, 14.254,
14.255, 14.266, 14.284, 14.301,
14.302, 14.374, 14.392,
Fig. A-19
Supersonic nozzles, 16.149, 16.150,
16.158, 16.165, 16.166
Surface tension (<r), 1.101 to
1.126, 1.136, 18.4, Tables A-l
to A-3
Surge tanks, 19.24, 19.58 to 19.62
Surge waves, 14.280
Swamee-Jain formula, 9.73, 9.74
force on, 3.16, 3.19, 3.29, 3.48,
5.1, 5.2, 5.8, 5.9, 5.15, 5.22,
5.26, 5.29, 5.31, 5.38, 5.41 to
5.46, 5.49, 5.51, 5.54, 5.55
pressure in, 2.2, 2.3, 2.6 to 2.9,
2.13 to 2.20, 2.25, 2.27, 2.31,
2.92 to 2.96, 3.36, 9.210, 9.211
surge, 19.24, 19.58 to 19.62
Temperature, stagnation, 16.13 to
16.17, 16.103, 16.112, 16.118,
16.178, 17.5, 17.6, 17.25, 17.37
Temperature Fields, 7.56
Tensile force, 23.5, 23.7, 23.20
Tension, surface (<r), 1.101 to
1.126, 1.136, 18.4, Tables A-l
to A-3
Terminal (free-fall) velocity, 18.12,
18.13, 24.15, 24.19, 24.57,
24.61
Thermal expansion coefficient
(a), 1.21 to 1.24
Thrust, 23.15, 23.45 to 23.52, 23.55,
23.63, 23.64
Thrust coefficient, 20.77
Tidal bores, 14.351, 14.375, 14.376
Torque:
correction for viscometers, 1.92
damping, 1.74, 1.75
on pumps, 20.70
resisting, 1.82
on turbines, 7.59, 21.1, 21.7 to
21.9, 21.20, 21.63, 23.61
viscous, 1.85
Tranquil flow, 14.232 to 14.234
Transient flow (see Unsteady flow)
Transition Reynolds number ( NR),
9.3, 9.4, 9.7
Tunnels, surges in, 19.13
Turbines:
cavitation index (<r) and, 21.25
to 21.28
efficiency (i?) of, 21.10 to
21.13, 21.20, 21.21, 21.29,
21.57, 21.64, Figs. A-44 to
A-46 and A-48
Francis, 21.23, 21.25 to 21.27,
21.29, 21.33, 21.36, 21.41,
21.47, 21.51, 21.55, Fig. A-47
generators used with, 21.17, 21.22,
21.35 to 21.38, 21.51
homologous, 21.24
lawn sprinklers as, 21.48, 21.49
Pelton wheels, 21.11, 21.12, 21.46,
21.54, 21.61
pitch diameter of, 21.3 to 21.5
power of, 21.1, 21.2, 21.7 to 21.9,
21.11, 21.21, 21.43 to 21.45,
21.48 to 21.50, 21.54 to 21.57,
21.61, 21.65 to 21.68, 21.72,
21.74, 21.75
rotative speed of, 21.7, 21.8,
21.19, 21.22, 21.50, 21.54 to
Specific heats:
at constant pressure (cp), 16.26,
16.50, Table A-6
at constant volume (cv), 16.26,
16.27, 16.50, Table A-6
ratio ( k ) of, 16.28, 16.55, Table
A-6
Specific speed (Ns ):
pump, 20.1, 20.2, 20.28, 20.30,
20.31, 20.60
turbine, 21.3 to 21.5, 21.14 to
21.18, 21.20, 21.30, 21.33,
21.34, 21.65, 21.67, Figs. A-42
and A-43
Specific volume (K5), 1.10, 1.19, 1.33,
1.34, 1.39, 1.56, 1.57, 1.61
Specific weight ([Gg]), 1.1, 1.3, 1.5,
1.7, 1.8, 1.16, 1.20, 1.34, 1.37,
1.39, 1.41, 1.43, 1.45, 1.56,
1.57, 1.59, 1.60, 1.61, 2.6, 2.7,
2.11, 2.28, 6.32, 6.35, 6.44,
7.65, 16.1, 24.59, Fig. A-3,
Tables A-l to A-8
Speed:
landing, 24.81
of propagation, 1.136, 14.147 to
14.153, 14.215 to 14.218, 18.3
rotative:
pump, 20.3, 20.4, 20.42
turbine, 21.7, 21.8, 21.19,
21.22, 21.50, 21.54 to
21.56, 21.62, 21.65, 21.67,
21.68, 21.71
of sound, 16.11, 16.12, 16.24,
16.25, 16.38, 16.40, 16.53,
16.54, 16.60 to 16.63, 18.2,
24.61
specific (Ns):
pump, 20.1, 20.2, 20.28, 20.30,
20.31, 20.60
turbine, 21.3 to 21.5, 21.14 to
21.18, 21.20, 21.30, 21.33,
21.34, 21.65, 21.67,
Figs. A-42 and A-43
stall, 24.81, 24.89
takeoff, 24.89
Spillways, 7.53, 8.103, 15.6, 18.34,
18.37, 18.39 to 18.41, 18.49,
18.77, 18.78, 19.31 to 19.34,
23.66
Sprinklers, 7.58, 7.60, 8.107, 21.48,
21.49, 23.44
Stable equilibrium, 6.65, 6.67, 6.71,
6.73 to 6.77
Stagnation points, 7.67, 8.149, 24.84,
25.10, 25.13, 25.18
Stagnation pressure, 8.81, 8.115,
8.116, 16.13 to 16.17, 16.103,
Tainter gates, 5.40
Takeoff speed, 24.89
Tangential acceleration, 7.11
Tanks:
center of pressure (c.p.) of, 3.16,
3.19, 3.29, 3.48796 Q INDEX
9.142, 9.148, 9.153, 9.162,
9.176, 9.188, 9.190 to 9.192,
9.196, 9.198, 9.202, 9.205,
9.206, 9.212, 9.220, 9.226,
9.227, 9.229, 9.231, 9.242,
9.246, 9.249, 9.254, 9.255,
9.267 to 9.270, 17.1, 17.2
parallel pipeline system, 11.1,
11.2, 11.5, 11.11 to 11.13,
11.16, 11.19 to 11.21, 11.23 to
11.31, 11.34 to 11.39, 11.42 to
11.46, 11.48, 11.50, 11.53,
11.54
pipe network, 13.1 to 13.8, 13.10,
13.11, 13.13, 13.15 to 13.19,
13.21, 13.23, 13.24, 13.26 to
13.32
pump, 20.6, 20.14, 20.20, 20.28,
20.32 to 20.35, 20.45, 20.46,
20.48 to 20.50, 20.54, 20.80 to
20.82, 20.87
rectangular duct, 8.9, 9.117
rectangular open channel, 14.1,
14.65, 14.94, 14.101, 14.102, .
14.111, 14.117, 14.118, 14.120,
14.123, 14.142, 14.157, 14.158,
14.166, 14.194, 14.204, 14.210,
14.212, 14.221, 14.223, 14.235,
14.239, 14.240, 14.257, 14.262
to 14.264, 14.270, 14.294,
14.310 to 14.312, 14.338,
14.343, 14.359 to 14.363,
14.389, 14.399, 14.400
rectilinear chamber, 8.11
river, 8.42
series pipeline system, 10.5, 10.6,
10.10, 10.14 to 10.18, 10.21 to
10.23, 10.28, 10.30
siphon, 8.68, 8.69, 9.287 to 9.289
T-shaped open channel, 14.169,
14.170
trapezoidal open channel, 14.2,
14.51, 14.58, 14.89, 14.93,
14.102, 14.160, 14.176, 14.210,
14.245
shear, 9.158
sonic (speed of sound), 16.11,
16.12, 16.24, 16.25, 16.38,
16.40, 16.53, 16.54, 16.60 to
16.63, 18.2, 24.61
terminal (free-fall), 18.12, 18.13,
24.15, 24.19, 24.57, 24.61
Velocity fields, 7.3 to 7.57, 7.61 to
7.64, 7.66 to 7.80
Velocity gradient, 1.67
Velocity heads, 8.71, 8.93, 8.95,
8.112 to 8.114, 8.138 to 8.142,
8.144, 8.145, 8.148
Venturi flumes, 8.86, 14.328 to
14.331
Venturi meters, 8.90 to 8.93, 8.119,
8.120, 17.67, 17.141 to 17.169,
17.174, 18.5, 18.25, Figs. A-24,
A-26, A-30, A-32, A-34, and
A-35, Table A-18
Venturi nozzles, 17.170 to 17.173,
Figs. A-26 and A-36
Viscometers, 1.92
Viscosity:
absolute (M ), 1.65, 1.66, 1.68,
1.72, 1.96, 1.97, 9.40, 9.102,
9.160, 18.33, 24.58, Fig. A-l,
Tables A-1 to A-8
Brinkman number (Ng) and, 18.1
kinematic (*), 1-65, 1.66, 9.52,
18.33, 18.43, Fig. A-2,
Tables A-l, A-2, and A-4
Viscous boundary layers, 9.120,
9.129, 9.132, 9.133, 9.284,
9.285
Viscous drag, 24.37, 24.38
Viscous torque, 1.85
Volume, specific ( Vs), 1.10, 1.19,
1.33, 1.34, 1.39, 1.56, 1.57,
21.56, 21.62, 21.65, 21.67,
21.68, 21.71
specific speed (Ns) of, 21.3 to
21.5, 21.14 to 21.18, 21.20,
21.30, 21.33, 21.34, 21.65,
21.67, Figs. A-42 and A-43
surge tanks for, 19.24
torque on, 7.59, 21.1, 21.7 to 21.9,
21.20, 21.63, 23.61
volume flow rate for, 21.7, 21.21,
21.52, 21.54, 21.65, 21.67
wind, Fig. A-49
Turbulent flow, 9.1, 9.5, 9.8, 9.10,
9.11, 9.13, 9.19, 9.21, 9.79,
9.114, 9.136, 9.180, 9.224,
9.225, 9.230, 9.236, 9.282,
9.283, 14.212
Turbulent resistance, 19.22, 19.23
U-tube oscillations, 19.2 to 19.5,
19.10 to 19.12, 19.21 to 19.23
Universal gas constant (/?tt), 1.39
Unstable equilibrium, 6.66, 6.68, 6.69
Unsteady (transient) flow:
acceleration vector for, 7.12
dropping fluid column, 18.1
orifice transients, 19.35, 19.36
pipe transients, 19.6, 19.7, 19.9,
19.13 to 19.20, 19.25 to 19.30,
19.37 to 19.57
pump transients, 19.8, 19.38,
19.39
spillway transients, 19.31 to 19.34
surge-tank transients, 19.24, 19.58
to 19.62
turbulent resistance and, 19.22,
19.23
U-tube oscillations, 19.2 to 19.5,
19.10 to 19.12, 19.21 to 19.23
water-hammer transients, 19.7,
19.27, 19.53 to 19.56
1.61
Volume flow rate:
annular conduit, 9.101
branching pipeline system, 12.1 to
12.12, 12.16 to 12.19
capillary tube, 9.280
circular open section, 14.10, 14.11,
14.13, 14.17 to 14.19, 14.26,
14.36, 14.37, 14.49, 14.67,
14.69, 14.88, 14.113, 14.163,
14.171, 14.172, 14.175, 14.177,
14.186, 14.196, 14.199, 14.298,
14.364, 14.365, Fig. A-18
fan, 23.63
flow nozzle, 8.84, 8.85
individual pipe, 1.138, 7.48, 8.1,
8.2, 8.4, 8.22, 8.38, 8.44, 8.50,
8.62, 8.87, 8.95, 8.98, 8.114,
9.6, 9.38 to 9.41, 9.46, 9.53,
9.54, 9.56 to 9.58, 9.64 to 9.66,
9.77, 9.85 to 9.89, 9.92 to 9.97,
9.99, 9.100, 9.109, 9.113,
9.123, 9.124, 9.138, 9.139,
triangular duct, 9.103, 9.145
triangular open channel, 14.191
turbine, 21.7, 21.21, 21.52, 21.54,
21.65, 21.67
velocity vector and, 7.47, 7.51 to
Vapor pressure, 1.127, 1.132, 2.90,
8.118, Tables A-l to A-3
VDI orifices, 17.92, 17.132, 17.133,
17.135 7.53
Velocity:
acceleration and, 7.8 to 7.15, 7.17
to 7.22
average, 8.3, 8.6 to 8.11, 8.19,
8.22, 8.31, 8.32, 8.37, 8.47,
9.113, 9.158
centerline, 9.104, 9.119, 9.125,
9.126, 9.156
magnitude of, 7.3, 7.4
propagation, 1.136, 14.147 to
14.153, 14.215 to 14.218, 18.3
Venturi meter, 8.93, 8.97
wind tunnel, 8.24
von Karman equation, 14.103
Vortex flow, 7.29, 25.2, 25.3, 25.9,
25.13
Wall thickness of pipes, 5.48, 5.50,
5.52, 5.53, 19.7, 19.50, 19.51INDEX 0 797
Water:
boiling temperature of, 1.127 to
1.131
curvature of surface of, 1.107,
1.108
physical properties of, Fig. A-3,
Tables A-l to A-3
Water hammers, 19.7, 19.27, 19.53
to 19.56
Water meters, 17.237, 17.238
Water-surface profiles:
circular open section, 14.299,
14.339, 14.340
computer programs for:
nonuniform flow in open rectangular channels, 14.267 to
14.269
steady state flow in open rectangular, trapezoidal, or triangular channels, 14.278,
14.279
rectangular open channel,
14.265 to 14.269, 14.271,
14.272, 14.277, 14.278,
14.281 to 14.288, 14.294,
14.297, 14.301 to 14.307,
14.313, 14.314, 14.324 to
14.327, 14.333, 14.336,
14.337, 14.354
trapezoidal open channel,
14.276, 14.278, 14.279,
14.289, 14.332, 14.334,
14.335
triangular open channel,
14.278
types of, Fig. A-19
1.41, 1.43, 1.45, 1.56, 1.57,
1.59, 1.60, 1.61, 2.6, 2.7, 2.11,
2.28, 6.32, 6.35, 6.44, 7.65,
16.1, 24.59, Fig. A-3,
Tables A-l to A-8
Weight flow rate, 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.18,
8.20, 8.33, 8.39, 8.112, 9.174,
16.124 to 16.133, 16.137,
16.139, 16.140, 16.184, 16.185
Weirs, 14.258, 14.259, 14.263,
14.284, 14.397, 17.175 to
17.228, 18.56, 18.63, 18.75,
Fig. A-37
Wetted perimeter, 14.5, 14.31, 14.96,
14.107, 14.214, Fig. A-18
Wind tunnels, 8.24, 16.157, 18.15,
18.16, 18.18 to 18.20, 18.22,
18.31, 18.33, 18.45 to 18.48,
21.56
Wind turbines, Fig. A-49
Wings, 24.43, 24.44, 24.73 to 24.76,
24.78, 24.79, 24.81 to 24.83,
24.85, 24.86, 24.88, 24.90
Waves:
abrupt, 15.16
gravity, 15.13 to 15.15
monoclinal, 15.2
propagation velocity of, 1.136,
14.147 to 14.153, 14.215 to
14.218, 18.3
shock, 16.130, 16.153, 16.161,
16.178, 16.182, 16.183, 16.186
to 16.206, 16.224, Table A-17
small-amplitude, 15.1, 15.3
sound (pressure), 16.66, 19.17 to
19.20, 19.27, 19.50 to 19.56
Weber number C/Vjp), 18.49
Weight, 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 1.9,
1.12 to 1.15
molecular, 16.29, Table A-6
specific (7), 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7,
1.8, 1.16, 1.20, 1.34, 1.37, 1.39,
Work:
potential energy and, 8.56
pressure
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