2500 Solved Problems in Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics

2500 Solved Problems in Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics
اسم المؤلف
Jack B. Evett
التاريخ
1 سبتمبر 2020
المشاهدات
85
التقييم
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2500 Solved Problems in Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics
Schaum’s Solved Problems Series
by
Jack B. Evett, Ph.D
Cheng Liu, IM.S.
The University of North Carolina at Charlotte
CONTENTS
To the Student V
List of Abbreviations vii
List of Conversion Factors xi
Chapter 1 PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS 1
Chapter 2 FLUID STATICS 25
Chapter 3 FORCES ON SUBMERGED PLANE AREAS 53
Chapter 4 DAMS 77
Chapter 5 FORCES ON SUBMERGED CURVED AREAS 85
Chapter 6 BUOYANCY AND FLOTATION 108
Chapter 7 KINEMATICS OF FLUID MOTION 132
Chapter 8 FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID FLOW 157
Chapter 9 FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS 197
Chapter 10 SERIES PIPELINE SYSTEMS 269
Chapter 11 PARALLEL PIPELINE SYSTEMS 278
Chapter 12 BRANCHING PIPELINE SYSTEMS 302
Chapter 13 PIPE NETWORKS 315
Chapter 14 FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 356
Chapter 15 FLOOD ROUTING 459
Chapter 16 FLOW OF COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS 469
Chapter 17 FLOW MEASUREMENT 520
Chapter 18 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILITUDE 574
Chapter 19 UNSTEADY FLOW 589
Chapter 20 PUMPS AND FANS 610
Chapter 21 TURBINES 638
Chapter 22 HYDRAULIC AND ENERGY GRADE LINES 657
iiiiv 0 CONTENTS
Chapter 23 FORCES DEVELOPED BY FLUIDS IN MOTION 664
Chapter 24 DYNAMIC DRAG AND LIFT 684
Chapter 25 BASIC HYDRODYNAMICS 703
Appendix 709
Index 787
lINDEX
Capillary-height changes, 1.102,
1.104, 1.106, 1.111, 1.112,
1.115, 1.116, 1.124, 1.126,
18.51, 18.58
Cavitation, 1.132, 8.100, 8.118,
9.290, 20.9, 20.10, 20.43,
20.44, 20.47, 20.59
Cavitation index (), 1.30 discharge (Q), 8.84, 8.90 drag (C0), Figs. A-38, A-39, A-50 to A-67, A-70, and A-71, Tables A-20 to A-23 lift (CL), Figs. A-66, A-67, A-70, and A-71 loss (X), Figs. A-7 to A-12, Tables A-l 1 and A-12 thermal expansion (a), 1.21 to 1.24 nonuniform flow in open rectangular channels, 14.267 to 14.269 17.84, 17.117, 17.132, 17.135, 17.142, 17.144, 17.145, 17.147 to 17.151, 17.156, 17.159 to 17.165, 17.173, 17.174, 20.24 Diffusers, 7.64, 9.244, 16.170, 16.203, 16.204, Fig. A-31 Dimensional analysis, 1.103, 1.133 to 1.138, 7.37, 18.1 to 18.4, 18.8 to 18.10, 18.50 to 18.58, 18.60 to 18.71, 18.76 Discharge (see Volume flow rate) Discharge coefficient (Q), 8.84, 8.90 Disk meters, 17.237, 17.238 Drag: steady state flow in open rectangular, trapezoidal, or triangular channels, 14.278, 14.279 Continuity of flow, 7.23 to 7.39, 14.151, 25.1, 25.3 to 25.6, 25.8, 25.13, 25.16 Convective acceleration, 7.10, 7.17, 7.21 Convergent nozzles, 7.6, 7.9, 8.15, 16.124 to 16.129, 16.132, 16.133, 16.135, 16.136, 16.139, 16.140, 16.143, 16.151, 16.152, 16.154, 16.155, 16.162, 16.164, 16.179, 16.180, 16.222 Converging-diverging nozzles, 16.130, 16.131, 16.134, 16.137 to 16.142, 16.144, 16.153, 16.156, 16.158, 16.161, 16.163, 16.167, 16.178, 16.181, 16.182 Critical-depth meters, 14.274, 17.241 Critical-flow meters, 14.398, 14.399 Critical Reynolds number ( NR), 9.55, 14.116, 24.15, 24.16 Culverts, 14.359 to 14.365 Curvature of water surface, 1.107, thrust, 20.77 Colebrook equation, 9.73, 9.74, 9.259 Compressibility, coefficient ([Gf >]) of, coefficients (CD ) of, Figs. A-38, A-39, A-50 to A-67, A-70, and A-71, Tables A-20 to A-23 on cylinders, 24.25, 24.72 on flat plates, 24.3, 24.4, 24.7, 24.8, 24.10, 24.11, 24.29 to 24.34, 24.41, 24.42, 24.45, 24.56, 24.77, 24.83 friction, 24.4, 24.11 to 24.14, 24.32 to 24.34, 24.43 to 24.46 induced, 24.85, Fig. A-69 on keels, 24.62, 24.63, 24.66 on nets, 24.49 pressure, 24.67 on projectiles, 24.27, 24.28, 24.55 skin, 24.62 to 24.66 on spheres, 1.135, 24.1, 24.5, 24.15, 24.24, 24.52, 24.59 to 24.61, 24.69 viscous, 24.37, 24.38 Dropdown in open-channel flow, 14.326 1.30 Compression of gases: adiabatic, 1.47, 16.51 isentropic, 1.55, 1.62, 16.6 to 16.8, 16.10, 16.21, 16.32, 16.46, 16.47 isothermal, 1.47, 1.54, 1.55, 1.63, 16.52 Compressors, air, 20.66, 23.37, 23.38 Computer programs: depth of flow: open circular section, 14.17 to 14.19 open rectangular channel, 14.7 to 14.9 flow rates: branching pipeline system, 12.10 individual pipe, 9.295 to 9.297, 20.82 open circular section, 14.17 to 14.19 pipe network, 13.28 to 13.32 pipes in parallel, 11.12 head loss in pipes in parallel, 11.12 homologous pump characteristics, 20.17 hydraulic jumps in open trapezoidal channels, 14.346 isentropic flow of compressible fluids, 16.92 to 16.94 isothermal flow of compressible fluids, 16.71 to 16.73 pipe flow transients, 19.7, 19.9 pipe size, 9.295 to 9.297, 20.82 reservoir drainage using short pipes, 17.57 Runge-Kutta integration, 19.4, 19.23, 19.24 surge-tank transients, 19.24 U-tube oscillations, 19.4, 19.21, 19.23 water-hammer transients, 19.9 water-surface profiles: 1.108 Damping torque, 1.74, 1.75 Dams: center of pressure (c.p.) of, 3.6, 3.34 eccentricity of, 4.2 to 4.7 factor of safety (F.S.) for: against overturning, 4.1, 4.5 to 4.7 against sliding, 4.1, 4.5 to 4.7 force on, 3.6, 3.44, 4.1 to 4.8, 5.11 ice thrust on, 4.8 pressure on, 2.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 to Drops of liquids, 1.101, 1.103 Duct flow of compressible fluids, 16.192, 16.193, 16.197, 16.199, 16.202, 16.205, 16.207 to 16.239, Tables A-10, A-24, and A-25 Dynamic similarity, 18.11, 18.14, 18.16, 18.18, 18.21, 18.25, 18.28 to 18.30, 18.44, 18.46 to 18.48, 20.63 4.7 Darcy formula, 18.10 Darcy-Weisbach equation, 9.78, 9.261, 9.264 Density, mass (p), 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.8, 1.10, 1.11, 1.16, 1.18, 1.19, 1.36, 1.38, 1.42, 1.44 to 1.46, 1.56, 1.61, 2.6, 2.7, 2.89, 8.5, 8.23, 8.41, 16.2, 25.5, Tables A-1 to A-8 Differential manometers, 2.50 to 2.52, 2.58 to 2.66, 2.71, 2.72, 2.75 to 2.78, 2.85 to 2.87, 2.92, 2.96, 8.81, 8.84, 8.85, 8.90, 8.92, 8.96, 8.97, 8.119, 8.120, 9.205, 17.10, 17.16, 17.33, 17.42, 17.58, 17.70 to 17.72, Eccentricity of dams, 4.2 to 4.7 Efficiency (n): propeller, 23.64 pump, 20.5, 20.11 to 20.13, 20.29, 20.32 to 20.35, 20.40, 20.51 to 20.53, 20.56, 20.63, 20.70, 20.72, 20.84, Figs. A-40 and A-41 turbine, 21.10 to 21.13, 21.20, 21.21, 21.29, 21.57, 21.64, Figs. A-44 to A-46 and A-48INDEX 0 789 Elasticity, bulk modulus (K) of, 1.25 to 1.35, 1.47, 16.61, 16.63, 16.64, Tables A-l and A-2 equivalent source method for, 25.18 to 25.20 friction factor (/) for, 9.43, 9.44, 9.48, 9.73, 9.74, 9.149, 9.183, 9.258, 9.259, 14.115, 14.142, 14.199, 14.212, 14.237 Froude number (NF) for, 14.24, 14.47, 14.80, 14.81, 14.151, 14.182, 14.195, 14.222, 14.281, 14.345, 14.381, 14.386 to 14.388, 18.23, 18.36, 18.42 to 18.44 steady (steady-state), 7.13, 7.36, 7.39, 7.40, 7.62, 7.63, 8.27, 9.6, 14.201, 14.202 streamlines of, 7.6, 7.21, 7.67 to 7.78, 25.4, 25.6 to 25.9, 25.11, 25.13 to 25.19 subcritical, 8.104, 8.105, 14.24, 14.47, 14.66, 14.73, 14.74, 14.80, 14.81, 14.82, 14.86, 14.119, 14.130, 14.134, 14.136, 14.141, 14.151, 14.152, 14.184, 14.252, 14.253, 14.255, 14.265, 14.266, 14.284, 14.301 to 14.303, 14.351, 14.392, Fig. A-19 subsonic, 16.3 supercritical, 8.104, 8.105, 14.80, 14.81, 14.85, 14.134, 14.136, 14.141, 14.145, 14.151, 14.153, 14.186, 14.187, 14.254, 14.255, 14.266, 14.284, 14.301, 14.302, 14.374, 14.392, Fig. A-19 tranquil, 14.232 to 14.234 transient ( see Unsteady flow) turbulent, 9.1, 9.5, 9.8, 9.10, 9.11, 9.13, 9.19, 9.21, 9.79, 9.114, 9.136, 9.180, 9.224, 9.225, 9.230, 9.236, 9.282, 9.283, 14.212 unsteady (see Unsteady flow) vortex, 7.29, 25.2, 25.3, 25.9, 25.13 Flow measurement: Borda tube, 17.52, 17.56 critical-depth meter, 14.274, 17.241 critical-flow meter, 14.398, 14.399 disk meter, 17.237, 17.238 diverging tube, 17.47 to 17.51 flow nozzle, 8.84, 8.85, 17.58 to 17.76, Figs. A-20 to A-24, A-34, Table A-18 manometer ( see Manometers) orifice, 17.77 to 17.140, 18.8, 19.35, 19.36, Figs. A-24 to A-29, A-33, Table A-19 orifice nozzle, 17.45, 17.46 Parshall flume, 17.229 to 17.234 piezometer, 2.26, 2.27, 2.29, 2.30, 2.94, 17.3, 17.4, 17.12, 17.14, 17.15, 17.30 to 17.32 Pitot measuring device, 17.3 to 17.6, 17.13 to 17.24, 17.27, 17.29 to 17.36, 17.39, 17.40, 17.42 to 17.44, 17.87, 17.90, 17.117 Prandtl tube, 17.16, 17.35 pressure gages and, 17.9 to 17.11 short tube, 17.53 to 17.55, 17.57 Energy: internal, 16.5, 16.6, 16.50 kinetic, 8.57 to 8.59 potential, 8.55, 8.56, 8.58, 8.59 specific, 14.129, 14.189, 14.219, 14.225, 14.252, 14.253, 14.255, 14.257, 14.276, 14.349, 14.350, 14.352, 14.353, 14.382 Energy grade lines, 14.276, 14.279, 14.284, 22.1 to 22.8, 22.10 Energy heads, 9.235 Enthalpy (A), 16.5 to 16.7, 16.9, 16.20, 16.30, 16.39, 16.100 Entropy (s), 16.23, 16.31, 16.39, 16.45, 16.48, 16.193, 16.195 gas: adiabatic, 16.95, 16.106, 16.113, 16.114, 16.118, 16.120, 16.221 isentropic, 16.88 to 16.94, 16.96 to 16.105, 16.107 to 16.111, 16.116, 16.117, 16.119, 16.121 to 16.123, 16.170 to 16.173 isothermal, 16.67 to 16.87, 16.237 incompressible, 7.21, 7.23 to 7.32, 7.36, 7.37, 7.39 to 7.41, 7.66, 7.74, 8.27, 9.12, 9.14, 9.157, 9.282 irrotational, 7.41, 7.42, 7.45, 7.46, 25.2 to 25.4 laminar, 1.133, 7.35, 7.36, 7.49, 7.61, 8.28, 8.36, 9.2, 9.6, 9.8, 9.9, 9.13, 9.16, 9.18 to 9.20, 9.22 to 9.26, 9.33, 9.35, 9.40, 9.41, 9.49 to 9.53, 9.57 to 9.60, 9.94, 9.99, 9.100, 9.115, 9.156, 9.157, 9.160, 9.162, 9.163, 9.190, 9.191, 9.223, 9.229, 9.235, 9.280, 14.115 to 14.118, 14.156, 14.201 to 14.203 measurement of (see Flow measurement) open-channel (see Openchannel flow) parabolic profile of, 1.69, 1.133, 7.49, 8.28, 8.36, 9.156 pathlines of, 7.80 pipe (see Pipe networks; Pipeline systems; Pipes) potential function for, 25.4, 25.14, 25.17 Reynolds number (NR) for (see Reynolds number) rotational, 7.41, 25.2, 25.3, 25.9, 25.13 shear, 7.33, 7.34 shooting, 14.223 sonic, 16.4 spillway, 8.103 Equilibrium: stable, 6.65, 6.67, 6.71, 6.73 to 6.77 static, 6.54, 6.59, 6.64 unstable, 6.66, 6.68, 6.69 Equivalent source method for flow, 25.18 to 25.20 Euler equation, 16.96 Expansion of gases: adiabatic, 16.41 to 16.44 isentropic, 1.64 isothermal, 1.64 Factor of safety (F.S.) for dams: against overturning, 4.1, 4.5 to 4.7 against sliding, 4.1, 4.5 to 4.7 Fans, 21.56, 23.62, 23.63, 24.92 Filters, 24.50, 24.51 First law of thermodynamics, 16.23, 16.177, 16.237 Flood routing, 15.1 to 15.16 Floodways, 14.58, 14.59, 14.210 Flotation (see Buoyancy and flotation) Flow: Bernoulli equation for, 8.50 to 8.53, 8.61 to 8.63, 8.65 to 8.84, 8.86 to 8.106, 8.108 to 8.132, 8.135 to 8.151, 9.295, 14.81, 14.151 to 14.155, 14.258 conservation of mass in, 7.23 continuity of, 7.23 to 7.39, 14.151, 25.1, 25.3 to 25.6, 25.8, 25.13, 25.16 converging, 7.21 in corners, 25.4 duct, of compressible fluids, 16.192, 16.193, 16.197, 16.199, 16.202, 16.205, 16.207 to 16.239, Tables A-10, A-24, and A-25790 0 INDEX Friction drag, 24.4, 24.11 to 24.14, 24.32 to 24.34, 24.43 to 24.46 Friction factor (/) for flow, 9.43, 9.44, 9.48, 9.73, 9.74, 9.149, 9.183, 9.258, 9.259, 14.115, 14.142, 14.199, 14.212, 14.237 Friction heads, 9.223 to 9.225 Frictional adiabatic duct flow of gases, Table A-24 Frictional resistance, 1.89 Frictionless duct flow of gases, Table A-25 Froude number (NF), 14.24, 14.47, 14.80, 14.81, 14.151, 14.182, 14.195, 14.222, 14.281, 14.345, 14.381, 14.386 to 14.388, 18.23, 18.36, 18.42 to 18.44 Froude scaling, 18.34, 18.35, 18.49 sluice gate, 17.235, 17.236, 23.13, 23.14 on gates, 3.7 to 3.15, 3.17, 3.20, 3.21, 3.23, 3.26, 3.30 to 3.33, 3.35, 3.39, 3.44 to 3.47, 3.49, 3.54 to 3.56, 3.64, 5.3, 5.13, 5.14, 5.27, 5.30, 5.33 to 5.35, 5.40, 5.47 jet, 23.1 to 23.6, 23.8 to 23.12, 23.16 to 23.24, 23.26 to 23.34, 23.43, 23.44, 23.57 to 23.60 lift, 24.80 to 24.92 on nozzles, 23.57, 23.59 on pipe bends, 23.35 to 23.40, 23.42 Venturi meter, 8.90 to 8.93, 8.119, 8.120, 17.67, 17.141 to 17.169, 17.174, 18.5, 18.25, Figs. A-24, A-26, A-30, A-32, A-34, and A-35, Table A-18 Venturi nozzle, 17.170 to 17.173, Figs. A-26 and A-36 weir, 14.258, 14.259, 14.263, 14.284, 14.397, 17.175 to 17.228, 18.56, 18.63, 18.75, Fig. A-37 Flow nets, 25.4, 25.15 to 25.19 Flow nozzles, 8.84, 8.85, 17.58 to 17.76, Figs. A-20 to A-24, A-34, Table A-18 on pipe reducers, 23.41, 23.42 on sluice gates, 23.13, 23.14 on submerged curved areas: circular, 5.1 to 5.5, 5.12 to 5.15, 5.26 to 5.28, 5.40, 5.43, 5.44 conical, 5.10, 5.20, 5.29, 5.46 cylindrical, 5.6 to 5.9, 5.18, 5.19, 5.22 to 5.25, 5.31 to 5.33, 5.38, 5.48 to 5.52, Flow rate: computer programs for: branching pipeline system, 12.10 individual pipe, 9.295 to 9.297, 20.82 open circular section, 14.17 to 14.19 pipe network, 13.28 to 13.32 pipes in parallel, 11.12 mass, 7.48 to 7.50, 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.5, 8.10, 8.26, 8.38, 8.40, 8.46, 8.83, 9.25, 9.76, 16.143, 16.146, 16.151 to 16.156, 16.159, 16.162, 16.164, 16.165, 16.179 to 16.182, 16.222, 16.225, 16.227, 16.234, 16.239, 23.24, 23.54 volume ( see Volume flow rate) weight, 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.18, 8.20, 8.33, 8.39, 8.112, 9.174, 16.124 to 16.133, 16.137, 16.139, 16.140, 16.184, 16.185 Gage pressure, 2.12 to 2.14, 2.22, 2.23, 2.28, 2.29, 2.31, 2.39, 2.40, 2.53, 2.55, 2.67, 2.69, 2.91, 9.84, 9.204, 9.208, 17.9 to 17.11 Gas constants, 1.39, 1.46, 1.57, 1.58, Table A-6 5.54 elliptical, 5.41 parabolic, 5.11, 5.30, 5.34 to 5.36, 5.42, 5.47 spherical, 5.16, 5.17, 5.21, 5.37, 5.39, 5.45, 5.53, 5.55 on submerged plane areas: annular disk, 3.58 circular, 3.13, 3.32, 3.33, 3.44, 3.45, 3.50, 3.64 parabolic, 3.43, 3.57 rectangular, 3.6 to 3.8, 3.11, 3.12, 3.16 to 3.18, 3.20, 3.21, 3.23 to 3.25, 3.27 to 3.31, 3.34, 3.36, 3.37, 3.39, 3.41, 3.42, 3.46 to 3.49, 3.51 to 3.55, 3.61 to 3.63 trapezoidal, 3.22 triangular, 3.9, 3.10, 3.14, 3.15, 3.19, 3.26, 3.35, 3.38, 3.40, 3.55, 3.56 on tanks, 3.16, 3.19, 3.29, 3.48, 5.1, 5.2, 5.8, 5.9, 5.15, 5.22, 5.26, 5.29, 5.31, 5.38, 5.41 to 5.46, 5.49, 5.51, 5.54, 5.55 tensile, 23.5, 23.7, 23.20 thrust, 23.15, 23.45 to 23.52, 23.55, 23.63, 23.64 Francis formula, 17.191 Francis turbines, 21.23, 21.25 to 21.27, 21.29, 21.33, 21.36, 21.41. 21.47. 21.51. 21.55, Fig. A-47 Free-fall (terminal) velocity, 18.12, 18.13, 24.15, 24.19, 24.57, 24.61 Free overfall in open-channel flow, 14.326 Gases: adiabatic compression of, 1.47, 16.51 adiabatic expansion of, 16.41 to 16.44 adiabatic flow of, 16.95, 16.106, 16.113, 16.114, 16.118, 16.120, 16.221 adiabatic frictional duct flow of, Table A-24 frictionless duct flow of, Table A-25 ideal, 1.36 to 1.64, 1.134, 8.25, 8.34 isentropic compression of, 1.55, 1.62, 16.6 to 16.8, 16.10, 16.21, 16.32, 16.46, 16.47 isentropic expansion of, 1.64 isentropic flow of, 16.88 to 16.94, 16.96 to 16.105, 16.107 to 16.111, 16.116, 16.117, 16.119, 16.121 to 16.123, 16.170 to 16.173 isothermal compression of, 1.47, 1.54, 1.55, 1.63, 16.52 isothermal expansion of, 1.64 isothermal flow of, 16.67 to 16.87, 16.237 mean free path ( L) of, 1.134 perfect, 18.71, Fig. A-72, Tables A-16 and A-17 physical properties of, Table A-6 reversible polytropic processes for, 16.22, 16.33 to 16.35 Flumes: Parshall, 17.229 to 17.234 rectangular, 14.32, 14.33, 14.47, 14.86, 14.111, 14.134, 14.136, 14.238, 14.256, 14.260, 14.263, 14.290 to 14.294, 14.310 to 14.312 triangular, 14.85, 14.127, 14.352 Venturi, 8.86, 14.328 to 14.331 Force: acceleration and, 1.1 to 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 1.12 to 1.15 buoyant, 6.1 to 6.11, 6.15, 6.17, 6.19 to 6.22, 6.24, 6.28, 6.30 to 6.54, 6.56 to 6.60, 6.62 to 6.70, 6.72, 6.73, 6.75, 18.69, 24.15 on dams, 3.6, 3.44, 4.1 to 4.8, 5.11 drag (see Drag) on fans, 23.62, 23.63INDEX 0 791 specific heats of (see Specific heats) universal gas constant ( Ru) for, 1.39 Jacks, hydraulic, 2.32 Jet aircraft, 23.46, 23.48 to 23.51, 24.69 Jet force in fluids, 23.1 to 23.6, 23.8 to 23.12, 23.16 to 23.24, 23.26 to 23.34, 23.43, 23.44, 23.57 to 23.60 Homologous pumps, 20.15 to 20.19, 20.34 Homologous turbines, 21.24 Hooke’s law, 23.18 Hydraulic elements of circular sections, Fig. A-18 Hydraulic grade lines, 9.152, 11.15, 11.31, 11.33, 19.8, 19.9, 22.1 to 22.3, 22.5 to 22.13 Hydraulic jacks, 2.32 Hydraulic jumps, 14.82, 14.86, 14.284, 14.341 to 14.355, 14.366 to 14.395, 14.400, 18.77, 18.78 Hydraulic radius, 9.27 to 9.29, 14.31, 14.106, 14.115, Fig. A-18 Hydraulically smooth pipes, 9.179 Hydrodynamics, 25.1 to 25.20 Hydrofoils, 24.31 to 24.34, 24.41, 24.42, 24.87, 24.91 Hydrographs, 15.4 to 15.7, 15.11, 15.12 Hydrometers, 6.12, 6.25 to 6.27, 6.43, 6.55 Hypodermic needles, 9.60 to 9.62 Gates: center of pressure (c.p.) of, 3.7 to 3.15, 3.17, 3.20, 3.21, 3.23, 3.26, 3.30 to 3.33, 3.35, 3.39, 3.44 to 3.47, 3.49, 3.54 to 3.56, 3.60, 3.64 force on, 3.7 to 3.15, 3.17, 3.20, 3.21, 3.23, 3.26, 3.30 to 3.33, 3.35, 3.39, 3.44 to 3.47, 3.49, 3.54 to 3.56, 3.64, 5.3, 5.13, 5.14, 5.27, 5.30, 5.33 to 5.35, 5.40, 5.47 sluice, 17.235, 17.236, 23.13, 23.14 Tainter, 5.40 Generators, 21.17, 21.22, 21.35 to 21.38, 21.51 Geometrical similarity, 18.5 to 18.7, 18.24, 18.66, 20.75 Gliders, 24.86 Grade lines: energy, 22.1 to 22.8, 22.10 hydraulic, 9.152, 11.15, 11.31, 11.33, 19.8, 19.9, 22.1 to 22.3, 22.5 to 22.13 Gravity, 1.12 to 1.15 center of (see Center of gravity) specific (s.g.), 1.1, 1.3, 1.8, 1.10, 1.16, 1.19, 2.7, 2.17, 2.49, 2.63, 6.1, 6.11, 6.16, 6.42, 6.77, Table A-3 Gravity waves, 15.13 to 15.15 Kinematic viscosity ( v ), 1.65, 1.66, 9.52, 18.33, 18.43, Fig. A-2, Tables A-l, A-2, and A-4 Kinetic energy, 8.57 to 8.59 Kinetic-energy correction factor (a), 7.63 Kutter formula, 14.240, 14.241, Table A-15 Laminar flow, 1.133, 7.35, 7.36, 7.49, 7.61, 8.28, 8.36, 9.2, 9.6, 9.8, 9.9, 9.13, 9.16, 9.18 to 9.20, 9.22 to 9.26, 9.33, 9.35, 9.40, 9.41, 9.49 to 9.53, 9.57 to 9.60, 9.94, 9.99, 9.100, 9.115, 9.156, 9.157, 9.160, 9.162, 9.163, 9.190, 9.191, 9.223, 9.229, 9.235, 9.280, 14.115 to 14.118, 14.156, 14.201 to 14.203 Landing speed, 24.81 Lawn sprinklers, 7.58, 7.60, 8.107, 21.48, 21.49, 23.44 Least squares fit, 17.217 Lift coefficients (C£), Figs. A-66, A-67, A-70, and A-71 Lift force, 24.80 to 24.92 Line doublets, 7.71 Loss coefficients ( K), Figs. A-7 to A-12, Tables A-ll and A-12 ICAO standard atmosphere. Tables A-7 and A-8 Ice thrust on dams, 4.8 Ideal gases, 1.36 to 1.64, 1.134, 8.25, 8.34 Inclined manometers, 2.74, 2.80 Incompressible flow, 7.21, 7.23 to 7.32, 7.36, 7.37, 7.39 to 7.41, 7.66, 7.74, 8.27, 9.12, 9.14, 9.157, 9.282 Induced drag, 24.85, Fig. A-69 Internal energy, 16.5, 16.6, 16.50 Irrotational flow, 7.41, 7.42, 7.45, 7.46, 25.2 to 25.4 ISA flow nozzles, 17.58, 17.62, 17.63, 17.71, 17.72, 17.76, Figs. A-20 and A-22 Isentropic compression of gases, 1.55, 1.62, 16.6 to 16.8, 16.10, 16.21, 16.32, 16.46, 16.47 Isentropic diffusers, 16.170 Isentropic expansion of gases, 1.64 Isentropic flow of gases, 16.88 to 16.94, 16.96 to 16.105, 16.107 to 16.111, 16.116, 16.117, 16.119, 16.121 to 16.123, 16.170 to 16.173 Isentropic relations for perfect gases, Table A-16 Isothermal compression of gases, 1.47, 1.54, 1.55, 1.63, 16.52 Isothermal expansion of gases, 1.64 Isothermal flow of gases, 16.67 to 16.87, 16.237 Hardy Cross method, 13.1 to 13.8, 13.10, 13.11, 13.13, 13.16 to 13.19, 13.21, 13.24, 13.26 to 13.32 Hazen-Williams equation, 1.138, 9.263, 9.266, 9.267, 9.269, 9.271 to 9.276, 9.292, 9.293, 13.1 to 13.8, Figs. A-13, A-14, and A-17, Table A-14 Mach angle (a), 16.56 to 16.58, 16.190 Mach number (NM ), 16.3, 16.4, 16.36, 16.37, 16.56 to 16.59, 16.65, 16.102, 16.105, 16.112, 16.118 to 16.123, 16.134, 16.141, 16.147, 16.160, 16.178, 16.183, 16.189, 16.190, 16.192, 16.203, 16.204, 16.206 to 16.210, 16.224, 16.238, 17.22, 17.107, 18.71, 23.51, Table A-17 Manning equation, 9.262, 9.265, 9.268, 9.270, 9.277 to 9.279, 9.294, 14.98, 14.122, 14.142, 14.157, 14.162, 14.171, 14.237, Heads: friction, 9.223 to 9.225 pressure, 2.3, 2.19, 2.24, 2.25, 2.88, 8.51, 8.52, 8.54 to 8.56, 8.121, 8.123, 8.124, 9.194, 9.231, 9.286, 10.19, 10.20, 13.9, 13.12 total energy, 8.61 to 8.64, 9.235 velocity, 8.71, 8.93, 8.95, 8.112 to 8.114, 8.138 to 8.142, 8.144, 8.145, 8.148 Homologous hydraulic machines, 18.6, 18.7792 0 INDEX 14.239, 14.242, Figs. A-15 and A-16, Table A-13 Manometers, 2.34 to 2.39, 2.41, 2.43 to 2.49, 2.54 to 2.57, 2.68, 2.69, 2.73, 2.79, 2.82, 2.83, 8.78, 8.94, 8.111, 14.104, 17.7, 17.8, 17.12 to 17.15, 17.29 to 17.32, 17.34 to 17.36, 17.39 to 17.41, 17.44, 17.78, 17.79, hydraulic jumps and, 14.82, 14.86, 14.284, 14.341 to 14.355, 14.366 to 14.395, 14.400 hydraulic radius and, 14.31, 14.106, 14.115, Fig. A-18 obstacles on floor and, 14.80 in parabolic channels, 14.79, 14.230, 14.231 in rectangular channels: cross section, 14.21, 14.27, 14.28, 14.44 depth of flow, 14.6 to 14.9, 14.34, 14.48, 14.60, 14.66, 14.75, 14.76, 14.83, 14.86, 14.95, 14.120, 14.121, 14.126, 14.133 to 14.141, 14.159, 14.194, 14.197, 14.200, 14.205, 14.207, 14.224, 14.233, 14.247, 14.249, 14.255, 14.258, 14.260, 14.265 to 14.269, 14.290, 14.292, 14.294 to 14.297, 14.308, 14.309, 14.341, 14.342, 14.381, 14.383 to 14.385 dimensions, 14.21, 14.27, 14.28, 14.31 to 14.33, 14.44, 14.52, 14.54, 14.106, 14.111, 14.144, 14.168, 14.178, 14.198, 14.211, 14.213, 14.214, 14.222, 14.248, 14.256, 14.356 to 14.358, 14.396 nonuniform flow, 14.265 to 14.269, 14.271, 14.272 slope, 14.3, 14.27, 14.28, 14.48, 14.72, 14.83, 14.99, 14.100, 14.122, 14.145, 14.200, 14.220, 14.226, 14.249, 14.255, 14.291, 14.315 to 14.318 subcritical, 14.47, 14.66, 14.73, 14.86, 14.119, 14.134, 14.136, 14.141, 14.252, 14.255, 14.265, 14.266, 14.284, 14.301 to 14.303, 14.392 supercritical, 14.134, 14.136, 14.141, 14.145, 14.254, 14.255, 14.266, 14.284, 14.301, 14.302, 14.374, 14.392 surge waves, 14.280 transition from trapezoidal section, 14.63 transition to trapezoidal section, 14.64, 14.273 velocity, 14.1, 14.48, 14.105, 14.126, 14.166, 14.249, 14.341, 14.342 Nozzles: convergent, 7.6, 7.9, 8.15, 16.124 to 16.129, 16.132, 16.133, 16.135, 16.136, 16.139, 16.140, 16.143, 16.151, 16.152, 16.154, 16.155, 16.162, 16.164, 16.179, 16.180, 16.222 converging-diverging, 16.130, 16.131, 16.134, 16.137 to 16.142, 16.144, 16.153, 16.156, 16.158, 16.161, 16.163, 16.167, 16.178, 16.181, 16.182 flow, 8.84, 8.85, 17.58 to 17.76, Figs. A-20 to A-24, A-34, Table A-18 force on, 23.57, 23.59 orifice, 17.45, 17.46 rocket, 16.168, 16.169, 16.174, 16.176, 16.177 supersonic, 16.149, 16.150, 16.158, 16.165, 16.166 velocity in, 7.1, 7.2, 7.6, 7.7, 7.9, 8.15, 8.43, 8.127, 8.143 Venturi, 17.170 to 17.173, Figs. A-26 and A-36 17.83 differential, 2.50 to 2.52, 2.58 to 2.66, 2.71, 2.72, 2.75 to 2.78, 2.85 to 2.87, 2.92, 2.96, 8.81, 8.84, 8.85, 8.90, 8.92, 8.96, 8.97, 8.119, 8.120, 9.205, 17.10, 17.16, 17.33, 17.42, 17.58, 17.70 to 17.72, 17.84, 17.117, 17.132, 17.135, 17.142, 17.144, 17.145, 17.147 to 17.151, 17.156, 17.159 to 17.165, 17.173, 17.174, 20.24 inclined, 2.74, 2.80 Mass, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.13, 1.36 Mass density (/>), 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.8, 1.10, 1.11, 1.16, 1.18, 1.19, 1.36, 1.38, 1.42, 1.44 to 1.46, 1.56, 1.61, 2.6, 2.7, 2.89, 8.5, 8.23, 8.41, 16.2, 25.5, Tables A-l to A-8 Mass flow rate, 7.48 to 7.50, 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.5, 8.10, 8.26, 8.38, 8.40, 8.46, 8.83, 9.25, 9.76, 16.143, 16.146, 16.151 to 16.156, 16.159, 16.162, 16.164, 16.165, 16.179 to 16.182, 16.222, 16.225, 16.227, 16.234, 16.239, 23.24, 23.54 Mean free path (L), 1.134 Measurement of flow (see Flow measurement) Metacenter (me), 6.65 to 6.72, 6.75 to 6.77 Mild slope, 14.315, 14.318, 14.320 to 14.322, 14.341, 14.342, Fig. A-19 Molecular weight, 16.29, Table A-6 Monoclinal waves, 15.2 Moody formula, 9.73, 9.74, 9.258, 9.259, 14.158, 14.162, 14.172, 14.183, Fig. A-5 Muskingum method, 15.8 to 15.12 Open-channel flow: in circular sections: cross section, 14.20, 14.29, 14.43 depth of flow, 14.12, 14.14 to 14.19, 14.40, 14.41, 14.68, 14.70, 14.114, 14.129, 14.174, 14.229, 14.246, 14.320 dimensions,14.20, 14.29, 14.31, 14.38, 14.39, 14.43, 14.56, 14.112, 14.173, 14.180, 14.246, 14.364, 14.365 slope, 14.26, 14.29, 14.41, 14.49, 14.71, 14.195, 14.209, 14.243, 14.244 subcritical, 14.130 supercritical, 14.186 velocity, 14.26, 14.49, 14.113 volume flow rate, 14.10, 14.11, 14.13, 14.17 to 14.19, 14.26, 14.36, 14.37, 14.49, 14.67, 14.69, 14.88, 14.113, 14.163, 14.171, 14.172, 14.175, 14.177, 14.186, 14.196, 14.199, 14.298, 14.364, 14.365 water-surface profiles for, 14.299, 14.339, 14.340 dropdown in, 14.326 flood routing for, 15.1 to 15.16 free overfall in, 14.326 Navier-Stokes equation, 7.57 Neutral buoyancy, 6.34, 6.39 Newton’s law, 24.36, 24.68 Nikuradse’s sand-roughened pipe tests, Fig. A-6 Normal acceleration, 7.11, 7.79INDEX 0 793 loss coefficients (K) for, Figs. A-7 to A-12, Tables A-ll and A-12 Nikuradse’s sand-roughened pipe tests for, Fig. A-6 parabolic velocity profile in, 1.69, I.133, 7.49, 8.36, 9.156 pressure drop in, 9.67 to 9.72, 9.80, 9.81, 9.83, 9.104 to 9.108, 9.111, 9.112, 9.114, 9.115, 9.117, 9.131, 9.151, 9.218, 10.27, 11.10, 11.22, II.24, 11.25, 11.27, 13.14 roughness () of, 9.66, 9.73 to 9.76, 9.90, 9.128, 9.137, 9.171, 9.179, 9.181, 9.182, 9.294, Fig. A-4, Table A-9 size of, 9.71, 9.72, 9.110, 9.140, 9.142, 9.163, 9.168 to 9.170, 9.172, 9.173, 9.177, 9.179, 9.207, 9.213 to 9.215, 9.228, 9.250, 9.257, 9.271, 9.272, 9.276, 9.278, 9.279, 9.291, 9.295 to 9.297, 10.31, 20.82 unsteady (transient) flow in, 19.6, 19.7, 19.9, 19.13 to 19.20, 19.25 to 19.30, 19.37 to 19.57 wall thickness of, 5.48, 5.50, 5.52, 5.53, 19.7, 19.50, 19.51 water-hammer transients in, 19.7, 19.27, 19.53 to 19.56 Pistons, 2.53, 2.81, 2.97, 8.106, 16.159 Pitch diameter of turbines, 21.3 to volume flow rate, 14.1, 14.65, 14.94, 14.101, 14.102, 14.111, 14.117, 14.118, 14.120, 14.123, 14.142, 14.157, 14.158, 14.166, 14.194, 14.204, 14.210, 14.212, 14.221, 14.223, 14.235, 14.239, 14.240, 14.257, 14.262 to 14.264, 14.270, 14.294, 14.310 to 14.312, 14.338, 14.343, 14.359 to 14.363, 14.389, 14.399, 14.400 water-surface profiles, 14.265 to 14.269, 14.271, 14.272, 14.277, 14.278, 14.281 to 14.288, 14.294, 14.297, 14.301 to 14.307, 14.313, 14.314, 14.324 to 14.327, 14.333, 14.336, 14.337, 14.354 Reynolds number (NR) for, 14.87, 14.88 roughness and, 14.84, 14.87, 14.92, 14.237, 14.239, 14.241, 14.242, 14.261, 14.293 in T-shaped channels, 14.169, 14.170 in trapezoidal channels: cross section, 14.23, 14.30, 14.46, 14.77 depth of flow, 14.35, 14.42, 14.59, 14.62, 14.84, 14.91, 14.128, 14.143, 14.161, 14.165, 14.181, 14.188, 14.228, 14.250, 14.251, 14.275 dimensions, 14.23, 14.30, 14.31, 14.46, 14.50, 14.53, 14.55, 14.57, 14.77, 14.78, 14.109, 14.110, 14.179 slope, 14.3, 14.30, 14.42, 14.90, 14.99, 14.164, 14.188, 14.251 subcritical, 14.24, 14.253 supercritical, 14.187 transition from rectangular section, 14.64, 14.273 transition to rectangular section, 14.63 velocity, 14.2, 14.55, 14.250 volume flow rate, 14.2, 14.51, 14.58, 14.89, 14.93, 14.102, 14.160, 14.176, 14.210, 14.245 water-surface profiles for, 14.276, 14.278, 14.279, 14.289, 14.332, 14.334, 14.335 in triangular channels: cross section, 14.22, 14.45 depth of flow, 14.4, 14.25, 14.61, 14.127, 14.146, 14.167, 14.192, 14.208, 14.232, 14.319 dimensions, 14.22, 14.45, 14.108, 14.206, 14.227 slope, 14.25, 14.127, 14.146, 14.190 to 14.192 subcritical, 14.74 supercritical, 14.85 velocity, 14.25 volume flow rate, 14.191 water-surface profiles for, 14.278 types of profiles for, Fig. A-19 in Venturi flumes, 8.86, 14.328 to 14.331 wetted perimeter and, 14.5, 14.31, 14.96, 14.107, 14.214, Fig. A-18 Orifice nozzles, 17.45, 17.46 Orifices, 17.77 to 17.140, 18.8, 19.35, 19.36, Figs. A-24 to A-29, A-33, Table A-19 Parabolic velocity profile, 1.69, 1.133, 7.49, 8.28, 8.36, 9.156 Parshall flumes, 17.229 to 17.234 Partial pressure, 1.60 Pathlines of flow, 7.80 Pelton wheels, 21.11, 21.12, 21.46, 21.54, 21.61 Perfect gases, 18.71, Fig. A-72, Tables A-16 and A-17 Piezometers, 2.26, 2.27, 2.29, 2.30, 2.94, 17.3, 17.4, 17.12, 17.14, 17.15, 17.30 to 17.32 Pipe networks: equivalent single pipe replacement, 13.25 Hardy Cross method for, 13.1 to 13.8, 13.10, 13.11, 13.13, 13.16 to 13.19, 13.21, 13.24, 13.26 to 13.32 pressure in, 13.9 13.12, 13.14, 13.20, 13.22, 13.27 Pipeline systems: branching, 12.1 to 12.19 parallel, 11.1 to 11.54 series, 10.1 to 10.31 21.5 Pitot measuring devices, 17.3 to 17.6, 17.13 to 17.24, 17.27, 17.29 to 17.36, 17.39, 17.40, 17.42 to 17.44, 17.87, 17.90, 17.117 Plungers, 2.33, 8.16 to 8.18 Polytropic processes for gases, reversible, 16.22, 16.33 to 16.35 Potential energy, 8.55, 8.56, 8.58, 8.59 Potential function for flow, 25.4, 25.14, 25.17 Powell equation, 14.235, 14.236 Prandtl tubes, 17.16, 17.35 Prandtl’s soap-film analogy, 1.109, 1.110 Pressure: absolute, 2.12 to 2.15, 2.22, 2.23, 2.38 to 2.40, 2.42 to 2.44, 2.70, 2.85, 2.91, Tables A-7 and A-8 atmospheric, 1.127 to 1.130, 2.4, 2.5, 2.10, 2.12 to 2.14, 2.70, 2.90, 2.91, Tables A-7 and A-8 barometric, 2.4, 2.22, 2.23 boiling temperature and, 1.127 to 1.131 cavitation and, 1.132, 8.100, 8.118, 9.290 center of (see Center of pressure) Pipes: centerline velocity in, 9.119, 9.125, 9.126, 9.156 entrance length of, 9.5, 9.9 equivalent length of, 9.251, 9.281 force on bends in, 23.35 to 23.40, 23.42 force on reducers for, 23.41, 23.42 hydraulically smooth, 9.179794 Q INDEX specific speed (Ns) of, 20.1, 20.2, 20.28, 20.30, 20.31, 20.60 torque on, 20.70 unsteady (transient) flow in, 19.8, 19.38, 19.39 volume flow rate for, 20.6, 20.14, 20.20, 20.28, 20.32 to 20.35, 20.45, 20.46, 20.48 to 20.50, 20.54, 20.80 to 20.82, 20.87 conversion of, 2.21, 2.22 on dams, 2.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 to 4.7 difference of, 1.113, 1.114, 8.53 gage, 2.12 to 2.14, 2.22, 2.23, 2.28, 2.29, 2.31, 2.39, 2.40, 2.53, 2.55, 2.67, 2.69, 2.91, 9.84, 9.204, 9.208, 17.9 to pipe, 9.66, 9.73 to 9.76, 9.90, 9.128, 9.137, 9.171, 9.179, 9.181, 9.182, 9.294, Fig. A-4, Table A-9 wing, 24.44 Runge-Kutta integration, 19.4, 19.22 to 19.24 17.11 partial, 1.60 pipe wall thickness and, 5.48, 5.50, 5.52, 5.53 saturation, 1.128, 1.129 stagnation, 8.81, 8.115, 8.116, 16.13 to 16.17, 16.103, 16.106, 16.178, 16.197, 16.202, 17.5, 17.6, 17.23 to 17.25, 17.37, Safety factor for dams ( see Factor of safety for dams) Saturation pressure, 1.128, 1.129 Shafts: Prandtl’s soap-film analogy for, 1.109, 1.110 rate of twist (a) for, 1.109, 1.110 Shear flow, 7.33, 7.34 Shear stress (r), 1.67 to 1.100, 9.30, 9.35, 9.37, 9.98, 9.118, 9.122, 9.128, 9.132, 9.133, 9.136, 9.141, 9.154, 9.155, 9.158, 9.159, 9.284, 9.285, 14.238, 24.12, 24.17 Shear velocity, 9.158 Shockwaves, 16.130, 16.153, 16.161, 16.178, 16.182, 16.183, 16.186 to 16.206, 16.224, Table A-17 Shooting flow, 14.223 Similarity: dynamic, 18.11, 18.14, 18.16, 18.18, 18.21, 18.25, 18.28 to 18.30, 18.44, 18.46 to 18.48, 20.63 geometrical, 18.5 to 18.7, 18.24, 18.66, 20.75 Siphons, 8.68 to 8.71, 8.148 to 8.151, 9.287 to 9.289 Rehbock formula, 17.192 Resistance: air, 24.20 to 24.23 frictional, 1.89 rolling, 24.68, 24.89 turbulent, 19.22, 19.23 Resisting torque, 1.82 Reversible polytropic processes for gases, 16.22, 16.33 to 16.35 Reynolds number ( Np): critical, 9.55, 14.116, 24.15, 24.16 friction factor (/) and, 9.258, 9.259, 14.115 Froude number (NP) and, 18.23, 18.43 17.38 static, 17.24 to 17.26, 17.38 in tanks, 2.2, 2.3, 2.6 to 2.9, 2.13 to 2.20, 2.25, 2.27, 2.31, 2.92 to 2.96, 3.36, 9.210, 9.211 vapor, 1.127, 1.132, 2.90, 8.118, Tables A-l to A-3 water-hammer, 19.27, 19.53 to 19.56 work and, 8.60, 16.22 Pressure drag, 24.67 Pressure heads, 2.3, 2.19, 2.24, 2.25, 2.88, 8.51, 8.52, 8.54 to 8.56, 8.121, 8.123, 8.124, 9.194, 9.231, 9.286, 10.19, 10.20, 13.9, 13.12 Pressure (sound) waves, 16.66, 19.17 to 19.20, 19.27, 19.50 to 19.56 Profiles ( see Water-surface profiles) Propagation speed (velocity), 1.136, 14.147 to 14.153, 14.215 to 14.218, 18.3 Propellers, 20.76 to 20.78, 23.64 Pumps: air, 20.74 BEP for, 20.51 to 20.53 cavitation effects for, 20.9, 20.10, 20.43, 20.44, 20.47, 20.59 cavitation index (), 1.65, 1.66, 9.52,
18.33, 18.43, Fig. A-2,
Tables A-l, A-2, and A-4
Viscous boundary layers, 9.120,
9.129, 9.132, 9.133, 9.284,
9.285
Viscous drag, 24.37, 24.38
Viscous torque, 1.85
Volume, specific (F*), 1.10, 1.19,
1.33, 1.34, 1.39, 1.56, 1.57,
21.56, 21.62, 21.65, 21.67,
21.68, 21.71
specific speed ( Ns) of, 21.3 to
21.5, 21.14 to 21.18, 21.20,
21.30, 21.33, 21.34, 21.65,
21.67, Figs. A-42 and A-43
surge tanks for, 19.24
torque on, 7.59, 21.1, 21.7 to 21.9,
21.20, 21.63, 23.61
volume flow rate for, 21.7, 21.21,
21.52, 21.54, 21.65, 21.67
wind, Fig. A-49
Turbulent flow, 9.1, 9.5, 9.8, 9.10,
9.11, 9.13, 9.19, 9.21, 9.79,
9.114, 9.136, 9.180, 9.224,
9.225, 9.230, 9.236, 9.282,
9.283, 14.212
Turbulent resistance, 19.22, 19.23
U-tube oscillations, 19.2 to 19.5,
19.10 to 19.12, 19.21 to 19.23
Universal gas constant (Ru), 1.39
Unstable equilibrium, 6.66, 6.68, 6.69
Unsteady (transient) flow:
acceleration vector for, 7.12
dropping fluid column, 18.1
orifice transients, 19.35, 19.36
pipe transients, 19.6, 19.7, 19.9,
19.13 to 19.20, 19.25 to 19.30,
19.37 to 19.57
pump transients, 19.8, 19.38,
19.39
spillway transients, 19.31 to 19.34
surge-tank transients, 19.24, 19.58
to 19.62
turbulent resistance and, 19.22,
19.23
U-tube oscillations, 19.2 to 19.5,
19.10 to 19.12, 19.21 to 19.23
water-hammer transients, 19.7,
19.27, 19.53 to 19.56
1.61
Volume flow rate:
annular conduit, 9.101
branching pipeline system, 12.1 to
12.12, 12.16 to 12.19
capillary tube, 9.280
circular open section, 14.10, 14.11,
14.13, 14.17 to 14.19, 14.26,
14.36, 14.37, 14.49, 14.67,
14.69, 14.88, 14.113, 14.163,
14.171, 14.172, 14.175, 14.177,
14.186, 14.196, 14.199, 14.298,
14.364, 14.365, Fig. A-18
fan, 23.63
flow nozzle, 8.84, 8.85
individual pipe, 1.138, 7.48, 8.1,
8.2, 8.4, 8.22, 8.38, 8.44, 8.50,
8.62, 8.87, 8.95, 8.98, 8.114,
9.6, 9.38 to 9.41, 9.46, 9.53,
9.54, 9.56 to 9.58, 9.64 to 9.66,
9.77, 9.85 to 9.89, 9.92 to 9.97,
9.99, 9.100, 9.109, 9.113,
9.123, 9.124, 9.138, 9.139,
triangular duct, 9.103, 9.145
triangular open channel, 14.191
turbine, 21.7, 21.21, 21.52, 21.54,
21.65, 21.67
velocity vector and, 7.47, 7.51 to
Vapor pressure, 1.127, 1.132, 2.90,
8.118, Tables A-l to A-3
VDI orifices, 17.92, 17.132, 17.133,
17.135 7.53
Velocity:
acceleration and, 7.8 to 7.15, 7.17
to 7.22
average, 8.3, 8.6 to 8.11, 8.19,
8.22, 8.31, 8.32, 8.37, 8.47,
9.113, 9.158
centerline, 9.104, 9.119, 9.125,
9.126, 9.156
magnitude of, 7.3, 7.4
propagation, 1.136, 14.147 to
14.153, 14.215 to 14.218, 18.3
Venturi meter, 8.93, 8.97
wind tunnel, 8.24
von Karman equation, 14.103
Vortex flow, 7.29, 25.2, 25.3, 25.9,
25.13
Wall thickness of pipes, 5.48, 5.50,
5.52, 5.53, 19.7, 19.50, 19.51INDEX 0 797
Water:
boiling temperature of, 1.127 to
1.131
curvature of surface of, 1.107,
1.108
physical properties of, Fig. A-3,
Tables A-l to A-3
Water hammers, 19.7, 19.27, 19.53
to 19.56
Water meters, 17.237, 17.238
Water-surface profiles:
circular open section, 14.299,
14.339, 14.340
computer programs for:
nonuniform flow in open rectangular channels, 14.267 to
14.269
steady state flow in open rectangular, trapezoidal, or triangular channels, 14.278,
14.279
rectangular open channel,
14.265 to 14.269, 14.271,
14.272, 14.277, 14.278,
14.281 to 14.288, 14.294,
14.297, 14.301 to 14.307,
14.313, 14.314, 14.324 to
14.327, 14.333, 14.336,
14.337, 14.354
trapezoidal open channel,
14.276, 14.278, 14.279,
14.289, 14.332, 14.334,
14.335
triangular open channel,
14.278
types of, Fig. A-19
1.41, 1.43, 1.45, 1.56, 1.57,
1.59, 1.60, 1.61, 2.6, 2.7, 2.11,
2.28, 6.32, 6.35, 6.44, 7.65,
16.1, 24.59, Fig. A-3,
Tables A-l to A-8
Weight flow rate, 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.18,
8.20, 8.33, 8.39, 8.112, 9.174,
16.124 to 16.133, 16.137,
16.139, 16.140, 16.184, 16.185
Weirs, 14.258, 14.259, 14.263,
14.284, 14.397, 17.175 to
17.228, 18.56, 18.63, 18.75,
Fig. A-37
Wetted perimeter, 14.5, 14.31, 14.96,
14.107, 14.214, Fig. A-18
Wind tunnels, 8.24, 16.157, 18.15,
18.16, 18.18 to 18.20, 18.22,
18.31, 18.33, 18.45 to 18.48,
21.56
Wind turbines, Fig. A-49
Wings, 24.43, 24.44, 24.73 to 24.76,
24.78, 24.79, 24.81 to 24.83,
24.85, 24.86, 24.88, 24.90
Waves:
abrupt, 15.16
gravity, 15.13 to 15.15
monoclinal, 15.2
propagation velocity of, 1.136,
14.147 to 14.153, 14.215 to
14.218, 18.3
shock, 16.130, 16.153, 16.161,
16.178, 16.182, 16.183, 16.186
to 16.206, 16.224, Table A-17
small-amplitude, 15.1, 15.3
sound (pressure), 16.66, 19.17 to
19.20, 19.27, 19.50 to 19.56
Weber number (AV), 18.49
Weight, 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 1.9,
1.12 to 1.15
molecular, 16.29, Table A-6
specific (y), 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7,
1.8, 1.16, 1.20, 1.34, 1.37, 1.39,
Work:
potential energy and, 8.56
pressure and, 8.60, 16.22

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