Visualization, Modeling, and Graphics for Engineering Design

Visualization, Modeling, and Graphics for Engineering Design
اسم المؤلف
Dennis K. Lieu, Sheryl Sorby
التاريخ
9 يوليو 2018
المشاهدات
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Visualization, Modeling, and Graphics for Engineering Design
Dennis K. Lieu , Sheryl Sorby
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
University of California, Berkeley
Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Michigan Technological University
contents
Preface . xxi
Acknowledgments xxxiii
About the Authors .xxxiv
sectionone
Laying the Foundation
chapter 1 An Introduction to Graphical Communication
in Engineering 1-1
1.01 Introduction 1-2
1.02 A Short History .1-2
1.02.01 Ancient History
1.02.02 The Medieval Period
1.02.03 The Renaissance
1.02.04 The Industrial Revolution
1.02.05 More Recent History
1.03 The People and Their Skills .1-15
1.03.01 Organization of Project Life Phases
1.03.02 Organization of Functional Groups
1.03.03 Organization of Skills
1.03.04 Concurrent Engineering
1.04 Engineering Graphics Technology .1-20
1.04.01 Early Years
1.04.02 Instrument Drawing
1.04.03 The Computer Revolution
1.04.04 Graphics as a Design Tool
1.04.05 Graphics as an Analysis Tool
1.04.06 Graphics as a Presentation Tool
1.05 The Modern Role of Engineering Graphics .1-30
1.06 Chapter Summary 1-32
1.07 Glossary of Key Terms 1-32
1.08 Questions for Review .1-33
1.09 Problems 1-33viii contents
chapter 2 Sketching .2-1
2.01 Introduction 2-2
2.02 Sketching in the Engineering Design Process 2-2
2.03 Sketching Lines .2-3
2.04 Sketching Curved Entities 2-4
2.05 Construction Lines 2-6
2.06 Coordinate Systems 2-8
2.07 Isometric Sketches of Simple Objects 2-12
2.07.01 Circles in Isometric Sketches
2.07.02 Circular Holes in Isometric Sketches
2.08 Oblique Pictorials 2-18
2.08.01 Circular Holes in Oblique Pictorial Sketches
2.09 Shading and Other Special Effects .2-21
2.10 Sketching Complex Objects .2-22
2.11 Strategies for Simple Pictorial Sketches 2-24
2.11.01 Simple Isometric Sketches
2.11.02 Oblique Sketches
Caution 2-27
2.12 Chapter Summary 2-30
2.13 Glossary of Key Terms 2-30
2.14 Questions for Review .2-31
2.15 Problems 2-31
chapter 3 Visualization 3-1
3.01 Introduction 3-2
3.02 Background .3-2
3.03 Development of Spatial Skills 3-3
3.04 Types of Spatial Skills .3-5
3.05 Assessing Spatial Skills 3-5
3.06 Isometric Corner Views of Simple Objects .3-8
3.07 Object Rotations about a Single Axis .3-11
3.07.01 Notation
3.07.02 Rotation of Objects by More Than 90 Degrees
about a Single Axis
3.07.03 Equivalencies for Rotations about a Single Axis
3.08 Rotation about Two or More Axes .3-20
3.08.01 Equivalencies for Object Rotations about Two or
More Axes
3.09 Reflections and Symmetry 3-23
3.09.01 Symmetry
3.10 Cross Sections of Solids .3-27
3.11 Combining Solids 3-30contents ix
3.12 Strategies for Developing 3-D
Visualization Skills .3-32
3.12.01 The Sketching of Corner Views
3.12.02 Object Rotations about One Axis
3.12.03 Object Rotations about Two or More Axes
3.12.04 Reflections
3.12.05 Object Symmetry
3.12.06 Cross-Sections
3.12.07 Combining Solids
Caution 3-48
3.13 Chapter Summary 3-51
3.14 Glossary of Key Terms 3-51
3.15 Questions for Review .3-52
3.16 Problems 3-53
chapter 4 Working in a Team Environment .4-1
4.01 Introduction 4-2
4.02 Why Work in a Group? .4-2
4.03 What Does It Mean to Be a Team Player? 4-3
4.04 Differences between Teaming in the
Classroom and Teaming in the Real World 4-3
4.05 Team Roles .4-4
4.06 Characteristics of an Effective Team .4-5
4.06.01 Decisions Made by Consensus
4.06.02 Everyone Participates
4.06.03 Professional Meetings
4.07 Project Organization—Defining Tasks and
Deliverables .4-5
4.08 Time Management—Project Scheduling .4-6
4.08.01 Gantt Charts
4.08.02 Critical Path Method
4.09 Communication 4-10
4.09.01 Agreeing How to Communicate
4.09.02 Communicating Outside Meetings
4.09.03 Communicating with the Outside World
4.10 Tools for Dealing with Personnel Issues 4-13
4.10.01 Team Contract
4.10.02 Publication of the Rules
4.10.03 Signature Sheet and Task Credit Matrix
4.11 Chapter Summary 4-14
4.12 Glossary of Key Terms 4-15
4.13 Questions for Review .4-15
4.14 Problems 4-15x contents
chapter 5 Creativity and the Design Process .5-1
5.01 Introduction 5-2
5.02 What Is Design? .5-2
5.02.01 Computers in Design
5.02.02 Classification of Engineering Designers
5.03 Creativity in Design 5-4
5.03.01 Visual Thinking
5.03.02 Brainstorming
5.03.03 Brainwriting (6-3-5 Method)
5.03.04 Morphological Charts
5.03.05 Concept Mapping
5.04 The Engineering Design Process 5-8
5.04.01 Stage 1: Problem Identification
5.04.02 Stage 2: Concept Generation
5.04.03 Stage 3: Concept Selection and Refinement
5.04.04 Stage 4: Design Evaluation and Analysis
5.04.05 Stage 5: Physical Prototyping
5.04.06 Stage 6: Design Documentation
5.04.07 Stage 7: Production
5.05 The Concurrent Engineering Design Process 5-16
5.06 Patents 5-16
5.07 Chapter Summary 5-17
Case Study .5-18
5.08 Glossary of Key Terms 5-20
5.09 Questions for Review .5-21
5.10 Design Projects .5-21
sectiontwo
Modern Design Practice and Tools
chapter 6 Solid Modeling 6-1
6.01 Introduction 6-2
6.02 Tools for Developing Your Idea .6-2
6.02.01 Two-Dimensional CAD
6.02.02 Wireframe Modeling
6.02.03 Surface Modeling
6.02.04 Solid Modeling
6.03 A Parametric Solid Model .6-10
6.03.01 Valid Profiles
6.03.02 Creation of the Solid
6.04 Making It Precise .6-14
6.04.01 Orientation of the Sketchcontents xi
6.04.02 Geometric Constraints
6.04.03 Dimensional Constraints
6.04.04 Uniqueness of Constraints
6.04.05 Associative and Algebraic Constraints
6.05 Strategies for Combining Profile Constraints .6-20
6.06 More Complexity Using Constructive Solids 6-25
6.07 Breaking It Down into Features 6-28
6.07.01 The Base Feature
6.07.02 Chamfers, Rounds, and Fillets
6.07.03 Holes
6.07.04 Shells
6.07.05 Ribs and Webs
6.07.06 Other Feature Types
6.07.07 Cosmetic Features
6.07.08 An Understanding of Features and Functions
6.08 More Ways to Create Sophisticated Geometry .6-38
6.08.01 Defining Datum Points
6.08.02 Defining Datum Axes
6.08.03 Defining Datum Planes
6.08.04 Chaining Datums
6.08.05 Using Arrays (Rectangular and Circular)
6.08.06 Using Mirrored Features
6.08.07 Using Blends
6.08.08 Sweeps
6.09 The Model Tree 6-49
6.10 Families of Parts .6-52
6.11 Strategies for Making a Model .6-55
6.11.01 Step-by-Step Example 1—The Guide Block
6.11.02 Step-by-Step Example 2—The Mounting Brace
6.11.03 Step-by-Step Example 3—The Handwheel
6.12 Extraction of 2-D Drawings .6-70
Caution 6-71
6.13 Chapter Summary 6-78
6.14 Glossary of Key Terms 6-79
6.15 Questions for Review .6-81
6.16 Problems 6-82
chapter 7 Assembly Modeling 7-1
7.01 Introduction 7-2
7.02 Assembly Terminology .7-2
7.02.01 Associativity
7.03 Assembly Hierarchy 7-7xii contents
7.04 Assembly Constraints 7-8
7.04.01 Concentric Constraints
7.04.02 Mating Surfaces Constraints
7.04.03 Coincident Constraints
7.04.04 Distance Constraints
7.04.05 Adding Constraints to Your Assembly
7.05 Exploded Configurations .7-14
7.06 Interferences and Clearances 7-15
7.07 Bill of Materials 7-17
7.08 Assembly Strategy 7-18
7.08.01 Bottom-up Assembly Modeling
7.08.02 Top-down Assembly Modeling
7.09 Strategy for Bottom-up Assembly Modeling .7-19
Caution 7-30
7.10 Glossary of Key Terms 7-31
7.11 Questions for Review .7-32
7.12 Problems 7-32
chapter 8 Design Analysis .8-1
8.01 Introduction 8-2
8.02 Reverse Engineering .8-2
8.03 Metrology Tools for Reverse Engineering 8-3
8.03.01 Handheld Calipers
8.03.02 Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)
8.03.03 3-D Laser Scanner
8.04 The Reverse Engineering Process 8-5
8.04.01 Defining the Reverse Engineering Project
8.04.02 Dissecting a System
8.04.03 Obtaining Part Sizes
8.04.04 Developing a 3-D CAD Model
8.04.05 Considering Potential Redesign
8.05 Geometric Properties Analysis .8-12
8.05.01 Measurement Analysis
8.05.02 Mass Properties Analysis
8.06 Finite Element Analysis .8-18
8.07 The Finite Element Analysis Process .8-23
8.07.01 Creating the Model Geometry
8.07.02 Applying Constraints
8.07.03 Applying Loads
8.07.04 Meshing
8.07.05 Computing the Resultscontents xiii
8.07.06 Investigating the Results
8.07.07 Modifying the Design
8.08 Chapter Summary 8-28
8.09 Glossary of Key Terms 8-29
8.10 Questions for Review .8-29
8.11 Problems 8-30
chapter 9 Fabrication Processes 9-1
9.01 Introduction 9-2
9.02 Making Sure It Can Be Made .9-2
9.03 Processes for Low-Volume Production .9-4
9.03.01 Standard Commercial Shapes
9.03.02 Sawing
9.03.03 Turning
9.03.04 Drilling
9.03.05 Milling
9.03.06 Electric Discharge Machining
9.03.07 Broaching
9.03.08 Rapid Prototyping
9.03.09 Welding and Brazing
9.03.10 Grinding
9.04 Processes for Higher-Volume Production .9-21
9.04.01 Sand Casting
9.04.02 Extrusion
9.04.03 Drawing
9.04.04 Rolling
9.04.05 Die Casting and Molding
9.04.06 Forging
9.04.07 Stamping
9.04.08 Sintering
9.05 Burr Removal 9-33
9.06 Combined Processes 9-34
9.06.01 Example 1: The Retainer
9.06.02 Example 2: The Coupling
9.06.03 Example 3: The Motor Plate
Caution 9-47
9.07 Considerations for 3-D Modeling 9-53
9.08 Chapter Summary 9-57
9.09 Glossary of Key Terms 9-59
9.10 Questions for Review .9-60
9.11 Problems 9-61xiv contents
sectionthree
Setting Up an Engineering Drawing
chapter 10 Orthogonal Projection and Multiview
Representation .10-1
10.01 Introduction 10-2
10.02 A More Precise Way to Communicate
Your Ideas 10-2
10.02.01 Problems with Pictorials
10.02.02 Viewing Planes
10.02.03 Orthogonal Projection
10.02.04 A Distorted Reality
10.02.05 Choice of Viewing Planes
10.02.06 Size and Alignment
10.03 The Glass Box 10-11
10.03.01 Standard Views
10.03.02 The Preferred Configuration
10.04 The Necessary Details 10-13
10.04.01 Hidden Lines and Centerlines
10.04.02 The Necessary Views
10.04.03 Hidden Lines versus More Views
10.05 First-Angle Projection versus
Third-Angle Projection .10-19
10.06 Strategies for Creating Multiviews from
Pictorials 10-22
10.06.01 Point Tracking
10.06.02 Edge Tracking
10.06.03 Surface Tracking
10.07 Breaking the Rules—and Why It Is Good
to Break Them Sometimes 10-44
10.07.01 Threaded Parts
10.07.02 Features with Small Radii
10.07.03 Small Cutouts on Curved Surfaces
10.07.04 Small Intersections with Curved Surfaces
10.07.05 Symmetrical Features
10.07.06 Representation of Welds
Caution .10-51
10.08 When Six Views Are Not Enough 10-63
10.08.01 Features at Odd Angles
10.08.02 Internal Features
10.09 Considerations for 3-D Modeling 10-63
10.10 Chapter Summary 10-64
10.11 Glossary of Key Terms 10-65contents xv
10.12 Questions for Review .10-65
10.13 Problems 10-66
chapter 11 Advanced Visualization Techniques 11-1
11.01 Introduction 11-2
11.02 Basic Concepts and Terminology in
Visualization 11-2
11.03 The Possibilities for a Feature
Representation .11-10
11.04 Other Viewpoints 11-12
11.05 Advanced Visualization Techniques 11-14
11.05.01 Visualization with Basic Concepts
11.05.02 Strategy for a Holistic Approach to
Constructing Pictorials from Multiview
Drawings
11.05.03 Strategy for Constructing Pictorials by
Inverse Tracking of Edges and Vertices
11.05.04 Strategy for Constructing Pictorials by
Inverse Tracking of Surfaces
11.05.05 Strategy for Improving Spatial Skills through
Imagining Successive Cuts to Objects
11.06 Chapter Summary 11-45
11.07 Glossary of Key Terms 11-45
11.08 Questions for Review .11-45
11.09 Problems 11-46
chapter 12 Pictorial Drawings 12-1
12.01 Introduction 12-2
12.02 Axonometric Drawings 12-4
12.02.01 Isometric Drawing
12.02.02 Inclined Surfaces
12.02.03 Oblique Surfaces
12.02.04 Cylindrical Surfaces
12.02.05 Ellipses on Inclined Surfaces
12.03 Oblique Drawings 12-17
12.03.01 Types of Oblique Drawings
12.03.02 Construction of Oblique Drawings
12.03.03 Construction of an Object with
Circular Features
12.04 Perspective Drawings .12-20
12.04.01 Types of Perspective Drawings
12.04.02 Two-Point Perspective Drawings
12.04.03 Construction of a Two-Point Perspective
Drawing
12.04.04 Complex Object in Two-Point Perspectivexvi contents
12.05 Considerations for 3-D Modeling 12-28
12.06 Chapter Summary 12-28
12.07 Glossary of Key Terms 12-29
12.08 Questions for Review .12-29
12.09 Problems 12-30
chapter 13 Section Views 13-1
13.01 Introduction 13-2
13.02 A Look Inside .13-2
13.03 Full Sections 13-5
13.04 What Happens to the Hidden Lines? .13-11
13.05 The Finer Points of Section Lines 13-11
13.06 Offset Sections .13-13
13.07 Half Sections 13-14
13.08 Procedures for the Creation of
Section Views 13-16
13.08.01 Deciding When to use Section Views
13.08.02 Creating a Full Section View
13.08.03 Creating a Half Section
13.08.04 Multiple Section Views
13.08.05 Creating an Offset Section
13.08.06 Creating a Sectioned Pictorial
13.09 Removed Sections 13-32
13.10 Revolved Sections 13-35
13.11 Broken-Out Sections .13-37
13.12 Sections of Assemblies 13-39
13.13 A Few Shortcuts to Simplify Your Life 13-39
13.13.01 Small Cutouts on Curved Surfaces
13.13.02 Threaded Parts
13.13.03 Thin Features
13.13.04 Vanes, Fins, Spokes, and the Like
13.13.05 Symmetry
Caution .13-44
13.14 Considerations for 3-D Modeling 13-51
13.15 Chapter Summary 13-52
13.16 Glossary of Key Terms 13-52
13.17 Questions for Review .13-53
13.18 Problems 13-54
chapter 14 Auxiliary Views 14-1
14.01 Introduction 14-2
14.02 Auxiliary Views for Solid Objects .14-2
14.03 Auxiliary Views of Irregular or Curved
Surfaces 14-8contents xvii
14.04 Strategies for Auxiliary Views .14-9
Caution .14-13
14.05 Solid Modeling Considerations in Creating
Auxiliary Views 14-14
14.06 Sketching Techniques for Auxiliary Views 14-16
14.07 Chapter Summary 14-17
14.08 Glossary of Key Terms 14-17
14.09 Questions for Review .14-18
14.10 Problems 14-18
sectionfour
Drawing Annotation and Design Implementation
chapter 15 Dimensioning 15-1
15.01 Introduction 15-2
15.02 Is the Dimension I See on a Drawing Exact? .15-4
15.03 What Are the Rules for Dimensioning? 15-5
15.03.01 Millimeters, Inches, or Angstroms?
15.03.02 Types of Dimensioning
15.03.03 Fundamental Rules for Dimensioning
15.04 Definitions .15-7
15.05 Redundancy is Dumb 15-8
15.06 Geometrically Correct, but Still Wrong! 15-11
15.06.01 Different Ways of Specifying the Same
Geometry
15.06.02 Identifying and Specifying the Critical
Dimensions for Part Function
15.06.03 Baseline versus Chain Dimensioning
15.06.04 What Types of Dimensions Can Be Measured
and Checked?
15.07 Guidelines to Guide Your Lines 15-15
15.07.01 Solid Lines Only
15.07.02 Placement and Spacing
15.07.03 Font
15.08 Shortcuts 15-18
15.08.01 Diameters and Radii
15.08.02 Chamfers
15.08.03 Standard Machined Holes: Countersinks
and Counterbores
15.08.04 Slots
15.09 Notes .15-21
15.09.01 General Notes
15.09.02 Local Notesxviii contents
15.10 Considerations for 3-D Modeling 15-22
15.11 Dimensions for the Plate Example .15-22
15.12 Fundamental Rules for Dimensioning .15-23
15.13 Chapter Summary 15-24
15.14 Glossary of Key Terms 15-25
15.15 Questions for Review .15-25
15.16 Problems 15-26
chapter 16 Tolerancing .16-1
16.01 Introduction 16-2
16.01.01 Relationships between Different Parts
16.01.02 Problems with Inexperience in New
Engineers
16.02 Formats for Tolerances 16-4
16.03 Tolerance Buildup Problems .16-5
16.03.01 Tolerance Buildup with Chain, Baseline, and
Direct Dimensioning
16.03.02 Statistical Tolerance Control
16.04 Use of Tables for Fits 16-7
16.04.01 Types of Fits
16.04.02 Fit Terminology
16.04.03 English Fits
16.04.04 Metric Fits
16.04.05 Fits Tables
16.05 Conventional Tolerancing versus Geometric
Tolerancing 16-15
16.05.01 Features With and Without Size
16.05.02 Conventional Tolerancing and Form
16.05.03 Location of Holes and Pins with Conventional
Tolerancing
16.06 Geometric Dimensioning and
Tolerancing (GD&T) .16-20
16.06.01 The Datum Reference Frame
16.06.02 Geometry Characteristic Symbols and Feature
Control Frames
16.06.03 Order of Precedence for Datums
16.06.04 Position Tolerances versus Conventional
Tolerances
16.06.05 Form Tolerances
16.06.06 Profile Tolerances
16.06.07 Orientation Tolerances
16.06.08 Location Tolerances
16.06.09 Runout Tolerances
Caution .16-44contents xix
16.07 Examples of Specifying Fits and
Geometric Tolerances .16-48
16.07.01 Specifying the Fit between Two Parts
16.07.02 Adding Geometric Dimensions
16.08 Chapter Summary 16-53
16.09 Glossary of Key Terms 16-53
16.10 Questions for Review .16-54
16.11 Problems 16-54
chapter 17 Fasteners 17-1
17.01 Introduction 17-2
17.02 Screw Threads 17-2
17.02.01 Thread Terminology
17.02.02 Single and Multiple Threads
17.02.03 Right-Hand and Left-Hand Threads
17.02.04 Thread Standards
17.02.05 Thread Forms
17.03 Thread Cutting .17-8
17.04 Modeling Screw Threads .17-9
17.04.01 Thread Representations for Drawings
17.04.02 Thread Representation in Solid Models
17.05 Thread Notes 17-12
17.05.01 Metric Threads
17.05.02 Unified National Threads
17.05.03 Other Thread Forms
17.05.04 Thread Notes on a Drawing
17.06 Threaded Fasteners .17-15
17.06.01 Bolts and Nuts
17.06.02 Machine Screws and Cap Screws
17.06.03 Studs
17.06.04 Design Considerations for Threaded Fasteners
17.06.05 Set Screws
17.06.06 Self-Tapping Screws
17.07 Rivets .17-20
17.07.01 Kinds of Rivets
17.08 Washers .17-22
17.09 Pins .17-22
17.10 Retaining Rings 17-25
17.11 Keys .17-27
17.12 Snap-Fit Fasteners 17-29
17.13 Chapter Summary 17-30
17.14 Glossary of Key Terms 17-31
17.15 Questions for Review .17-32
17.16 Problems 17-32xx contents
chapter 18 Working Drawings .18-1
18.01 Introduction 18-2
18.02 Making It Formal .18-3
18.03 Sheet Sizes 18-6
18.04 The Formal Drawing Header in Manufacturing
Drawings .18-8
18.05 The Drawing Area for Manufactured Parts .18-14
18.05.01 Geometry Presentation
18.05.02 Object Views
18.05.03 Notes
18.06 Parts, Subassemblies, and Assemblies 18-16
18.06.01 Exploded Assembly Drawings
18.06.02 Outline Assembly Drawings
18.06.03 Sectioned Assembly Drawings
18.06.04 The Bill of Materials
18.06.05 Manufacturing Detail Drawings
18.06.06 More Examples of Manufacturing Drawings
18.07 Construction Drawings .18-36
18.07.01 Why Construction Drawings Are Different from
Manufacturing Drawings
18.07.02 How Construction Drawings Are Different from
Manufacturing Drawings
18.08 Construction Plans .18-42
18.08.01 Cover Sheet
18.08.02 Site Plan
18.08.03 Elevation Views
18.08.04 Foundation and Floor Plans
18.08.05 Sections
18.08.06 Detail Construction Drawings
18.08.07 Plan and Profile Drawings
18.09 Engineering Scales .18-52
18.09.01 Engineer’s Scale
18.09.02 Metric Scale
18.09.03 Architect’s Scale
Caution .18-57
18.10 Considerations for 3-D Modeling 18-71
18.11 Chapter Summary 18-72
18.12 Glossary of Key Terms 18-72
18.13 Questions for Review .18-74
18.14 Problems 18-75contents xxi
sectionfive (go to the CD in the back of the book)
Advanced Topics in Engineering Graphics
chapter 19 Technical and Engineering Animation .19-1
19.01 Introduction 19-2
19.02 Animation Process and Technique 19-3
19.02.01 The Planning Stage
19.02.02 The Modeling Stage
19.02.03 The Scene Development Stage: Cameras,
Lighting, and Rendering
19.02.04 The Animation Stage: Motion and Action
19.02.05 The Output Stage: Editing and Production
19.03 Chapter Summary 19-29
19.04 Glossary of Key Terms 19-31
19.05 Questions for Review .19-33
19.06 Problems 19-33
chapter 20 Topological Maps and GIS 20-1
20.01 Introduction 20-2
20.02 What Is a Geographic Information
System (GIS)? .20-2
20.02.01 Types of Spatial Data
20.02.02 Description of Spatial Data
20.02.03 What Is a Geographic Coordinate System?
20.02.04 Planar Coordinate Systems
20.03 GIS Data Analysis Functions 20-12
20.03.01 Buffer Creation
20.03.02 Feature Generalization
20.03.03 Thematic Layer Overlay
20.03.04 Terrain Mapping and Analysis
20.04 Sources of Spatial Data 20-18
20.05 Types of Digital Data Widely Used in
GIS Projects .20-19
20.06 Chapter Summary 20-21
20.07 Glossary of Key Terms 20-21
20.08 Questions for Review .20-23
20.09 Problems 20-23xxii contents
chapter 21 Presentation of Engineering Data 21-1
21.01 Introduction 21-2
21.02 Anatomy of the Information Graphic .21-4
21.03 Formats for Quantitative Data .21-6
21.03.01 Bar Charts
21.03.02 Line Charts
21.03.03 Pie Charts
21.03.04 Scatter Plots
21.03.05 Tables
21.04 Diagrams 21-22
21.04.01 Business Diagrams
21.04.02 Technical Diagrams
21.04.03 Visual Storytelling Diagrams
21.05 Chapter Summary 21-30
21.06 Glossary of Key Terms 21-31
21.07 Questions for Review .21-32
21.08 Problems 21-32
appendix A A-1
glossary G-1
index I-1
index
24-bit color, 19-8
2-D drawings, extraction of, 6-70–6-71
2-D sketching, 6-10–6-11. See also
sketching
2-D spatial skills, 3-3
3-D animation software, 19-5, 19-7–19-18.
See also animation
3-D CAD models. See also computeraided design
developing, 8-10–8-11
physical properties of, 8-12
thread representations in,
17-11–17-12
3-D computer modeling. See solid
modeling
3-D coordinate system, 2-8–2-12, 2-30
3-D pie charts, 21-14–21-15
3-D printing, 9-16–9-17, 9-59
3-D spatial skills. See spatial skills
3-D tolerance zone, 16-32
3-D visualization. See visualization
6-3-5 method, 5-6–5-7
A
acceleration, 19-23
accountability, 18-9, 18-11–18-12
Acme thread forms, 17-7–17-8, 17-13
action lines, 2-22
active animation, 19-6, 19-31
additive color model, 19-7–19-8, 19-31
adjacent views, 10-10, 10-65, 14-6–14-8,
14-17
AeroTec bow, 5-18–5-19, 9-54–9-56, 14-15
agenda, 4-5, 4-15
airflow analysis, 8-19
algebraic constraints, 6-19–6-20, 6-79
allowances, 16-8, 16-53, A-45–A-46
alpha channel, 19-28–19-29, 19-31
aluminum alloys, A-41–A-43
ambient light, 19-9–19-10, 19-31
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), 17-6
American National thread, 17-6–17-7
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME), 15-5
American Standard thread, 17-6
analysis, 8-2, 8-29. See also design analysis; finite element analysis
engineering graphics and, 1-2,
1-24–1-27, 1-30–1-31
finite element, 8-18–8-28
geometric properties, 8-12–8-18
mass properties, 5-12–5-13, 5-20,
8-13–8-18
measurement, 8-13
anchor edge, 10-31–10-32, 10-65
anchor point, 10-25, 10-65, 11-21, 11-45
anchor surface, 10-33, 10-65, 11-35,
11-45
angle beams, 9-5
angled lines, 2-4
angle of thread, 17-3, 17-31
angles, distortion of, 10-3
angular dimensional constraints, 6-18
angularity, 16-37–16-38
animation
active, 19-6
animation stage, 19-3, 19-18–19-27
audio component, 19-27–19-28
introduction to, 19-2–19-3
keyframe, 19-19–19-22
lighting, 19-8–19-13
modeling stage, 19-3, 19-5–19-6
motion path, 19-19, 19-22–19-24
output stage, 19-3, 19-27–19-29
passive, 19-6
planning stage, 19-3, 19-4
processes and techniques, 19-3–19-29
realism in, 19-17
scene development stage, 19-3,
19-6–19-18
ANSI. See American National Standards
Institute
ANSI title blocks, 18-12–18-14
ANSI Y14-5, 15-5, 15-25
approval signatures, 18-11–18-12, 18-72
approximations, 10-44–10-50
aqueducts, 1-4, 1-5
arches, Roman, 1-4–1-5
Archimedes screw, 1-5
architects, 5-4, 5-20
Architect’s scale, 18-56–18-57, 18-72
architecture, medieval, 1-5–1-7
arcs, 2-30, 20-4, 20-21
dimensioning, 15-11, 15-18–15-19
isometric sketches of, 2-14–2-16
sketching, 2-4–2-6
arrays, 6-44–6-45
arrowhead, 15-7, 15-25
as-built drawings, 5-15, 5-20, 18-42,
18-72
ASME. See American Society of
Mechanical Engineers
ASME Y14-54-1994, 15-5, 15-23–15-24,
15-25
aspect, 20-16, 20-17, 20-21
assemblies, 1-11, 1-32, 18-3
defined, 18-72
fasteners for, 17-1–17-31
main, 18-17
manufacturing drawings of,
18-16–18-23
section views of, 13-39
assembly dimensions, 18-20, 18-72
assembly drawings, 18-17–18-18
detail dimensions on, 18-70
exploded, 18-19
outline, 18-19–18-20
sectioned, 18-21
assembly modeling, 7-1–7-35
bill of materials, 7-17–7-18
bottom-up, 7-18, 7-19–7-30
cautions for, 7-30–7-31
clearances, 7-15–7-16
constraints, 7-8–7-14, 7-21–7-24, 7-31
exploded configurations, 7-14–7-15
hierarchy, 7-7, 7-20, 7-30
interferences, 7-15–7-16
terminology, 7-2–7-6
top-down, 7-19
associative constraints, 6-19–6-20, 6-79
associativity, 7-6, 7-31
ASTM grade markings, A-13
ATDI, 20-18
atmospheric effects, 19-17
attributes, 20-3, 20-21
audio component, of animation,
19-27–19-28
Audio/Video Interleave (AVI) format,
19-29
AutoCAD software, 1-22
Autodesk, 1-22
automatic constraints, 6-75
auxiliary views, 14-17
common errors in, 14-13–14-14
creation of, 14-4–14-13
of curved surfaces, 14-8–14-9
of inclined surfaces, 14-2–14-17
introduction to, 14-2
of irregular surfaces, 14-8–14-9
oblique surfaces, 14-16
sketching techniques, 14-16–14-17solid modeling considerations in,
14-14–14-16
for solid objects, 14-2–14-8
strategies for, 14-9–14-13
transferring distances in, 14-11,
14-13-14-14
uses of, 14-2
axes, 17-3, 17-31
coordinate, 10-24
datum, 6-38, 6-40–6-41
dependent, 21-5
independent, 21-5
isometric, 12-5–12-6
object rotations about single,
3-11–3-20, 3-34–3-36
pivot point, 19-24
rotations about multiple, 3-20–3-23,
3-36–3-38
x-axis, 2-8–2-12, 3-15–3-16, 3-20–3-23,
21-5
y-axis, 2-8–2-12, 3-15–3-16, 3-20–3-23,
21-5
z-axis, 2-8–2-12, 3-12–3-14, 3-20–3-23
axonometric drawings, 12-2–12-17,
12-29
dimetric drawings, 12-4–12-5
inclined surfaces, 12-6–12-8
isometric drawings, 12-4–12-17
trimetric drawings, 12-4–12-5
B
background edges, 13-45–13-46
background images, in animations,
19-28–19-29
back lights, 19-10, 19-31
balloons, 18-17, 18-72
bar charts, 21-6–21-11, 21-31
base feature, 6-29–6-30, 6-72, 6-79
base instances, 7-8, 7-31
baseline dimensioning, 15-13, 15-25,
16-5, 16-53
base profiles, improperly positioned, 6-72
basic dimensions, 16-26, 16-53
basic hole system, 16-8, 16-9
basic shaft system, 16-8, 16-9
basic size, 16-8
bearings, 18-40, 18-41, 18-72
benchmarks, 18-40, 18-72
Bezier weighted keyframes, 19-22
bilateral-equal distribution, 16-32
bilateral tolerance, 16-4
bilateral-unequal distribution, 16-32,
16-34
bill of materials (BOM), 7-17–7-18, 7-31,
18-21–18-23, 18-72
bioengineering, 1-13
bird’s-eye views, 3-9–3-10, 11-12–11-14
bitmap textures, 19-14, 19-31
black box diagram, 8-7, 8-29
blends, 6-46–6-47, 6-79
blind extrusions, 6-25, 6-79
blind holes, 6-33, 9-8, 9-59, 15-19–15-20,
17-8, 17-31
Blinn, Jim, 19-14–19-15
blocks, isometric sketches of, 2-12–2-14
blueprints, 18-38–18-39, 18-72. See also
construction drawings
bodily-kinesthetic ability, 3-2
body, of screw, 17-3
bolts, 17-15, 17-16, 17-31
Boolean operations, 3-30–3-31, 3-46–3-47,
3-51, 6-9
borders, 18-9, 18-57, 18-58, 18-61, 18-72
boring, 9-7, 9-59
boss feature, 6-36
bottom-up modeling, 7-18–7-31
bottom view, 10-11–10-13
boundary conditions, 8-22, 8-29
boundary representation (b-rep), 6-7, 6-79
bounding boxes, 2-4–2-5, 2-7, 2-30
box, 6-8
boxing-in technique, for oblique drawings,
12-19–12-20
box mapping, 19-17
brainstorming, 5-5–5-6, 5-20
brainwriting, 5-6–5-7, 5-20
brazing, 9-18–9-19, 9-21, 9-59
briefs, 21-29, 21-31
broach, 9-14, 9-59
broaching, 9-14, 9-21, 9-59
broken-out sections, 13-37–13-38, 13-52
buffer creation, 20-12
buffers, 20-12, 20-21
bump mapping, 19-14–19-15, 19-31
burr removal, 9-33–9-34
business diagrams, 21-22–21-25, 21-31
butt joints, 17-20, 17-31
buttress thread forms, 17-7–17-8
C
cabinet oblique drawings, 12-17–12-18,
12-29
CAD. See computer-aided design
CAD designers, 5-4, 5-20
CAD models. See 3-D CAD models
calipers, 8-3–8-4, 8-29
CAM. See computer-aided manufacturing
cameras, for animations, 19-6–19-7
cannons, 1-9
cantilever joints, 17-29–17-30
cap screws, 17-17, 17-31
cap screw specifications, A-18–A-21
Cartesian coordinate system, 6-3, 10-24
case studies
Hoyt AeroTec Target Bow, 5-18–5-19
TiLite Wheelchairs, A-2–A-4
casting, 9-15, 9-59
castles, 1-5–1-6
cathedrals, 1-5–1-6
Catmull, Ed, 19-11
cavalier oblique drawings, 12-17–12-18,
12-29
cave paintings, 1-2–1-3
centerlines, 10-14, 10-57, 10-65
centermarks, 10-14, 10-57, 10-65
center-of-mass, 8-12, 8-15, 8-29
Central Meridian, 20-8, 20-21
Central Parallel, 20-8, 20-21
centroid, 8-15, 8-29
Century Gothic, 15-18
chain dimensioning, 15-14, 15-25, 16-53
tolerance building problems with,
16-5
chain of responsibility, for manufacturing
drawings, 18-11–18-12
chamfers, 6-31–6-32, 6-79, 15-19, 17-3
channel beams, 9-5
charts, 1-27–1-28, 21-2, 21-31
bar, 21-6–21-11
components of, 21-4–21-5
flowcharts, 21-22, 21-23
Gnatt, 4-7–4-8, 21-22, 21-31
lines, 21-11–21-14
morphological, 5-7, 5-20
organizational, 21-22, 21-23, 21-31
pie, 21-14–21-17, 21-31
chat rooms, 4-11
chemical engineering, 1-13, 5-3
chief designer, 5-4, 5-20
child features, 6-51, 6-79
circles
area of, A-8
defined, 2-30
dimensioning, 15-11, 15-18–15-19
isometric sketches of, 2-14–2-16
sketching, 2-4–2-5
trigonometric formulas for, A-8
circular features, oblique drawings of,
12-19–12-20
circular holes
isometric sketches of, 2-17–2-18, 2-28
oblique pictorial sketches of,
2-20–2-21
circularity, 16-29–16-30
circular runout, 16-41
circumference, A-8
civil engineering, 1-7, 1-10–1-11, 5-3,
18-37
Clarke Ellipsoid of 1866, 20-8, 20-21
classes of threads, 17-4
clearance fit, 16-7, 16-44
clearances, 7-15–7-16, 7-23, 7-31, 16-8,
16-53
clip function, 20-13–20-14
clipping planes, 19-7, 19-31
clips, 20-22
clockwise (CW) rotation, 3-12
close running fits, 16-11
I-2 indexCNC machines. See computer numerical
control (CNC) machines
CODECs, 19-29, 19-31
coded plans, 3-8–3-10, 3-32–3-34,
11-12–11-14
coincident constraints, 6-16, 7-11–7-12,
7-21–7-24
colinear constraint, 6-16, 6-17
collision detection, 19-2, 19-31
color mapping, 19-14, 19-31
colors, 19-7–19-8
combining solids, 3-30–3-32, 3-46–3-48,
3-51
communication. See also graphical
communication
engineering graphics and, 1-2, 1-30
in team environment, 4-10–4-12
through graphical images, 10-2
compass, 1-21
complex objects
sketching, 2-22–2-23
two-point perspective drawings of,
12-27–12-28
components, 7-2–7-3, 7-5, 7-8, 7-31
composites, 5-3
compositing, 19-27–19-28, 19-31
computational sciences, 1-13
computer-aided design (CAD), 1-32, 5-4,
5-20. See also solid modeling
2-D, 6-3–6-4
tools, 1-21–1-22, 6-2
wireframe, 6-4–6-7
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM),
5-4, 5-20
computer animation. See animation
computer graphics stations, 1-22
computer numerical control (CNC)
machines, 5-13–5-14
concentric constraints, 6-16, 6-17,
7-8–7-9, 7-22–7-24
concentricity, 16-40
concept generation, 5-5–5-10
concept mapping, 5-7–5-8, 5-20
concept phase, of project, 1-17
concept selection, 5-10–5-11
conceptual design, 5-4, 5-20
concurrent engineering, 1-15, 1-18–1-20,
5-16, 5-20
cones, 6-8, 20-8–20-9
consensus, 4-5, 4-15
constraints, 8-29
adding to assembly, 7-13–7-14
algebraic, 6-19–6-20, 6-79
applying, in finite element analysis,
8-24–8-25
assembly, 7-8–7-14, 7-21–7-24, 7-31
associative, 6-19–6-20, 6-79
automatic, 6-75
coincident, 7-11–7-12, 7-21–7-24
colinear, 6-16, 6-17
concentric, 6-16, 6-17, 7-8–7-9,
7-22–7-24
defined, 6-79
dimensional, 6-17–6-24, 6-74–6-77,
6-80
distance, 7-13
geometric, 6-15–6-17, 6-21–6-24,
6-74–6-77, 6-80
ground, 6-21, 6-80
insert, 7-9
mating surfaces, 7-9–7-11
misused, 6-74–6-77
offset, 7-10, 7-11
on projects, 4-7
strategies for combining, 6-20–6-24
uniqueness of, 6-18–6-19
construction drawings, 18-2, 18-36–18-42,
18-72
detail, 18-51
elevation views, 18-45
floor plans, 18-47
foundation plans, 18-45–18-46
versus manufacturing drawings,
18-37–18-38, 18-38–18-42
plan and profile drawing, 18-51–18-52
sections, 18-47–18-51
site plans, 18-44
site-specific considerations,
18-40–18-41
size considerations, 18-39–18-40
terminology, 18-38–18-39
title blocks, 18-42
construction lines, 2-6–2-7, 2-30
construction plans, 18-42–18-43. See also
construction drawings
cover sheets, 18-43
set of, 18-38
construction projects
one-of-a-kind considerations,
18-41–18-42
scheduling, 18-38
site-specific considerations,
18-40–18-41
tolerances in, 18-40
constructive solid geometry (CSG), 6-8,
6-79
constructive solids, 6-25–6-28
continuation blocks, 18-12, 18-72
contour dimensioning, 15-8, 15-15–15-17,
15-25
contour interval, 20-18, 20-22
contour rule, 15-8, 15-15, 15-25
contours, 20-16, 20-17–20-18, 20-22
contractors, 18-3
control points, 18-40, 18-72
conventional tolerances, 16-15–16-20,
16-25–16-27
coordinate axes, 2-8–2-12, 10-24
coordinate measuring machine (CMM),
8-4, 8-29
coordinate systems, 2-8–2-12, 6-3
Cartesian, 6-3, 10-24
geographic, 20-6–20-7
local, 19-24
planar, 20-8–20-11
State Plane Coordinate System,
20-9–20-11
UTM, 20-9–20-10
coplanar surfaces, 16-34
copyright issues, 19-5
corners
inside, 9-49
outside, 9-50
corner views, 3-9–3-10, 11-12–11-13
defined, 3-51
sketching, 3-32–3-34, 3-48–3-49
cosmetic features, 6-37, 6-79
cost overruns, 18-4
counter-bored holes, 6-33
counterbores, 15-19–15-20
counterclockwise (CCW) rotation,
3-11–3-12
countersinks, 15-19–15-20
counter-sunk holes, 6-33, 6-34
coupling, fabrication of, 9-41–9-45
cover sheets, 18-43, 18-72
creativity, 3-2
brainstorming, 5-5–5-6
in design, 5-4–5-8
visual thinking, 5-5
crest, 17-3, 17-31
critical dimensions, 15-11–15-13
critical path, 4-8–4-9, 4-15
critical path method (CPM), 4-8–4-10,
4-15
cross-hatch patterns, 13-12, 13-49–13-51
cross-sections. See also section views
defined, 3-51
of solids, 3-27–3-30
visualization of, 3-7, 3-44–3-46
cubes, cross-sections of, 3-30
curvature, 2-21
curve distortion, 10-4–10-5
curved surfaces, 11-2, 11-4–11-5, 11-45
auxiliary views of, 14-8–14-9
cutouts on, 10-46–10-47
inverse tracking, 11-30–11-34
multiview representations of,
10-40–10-42
small cutouts on, 13-39–13-40
small intersections with, 10-48
customer’s/client’s perspective, in
design process, 5-9
cut, 3-51
cutaway diagrams, 21-26, 21-31
cut features, 6-25, 6-77–6-78, 6-79
Cut operation, 3-31
cutouts, on curved surfaces, 10-46–10-47,
13-39–13-40
index I-3cutting objects, 3-31, 3-32, 3-47
cutting plane lines, 13-5–13-8, 13-51,
13-52
cutting planes, 3-7, 3-44–3-46, 3-51,
13-5–13-8, 13-51, 13-52
cutting segments, 13-28–13-29, 13-52
cylinders, 6-8
cross-sections of, 3-28–3-30
dimensioning, 15-18–15-19
for map projections, 20-8–20-9
cylindrical joints, 17-29
cylindrical mapping, 19-17
cylindrical surfaces, isometric drawings
of, 12-11–12-15
cylindrical tolerance zone, 16-26, 16-29
cylindricity, 16-30
D
databases, 6-2–6-3, 6-79
data presentation. See information
graphics
data structures, 20-4, 20-22
datum axes, 6-38, 6-40–6-41
datum features, 16-21, 16-46–16-48
datum feature symbols, 16-46–16-48
datum geometries, 6-38–6-43, 6-80
datum planes, 6-10, 6-38, 6-41–6-42, 6-43,
6-80, 16-21, 16-24
datum points, 6-38, 6-39–6-40
datum reference frame, 16-20–16-22,
16-53
datum requirement table, 16-45
datums, 6-38–6-43, 16-20–16-22, 16-53
chaining, 6-43–6-44
errors with, 16-45–16-46
multiple, 16-43–16-44
order of precedence for, 16-23–16-25
datum simulators, 16-21–16-22
da Vinci, Leonardo, 1-7–1-8, 1-20, 5-4–5-5
deceleration, 19-23
decimal degrees (DD), 20-7, 20-22
decimal inches, 15-5, 15-6
decisions, by consensus, 4-5
deep drawing, 9-26–9-27, 9-59
default tolerances, 18-12, 18-72
deflectors, 19-26
degrees, minutes, seconds (DMS), 20-7,
20-22
degrees of freedom (DOFs), 7-8, 16-21
deliverables, defining, 4-5–4-6
density, 8-13, 8-15, 8-29
dependent axis, 21-5
depictions, 21-28, 21-31
depth-mapped shadows, 19-11, 19-31
depth of thread, 17-3, 17-31
descriptive geometry, 1-10, 1-24, 1-32
descriptive model, 5-2
design, 1-5, 1-32, 5-20. See also computer-aided design (CAD)
computers in, 5-4
conceptual, 5-4
defined, 5-2–5-4
sustainable, 5-3, 5-20
design analysis, 5-12–5-13, 8-1–8-35
finite element analysis, 8-18–8-28
geometric properties analysis,
8-12–8-18
introduction to, 8-2
reverse engineering, 8-2–8-12
design analysts, 5-4, 5-20
design documentation, 5-4, 5-14–5-15,
5-20
designers
responsibilities of, 1-18
types of, 5-4
design evaluation, 5-12–5-13
design function, 1-17
design history, 1-30
design modification, after finite element
analysis, 8-27–8-28
design phase, of project, 1-17
design process, 5-4, 5-20
case study, 5-18–5-19
conceptual, 5-20
concurrent engineering, 5-16
creativity in, 5-4–5-8
engineering, 5-8–5-15
introduction to, 5-2–5-4
patents and, 5-16–5-17
prototyping, 5-3
sketching in, 2-2–2-3
stage 1: problem identification, 5-9
stage 2: concept generation, 5-9–5-10
stage 3: concept selection and
refinement, 5-10–5-11
stage 4: design evaluation and
analysis, 5-12–5-13
stage 5: physical prototyping,
5-13–5-14
stage 6: design documentation,
5-14–5-15
stage 7: production, 5-15
design table, 6-52, 6-53–6-54, 6-80
design tree, 6-49–6-51
detail designers, 5-4, 5-20
detail drawings, 18-18, 18-22–18-25,
18-51, 18-68–18-70, 18-72
detail sections, 18-47, 18-72
deviation bar chart, 21-9
devil’s advocate, 4-4, 4-15
diagrams, 21-2, 21-22–21-30
black box, 8-7
business, 21-22–21-25, 21-31
cutaway, 21-26, 21-31
defined, 21-31
explanation, 21-28, 21-31
fishbone, 8-7–8-8, 8-29
instructional, 21-25–21-26, 21-31
process, 21-28–21-29, 21-31
schematic, 21-25, 21-31
sequence, 21-28–21-29, 21-31
step-by-step, 21-29, 21-31
technical, 21-25–21-27, 21-31
Venn, 21-24, 21-31
visual storytelling, 21-27–21-30, 21-31
diameter, 15-18, A-8
diametral dimensional constraints, 6-18
die casting, 9-27–9-29, 9-32, 9-59
dies, 9-59, 17-8–17-9, 17-31
Differential Aptitude Test: Space
Relations, 3-6
diffuse mapping, 19-14
diffuse shading, 19-13
digital elevation models (DEMs),
20-20–20-21, 20-22
digital line graph (DLG) data,
20-19–20-20
dimensional constraints, 6-17–6-24,
6-74–6-77, 6-80
dimensioning, 15-1–15-35. See also
tolerances/tolerancing
3-D modeling and, 15-22
arcs, 15-18–15-19
baseline, 15-25, 16-5, 16-53
baseline versus chain, 15-13–15-14
chain, 15-25, 16-5, 16-53
chamfers, 15-19
checking dimensions, 15-14
circles, 15-18–15-19
contour, 15-8, 15-15–15-17, 15-25
critical dimensions, 15-11–15-13
cylinders, 15-18–15-19
definitions, 15-7–15-8
direct, 16-6, 16-53
fonts, 15-18
guidelines for, 15-15–15-18
holes, 15-18–15-19
introduction to, 15-2–15-3
machined holes, 15-19–15-20
notes, 15-21
placement and spacing, 15-17–15-18
plate example, 15-22–15-23
redundancy avoidance and,
15-8–15-10
rules for, 15-5–15-7, 15-23–15-24
shortcuts, 15-18–15-21
slots, 15-20–15-21
solid lines, 15-17
specifying geometry, 15-11
symbols, 15-18–15-19
tolerances and, 15-4–15-5, 15-7
types of, 15-5–15-6
units of measure, 15-5–15-6
dimension lines, 15-7, 15-17, 15-25
dimension names, 6-53, 6-80
dimensions, 15-7, 15-25. See also
dimensioning
assembly, 18-20
basic, 16-26, 16-53
of keys, A-31–A-36
limit, 16-4
reference, 18-20
I-4 indexof slots, A-31–A-36
in working drawings, 18-60
dimetric drawings, 12-4–12-5, 12-29
direct dimensioning, 16-6, 16-53
directional lights, 19-9, 19-10, 19-31
displacement fields, 8-19
displacements, 8-24, 8-26–8-27, 8-29
disposal phase, of project, 1-17
dissection notes, 8-7–8-8
dissolve function, 20-13, 20-22
distance constraints, 7-13
distortion
in pictorials, 10-3–10-5
of reality, 10-6–10-7
documentation
design, 5-4, 5-14–5-15
of meetings, 4-11
double-sided extrusion, 6-25–6-26, 6-80
dowel pins, 17-21, 17-22
draft, 9-22, 9-59
drafters, responsibilities of, 1-18
draft feature, 6-36
drafting boards, 1-21
drafting machine, 1-21
drawing area, on manufacturing drawings, 18-14–18-16
drawing instruments, mechanical,
1-20-1-21
drawing process, 9-24–9-27, 9-32
drawings, 1-5, 1-32. See also engineering
drawings; pictorial drawings;
sketching; working drawings
as-built, 5-15, 5-20, 18-42, 18-72
assembly, 18-17–18-21, 18-70
axonometric, 12-2–12-17, 12-29
detail, 18-18, 18-22–18-25, 18-51,
18-68–18-70, 18-72
extraction of 2-D, 6-70–6-71
informal, 18-4–18-5
instruments for, 1-20–1-21
layout, 18-19–18-20, 18-73
patent, 1-12, 1-13, 5-16–5-17
perspective, 12-2–12-29
plan and profile, 18-51–18-52, 18-73
from Renaissance, 1-8, 1-9, 1-20
drawing to scale, 18-52–18-54
drawing vellum, 1-21
drill bits, 9-7, 9-59
drill holes, 15-19
drilling, 9-7–9-9, 9-21, 9-59
drill press, 9-8, 9-59
driven dimension, 6-19, 6-80
driving dimensions, 6-19, 6-80
E
earth, shape of, 20-8
ease from functions, 19-23
ease to functions, 19-23
EC (Engineering Change) levels,
18-10–18-11, 18-72
edge tracking, 10-31–10-32, 10-65,
11-22–11-23, 11-45
for curved surfaces, 11-30–11-34
for inclined surfaces, 11-24–11-28
inverse, 11-20–11-34
for normal surfaces, 11-21–11-24
for oblique surfaces and hidden
features, 11-28–11-30
edge views, 14-3, 14-4, 14-17
EDM. See electric discharge machine
E-Government Initiative, 20-18
Egyptian hieroglyphics, 1-4
Egyptian pyramids, 1-3
electrical engineering, 1-12–1-13, 5-3
electrical plans, 18-38, 18-48, 18-72
electric discharge machine (EDM),
9-12–9-14, 9-21, 9-59
electromagnetic fields, 8-21–8-22
elevations, 18-40
elevation views, 12-22, 12-29, 18-38,
18-45, 18-73
ellipses
defined, 2-30
on inclined surfaces, 12-15–12-17
isometric sketches of, 2-14, 2-16
on isometric surfaces, 12-11–12-13
in multiview representations,
10-42–10-43
sketching, 2-5–2-6
ellipsoid, 6-8
e-mail, 4-11
emitters, 19-26
end mills, 9-9, 9-59
engineering. See also specific types
concurrent, 1-15, 1-18–1-20, 5-16, 5-20
defined, 1-2, 1-33
as design oriented, 5-2
engineering animation, 19-2, 19-31.
See also animation
engineering change (EC) number, 18-73
engineering design. See design
engineering designers, 1-18, 5-4
engineering drawings. See also working
drawings
common errors in, 10-51–10-62
creating from pictorials, 10-22–10-44
fonts for, 15-18
full sections on, 13-5–13-10
generating from CAD models, 8-11
introduction to, 10-2
as legal documents, 18-2, 18-3
modern, 1-12
necessary details, 10-13–10-19
notes, 15-21
precursors to, 1-5
role of, 1-31
scale, 18-52–18-57
shortcuts for, 10-44–10-50
thread notes in, 17-13–17-14
units of measure for, 15-5
uses of, 18-2
using orthogonal projection,
10-6–10-22
view layout for, 11-4–11-7
engineering graphics
as analysis tool, 1-24–1-27, 1-30–1-31
as design tool, 1-23–1-24
history of, 1-2–1-14
as presentation tool, 1-27–1-30
role of, 1-2, 1-30–1-32
engineering graphics technology,
1-20–1-30
computer-based, 1-21–1-30
early years, 1-20
engineering personnel
functional groups, 1-17
organization of skills, 1-18
engineering projects
complex, 1-14
flow of communication in, 1-15
functional groups on, 1-17
life phases, 1-16–1-17
people involved in, 1-15
engineering scales, 8-3, 8-29, 18-52–18-57
engineering schools, 1-11
engineering specialties, 1-12–1-14
engineers, 1-33, 18-3
functions of, 5-2
problem of inexperience in new,
16-2–16-4
responsibilities of, 1-18
versus scientists, 5-2
Engineer’s scale, 18-54–18-55, 18-73
English fits, 16-9–16-11, 16-44
English units, 18-37
entities, geometric, 6-4
environmental impact, 5-3, 5-9
equal length constraint, 6-17
experience, lack of, 16-2–16-4
explanation diagrams, 21-28, 21-31
exploded assembly drawings, 18-19,
18-73
exploded configurations, 7-14–7-15,
7-31
exploded pie chart, 21-14–21-15
extension lines, 15-7–15-8, 15-17, 15-25
external threads, 17-3, 17-8–17-9, 17-31
extrude through all, 6-25, 6-80
extrude to a selected surface, 6-25, 6-80
extrude to the next surface, 6-25
extrusions, 6-11–6-12, 6-25–6-28, 6-80,
9-24, 9-32, 9-59
F
fabricate, 1-19, 1-33
fabrication phase, of project, 1-17
fabrication processes
3-D modeling considerations, 9-53
brazing, 9-18–9-19, 9-21
broaching, 9-14, 9-21
burr removal, 9-33–9-34
index I-5combined, 9-34–9-39
die casting, 9-27–9-29, 9-32
drawing, 9-24–9-27, 9-32
drilling, 9-7–9-9, 9-21
electric discharge machine (EDM),
9-12–9-14, 9-21
examples
coupling, 9-41–9-45
motor plate, 9-45–9-47
retainer, 9-40–9-41
extrusion, 9-24, 9-32
forging, 9-29–9-30, 9-32
geometries to avoid and, 9-47–9-52
grinding, 9-19–9-20, 9-21
higher-volume, 9-21–9-33
for Hoyt AreoTec bow, 9-54–9-56
introduction to, 9-2–9-4
investment casting, 9-22, 9-24, 9-32,
9-41–9-45
for low-volume production, 9-4–9-21
milling, 9-9–9-12, 9-21
molding, 9-27–9-29, 9-32
need for familiarity with, 9-2
rapid prototyping, 9-15–9-17, 9-21
reaming, 9-21
rolling, 9-27, 9-32
sand casting, 9-22–9-24, 9-32
sawing, 9-6, 9-21
sintering, 9-32, 9-33
stamping, 9-31, 9-32
standard commercial shapes, 9-4–9-5
surface roughness produced by, A-45
tumbling, 9-33–9-34
turning, 9-7, 9-21
welding, 9-18, 9-21
fabricators, 1-18, 18-3
false easting, 20-9, 20-22
false northing, 20-9, 20-22
family models, 6-52–6-55, 6-80
fasteners, 17-1–17-36
bolts, 17-15, 17-16
cap screws, 17-17
defined, 17-31
design considerations, 17-18
grooved, 17-22–17-24
introduction to, 17-2
keys, 17-27–17-28
machine screws, 17-15–17-17
nuts, 17-15, 17-16
permanent, 17-2
pins, 17-21–17-25
retaining rings, 17-25–17-27
rivets, 17-20–17-21
screw threads, 17-2–17-8
modeling, 17-9–17-12
thread notes, 17-12–17-14
self-tapping screws, 17-19
set screws, 17-19
snap-fit, 17-2, 17-29–17-30
studs, 17-17
temporary, 17-2
thread cutting, 17-8–17-9
threaded, 17-15–17-19
washers, 17-21
feature arrays, 6-44–6-45, 6-80
feature-based solid modeling, 6-9, 6-80
feature control frames, 16-22–16-23,
16-26, 16-36, 16-37, 16-53
feature generalization, 20-12–20-14, 20-22
feature patterns, 6-44–6-45
features, 6-28–6-37
base, 6-29–6-30, 6-72, 6-79
blends, 6-46–6-47, 6-79
boss, 6-36
built-in, 6-77–6-78
chamfers, 6-31–6-32
child, 6-51, 6-79
circular, 12-19–12-20
copying, 6-44–6-45
cosmetic, 6-37, 6-79
cut, 6-77–6-78, 6-79
datum, 16-21, 16-46–16-48
defined, 6-80
draft, 6-36
editing, 6-50
fillets, 6-31–6-32
form, 6-29–6-30, 6-80
groove, 6-36
in hard-to-reach-locations, 9-51
holes, 6-32–6-34
island, 6-36
keyway, 6-36
keyway seat, 6-36
master, 6-44, 6-80
mirrored, 6-46, 6-80
at odd angles, 10-63
order of creation, 6-50
parent, 6-51, 6-80
representations of, 11-10–11-11
ribs, 6-35
rounds, 6-31–6-32
shells, 6-34–6-35
with size, 16-15–16-16, 16-53
slot, 6-36
with small radii, 10-46
spotface, 6-36
suppressed, 6-54, 6-81
swept, 6-48–6-49, 6-81
symmetrical, 10-49
taper, 6-36
thin, 13-41–13-42
undercut, 9-51–9-52
understanding, 6-37
unsuppressed, 6-54, 6-81
webs, 6-35
without size, 16-15–16-16, 16-53
feature tree, 6-49–6-51
Federal Geographic Data Committee
(FGDC), 20-18
fields, 20-6, 20-22
fillets, 6-31–6-32, 6-80
fill lights, 19-10, 19-31
finite element analysis (FEA), 1-29–1-30,
5-4, 5-20, 8-18–8-29
about, 8-18–8-19
applications of, 8-19–8-23
applying constraints, 8-24–8-25
applying loads, 8-25
computing results, 8-26
creation of model geometry for,
8-23–8-24
design modification and, 8-27–8-28
investigating results, 8-26–8-27
meshing, 8-26
process, 8-23–8-28
fins, 13-43
first-angle projection, 10-65
versus third-angle, 10-19–10-22
fishbone diagrams, 8-7–8-8, 8-29
fits. See also tolerances/tolerancing
clearance, 16-44
English, 16-9–16-11, 16-44
metric, 16-11–16-13, A-47
running, A-48–A-52
sliding, A-48–A-52
specifying, 16-48–16-49
standard, A-45–A-46
tables, 16-13–16-14, 16-44
terminology, 16-8
thread, 17-4
types of, 16-7
fixtures, 9-4, 9-59
flash, 9-28, 9-59
flat hierarchy, 7-30–7-31
flatness tolerance, 16-27
flat patterns, 3-6
floor plans, 18-38, 18-47, 18-73
flowcharts, 21-22, 21-23, 21-31
fluid flow, 8-19
flying buttress, 1-5–1-6
fold lines. See reference lines
fonts
for dimensioning, 15-18
for working drawings, 18-68
force (FN) fits, 16-10, 16-11, 16-13
foreshortened, 14-2, 14-17
forging, 9-29–9-30, 9-32, 9-59
form, 16-16–16-17, 17-31
formal drawings. See working drawings
form features, 6-29–6-30, 6-80
forms, 17-3
form tolerances, 16-27–16-30
Fort McHenry, 1-10, 1-11
fortresses, 1-9–1-10
forward kinematics, 19-24, 19-31
foundation plans, 18-38, 18-45–18-46,
18-73
foundation space, 10-24, 10-29, 10-65,
11-21, 11-45
four-center method, 12-12–12-14
frame rate, 19-4, 19-31
framing technique, for oblique drawings,
12-18–12-19
I-6 indexFrance, 1-10
free running fits, 16-11
French curve, 1-21
front-adjacent views, 14-8
frontal surfaces, 11-2, 11-45, 14-2
front views, 10-11–10-13, 14-2, 14-3
full indicator movement (FIM), 16-27
full sections, 13-5–13-10, 13-18–13-21,
13-52
functional gage, 16-29, 16-53
functional groups, 1-17
function curves, 19-18–19-21, 19-31
functions, 6-37
fused deposition (FD) process, 9-15, 9-16,
9-59
G
Gantt charts, 4-7–4-8, 4-15, 21-22, 21-31
Gardner, Howard, 3-2
general notes, 15-21
general sections, 18-47–18-49, 18-73
geographically referenced data. See
spatial data
geographic coordinate systems,
20-6–20-7, 20-22
geographic information systems (GISs)
buffer creation, 20-12
data analysis functions, 20-12–20-18
date entry in, 20-11
defined, 20-2
feature generalization, 20-12–20-14
introduction to, 20-2–20-4
spatial data, 20-2–20-6, 20-18–20-19
terrain mapping and analysis,
20-16–20-18
thematic layer overlay, 20-14–20-16
types of digital data used in,
20-19–20-21
geometric constraints, 6-15–6-17,
6-21–6-24, 6-74–6-77, 6-80
geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
(GD&T), 16-4, 16-20–16-44
adding geometric dimensions,
16-50–16-52
advantages of, 16-20
datum reference frame, 16-20–16-22
defined, 16-53
feature control frames, 16-22–16-23,
16-26
form tolerances, 16-27–16-30
geometry characteristic symbols,
16-22–16-23
location tolerances, 16-39–16-41
order of precedence for datums,
16-23–16-25
orientation tolerances, 16-35–16-38
position tolerances, 16-25–16-27
profile tolerances, 16-30–16-34
runout tolerances, 16-41–16-43
geometric entities, 6-4
geometric properties analysis, 8-12–8-18
mass properties analysis, 8-13–8-18
measurement analysis, 8-13
geometric transformations, 19-22–19-24,
19-31
geometries, to avoid, 9-47–9-52
geometry
constructive solid, 6-8, 6-79
descriptive, 1-10, 1-24, 1-32
geometry characteristic symbols,
16-22–16-23
geometry presentation, on manufacturing
drawings, 18-14–18-15
georeferenced data. See spatial data
Geospatial One-Stop, 20-18
GIS Data Depot, 20-18
glass box, 10-11–10-13, 10-19–10-20,
10-65
labeling, 14-6
reference lines, 14-6
view layouts, 11-5–11-7
global positioning systems (GPS), 20-8,
20-22
Goldstein, Bob, 19-12
gothic lettering, 15-18
graphical calculus, 1-24
graphical communication
history of, 1-2–1-14
ancient, 1-2–1-5
industrial revolution, 1-11–1-12
medieval period, 1-5–1-7
modern period, 1-12–1-14
Renaissance, 1-7–1-11
need for, 1-15
using animations, 19-2
graphical images, communication
through, 10-2
graphical user interface (GUI), 6-10, 6-80
graphical vector analysis, 1-24–1-25
graphics. See also engineering graphics
as analysis tool, 1-24–1-27
as design tool, 1-23–1-24
as presentation tool, 1-27–1-30
graphs, 1-27–1-28, 21-4–21-5
grayscale axis, 19-8
Great Wall of China, 1-7
Greek Empire, 1-5
green engineering, 5-9, 5-20
gridlines, 21-5
grid paper, 2-12
grids, isometric, 10-23
grinding, 9-19–9-20, 9-21, 9-59
grooved fasteners, 17-22–17-24
groove feature, 6-36
ground constraints, 6-21, 6-80
ground line (GL), 12-23, 12-29
grouped bar chart, 21-7–21-8
groups. See team environments
GRS80 spheroid, 20-8, 20-22
guide blocks, modeling example,
6-56–6-60
gunpowder, 1-9
H
half sections, 13-14–13-16, 13-21, 13-52
handheld calipers, 8-3–8-4
handwheel, modeling example, 6-66–6-70
handwritten notes, 18-70–18-71
headers, 18-8–18-14, 18-57–18-58,
18-66, 18-73
headlines, 21-4
heating and ventilation plans, 18-73
hex nut specifications, A-25
hidden features, inverse tracking,
11-28–11-30
hidden lines, 10-13–10-14, 10-17–10-19,
10-55–10-57, 10-65
in orthographic views, 12-10–12-11
replacing with section views, 13-11,
13-16–13-17
use of, to show interior details,
13-3–13-4
hierarchical links, 19-24, 19-31
hierarchy, 7-7, 7-20, 7-30–7-31, 7-32
hieroglyphics, 1-4
high-volume production processes,
9-21–9-33
history tree, 6-49–6-51
hole basis, 16-8, 16-9, 16-12
holes, 6-9, 6-32–6-34, 6-80
blind, 9-8, 9-59, 17-8
conventional tolerancing when
locating, 16-18–16-20
dimensioning, 15-18–15-19
long and skinny, 9-48
machined, 15-19–15-20
in multiview representations,
10-42–10-44
position tolerances for, 16-25–16-27
tapped, 9-8, 9-60
through, 9-8, 17-8
Holland, windmills in, 1-7, 1-8
horizon line (HL), 12-22, 12-29
horizontal modeling, 6-51, 6-80
horizontal surfaces, 11-2, 11-45, 14-2,
14-3
horizontal/vertical constraints, 6-16
Hoyt AeroTec Target Bow, 5-18–5-19,
9-54–9-56, 14-15
human intelligence, 3-2–3-3
I
I beams, 9-5
idea generation, 4-2–4-3, 5-5–5-8
identity function, 20-16, 20-22
images, 1-23, 1-33
multiple views of, 10-9
rendered, 19-2
index I-7size and alignment of, 10-9–10-10
viewing through glass box,
10-11–10-13
imagining, 5-5
imperfections, 16-16–16-17
inches, 15-5, 15-6, A-10
inch/metric equivalents, A-11–A-12
inch system, for fits, 16-9–16-11
inclined surfaces, 11-2, 11-3, 11-4, 11-45
auxiliary views of, 14-2–14-17
defined, 14-17
ellipses on, 12-15–12-17
inverse tracking, 11-24–11-28
isometric drawings of, 12-6–12-8
multiview representations of,
10-37–10-40, 10-42–10-44
visualization of, 11-14–11-15
independent axis, 21-5
index, 18-43, 18-73
index of refraction, 19-16–19-17
industrial designers, 5-4, 5-20
industrial engineering, 1-13
industrial revolution, 1-11–1-12, 12-2
inertia, 19-22–19-32
infographics, 21-2, 21-31
informal drawings, 18-4–18-5
information graphics, 1-27–1-30, 21-31
bar charts, 21-6–21-11
components of, 21-4–21-5
diagrams, 21-22–21-30
history of, 21-2–21-3
introduction to, 21-2
line charts, 21-11–21-14
maps, 21-27
pie charts, 21-14–21-17
for qualitative data, 21-22–21-30
for quantitative data, 21-6–21-22
scatter plots, 21-17–21-19
tables, 21-20–21-22
information sciences, 1-13
injection molding, 9-27–9-29, 9-59
insert constraints, 7-9
inside corners, 9-49
inspectors, 1-18, 18-3
installation phase, of project, 1-17
instances, 7-3, 7-4–7-6, 7-8, 7-31, 7-32
instructional diagrams, 21-25–21-26,
21-31
instrument drawing, 1-20–1-21
instruments, 1-10, 1-33
intellectual property rights, 19-5
intelligences, 3-2–3-3
interchangeable manufacturing, 16-2,
16-53. See also also tolerances/
tolerancing
interference fit, 16-7
interferences, 7-15–7-16, 7-23, 7-32, 16-8,
16-53
internal features. See also section views
errors in section views of, 13-44–13-45
representation of, 10-63
internal measurements, distortion of,
10-4, 10-5
internal threads, 17-8–17-9, 17-31
International Organization for
Standards (ISO), 17-6
international sheet sizes, 18-6, 18-73
International System of Units (SI), 15-5
interpersonal ability, 3-2
intersect, 3-52
intersect function, 3-31, 20-14–20-15
intersecting objects, 3-31
intersection, 20-22
intrapersonal ability, 3-2
invalid profiles, 6-72–6-73
inventors
during industrial revolution, 1-12
during Renaissance, 1-7, 1-9
inverse kinematics, 19-24, 19-31
inverse tracking
constructing pictorials by,
11-20–11-34
with edges and vertices for curved
surfaces, 11-30–11-34
with edges and vertices for inclined
services, 11-24–11-28
with edges and vertices for normal
surfaces, 11-21–11-24
with edges and vertices for oblique
surfaces and hidden lines,
11-28–11-30
investment casting, 9-22, 9-24, 9-32,
9-41–9-45, 9-59
IQ testing, 3-2
irregular surfaces, auxiliary views of,
14-8–14-9
island feature, 6-36
isometric axes, 2-11–2-12, 2-30, 12-5–12-6
isometric corner views, of simple
objects, 3-8–3-10
isometric dot paper, 2-30
isometric drawings, 12-4, 12-5–12-6, 12-29
cylindrical surfaces, 12-11–12-15
ellipses on inclined surfaces,
12-15–12-17
inclined surfaces, 12-6–12-8
oblique surfaces, 12-8–12-11
isometric grid paper, 2-12
isometric grids, 10-23
isometric lines, 12-6, 12-29
isometric pictorial, 2-12, 2-30
isometric representation, of coordinate
system, 2-11–2-12
isometric sketches, 2-12–2-18
circles, 2-14–2-16
circular holes, 2-17–2-18, 2-28
from coded plans, 3-32–3-34
extra lines in, 2-27–2-28
simple objects, 2-12–2-14
strategies for, 2-24–2-26
ISO metric threads, 17-6–17-7, A-15–A-17
item numbers, 18-17, 18-73
J
joined objects, 3-31
joining operations, 3-47
Join operation, 3-31, 3-52
K
Key, Francis Scott, 1-10
key dimensions, A-31–A-37
keyframe animation, 19-19–19-22
keyframes, 19-31
key lights, 19-10, 19-31
keys, 17-27–17-28, 17-31
keyseats, 17-27–17-28, 17-31
key surface, 3-34
keyway feature, 6-36
keyways, 17-27–17-28, 17-31
keyway seat feature, 6-36
L
land cover, 20-11
land models, 3-D, 1-26–1-27
landscape orientation, 18-6, 18-66, 18-73
lap joints, 17-20, 17-31
laser scanners, 8-4–8-5, 8-29
lathe, 9-7, 9-59
latitude, 20-6–20-7, 20-22
layout drawings, 18-19–18-20, 18-73
lead, 17-4, 17-31
leaders, 15-8, 15-25
least material condition (LMC), 16-26
left-handed system, 2-10–2-11, 2-30
left-hand threads, 17-5–17-6
left-side view, 10-11–10-13
legal documents, 18-3, 18-5
legends, 21-5
lengths, distortion of, 10-3–10-4
level of detail, 19-14, 19-31
life cycle, 5-9, 5-20
life cycle analysis, 5-3
light, visible, 19-7
lighting layout, 19-10–19-11
light sources, 19-8–19-13
limit dimensions, 16-4
linear dimensional constraints, 6-18
line charts, 21-11–21-14, 21-31
line feature, 20-4
lines
action, 2-22
angled, 2-4
bearings of, 18-40, 18-41
centerlines, 10-14, 10-57
construction, 2-6–2-7
contour, 20-17–20-18
cutting plane, 13-5–13-8, 13-51,
13-52
defined, 2-30
dimension, 15-7, 15-17, 15-25
extension, 15-7–15-8, 15-17, 15-25
I-8 indexhidden, 10-13–10-14, 10-17–10-19,
10-55–10-57, 10-65, 12-10–12-11,
13-3–13-4
incorrect visibility of, 10-54–10-55
isometric, 12-6, 12-29
leader, 15-8, 15-25
measuring, 12-23–12-24, 12-29
missing, 10-51–10-53
parallel, 14-16–14-17
perpendicular, 14-16–14-17
profile of, 16-30–16-31
reference, 14-6, 14-18
section, 13-5, 13-11–13-12, 13-42,
13-48, 13-50, 13-53
sketching, 2-3–2-4
spatial, 20-22
standard line types, A-9
step, 13-48
trend, 21-4–21-5
linguistic ability, 3-2
lists, 21-29, 21-31
loads, applying, in finite element analysis, 8-25
local coordinate system, 19-24
local notes, 15-21
location, 15-25
locational clearance (LC) fits, 16-9–16-10,
16-11
locational interference (LN) fits, 16-9,
16-11, 16-13
locational transition (LT) fits, 16-9, 16-13
location grids, 18-9, 18-73
location tolerances, 16-39–16-41
logical-mathematical ability, 3-2
longitude, 20-6–20-7, 20-22
look-up tables, 21-20
loose running fits, 16-11
low-volume production processes,
9-4–9-21
M
machined holes, dimensioning,
15-19–15-20
machine screws, 17-15–17-17, 17-31
machine screw specifications, A-22
magnification, of section views, 13-9
main assembly, 18-17, 18-73
main title block, 18-9–18-10, 18-12,
18-73
major diameter, 17-3, 17-31
manufacturing drawings, 18-2–18-5,
18-73
3-D modeling and, 18-71
assemblies, 18-16–18-23
bill of materials, 18-21–18-23
chain of responsibility for,
18-11–18-12
versus construction drawings,
18-37–18-42
detail drawings, 18-22–18-25
drawing area, 18-14–18-16
examples of, 18-26–18-36
formal drawing header in, 18-8–18-14
notes, 18-16
parts, 18-16–18-18
subassemblies, 18-16–18-18
manufacturing engineering, 1-13
manufacturing function, 1-17
MapMart, 20-18
mapping coordinates, 19-17, 19-32
map projections, 20-8–20-9, 20-22
maps, 21-27, 21-31
markers, 21-5
market surveys, 5-9
mass, 8-15, 8-29
mass production, 1-11, 1-20, 12-2
mass properties, of solids, 8-15
mass properties analysis, 5-12–5-13, 5-20,
8-13–8-18
master features, 6-44, 6-80
master models, 6-52, 6-53, 6-80
master patterns, 9-22, 9-23
material condition modifiers, 16-46, 16-47
material removal, 3-46
material selection, 5-3
mating surfaces constraints, 7-9–7-11
matt objects, 19-28–19-29, 19-32
maximum material condition (MMC),
16-26, 16-29, 16-46, 16-47, 16-53
Mayan pyramids, 1-3
measure, units of, 15-5
measure commands, 8-13, 8-14
measurement analysis, 8-13
measurement conversions, A-10–A-12
measuring line (ML), 12-23–12-24, 12-29
measuring walls, 12-25–12-26, 12-29
mechanical dissection, 1-31, 8-3, 8-29.
See also reverse engineering
mechanical drawing instruments,
1-20–1-21
mechanical engineering, 1-11, 5-3
mechanical instruments, 1-10
mechanical motion, 19-25
mechanical stresses, 8-19, 8-29
medieval period, 1-5–1-7
medium drive fits, 16-13
meetings
documentation of, 4-11
team, 4-5, 4-11–4-12
MEMS devices, 1-13–1-14
Mental Cutting Test, 3-7, 3-8
mental rotations, 3-5, 3-6, 3-52
Mental Rotation Test, 3-6–3-7
meridians, 20-6–20-7, 20-22
mesh, 8-19, 8-29
meshing, 8-22–8-23, 8-26
metals, 5-3, A-40
metric conversion, A-11–A-12
metric fits, 16-11–16-13, A-47
metric limits, A-47
metric measurements, 15-5–15-6, 18-37
metric scales, 18-55–18-56, 18-73
metric thread notes, 17-12
metrology, 8-3, 8-29
metrology tools, 8-3–8-5
coordinate measuring machine
(CMM), 8-4
handheld calipers, 8-3–8-4
laser scanners, 8-4–8-5
micro-electro-mechanical systems
(MEMS), 1-13–1-14
military engineering, 1-10–1-11
millimeters, 15-5–15-6
to inches conversion, A-10
milling, 9-9–9-12, 9-21, 9-59
milling machines, 9-9, 9-11–9-12, 9-59
Minnesota Paper Form Board (MPFB)
test, 3-5–3-6
minor diameter, 17-3, 17-31
mirrored features, 6-46, 6-80
mock-ups, 5-13–5-14
model builders, 5-4, 5-20
model geometry, creation of, 8-23–8-24
modeling. See also solid modeling
2-D CAD, 6-3-6-4
assembly, 7-1–7-35
bottom-up, 7-18–7-31
horizontal, 6-51, 6-80
surface, 6-7–6-8, 19-5, 19-32
wireframe, 6-4–6-7
modeling software. See also computeraided design (CAD)
improvements in, 6-8–6-9
modeling stage, of animation, 19-3,
19-5–19-6
models, 1-23, 1-33
model tree, 6-49–6-51, 6-80
molding, 9-27–9-29, 9-32
molds, 9-22, 9-59
moments-of-inertia, 8-12, 8-15, 8-16–8-18,
8-29
Monge, Gapsard, 1-10
morphological charts, 5-7, 5-20
motion, 19-25
motion blur, 19-25, 19-32
motion path animation, 19-19,
19-22–19-24, 19-32
motor plate, fabrication of, 9-45–9-47
mounting brace, modeling example,
6-60–6-65
multi-pass rendering, 19-27–19-28
multiple datums, 16-43–16-44
multiple intelligences, 3-2–3-3
multiple line chart, 21-12
multiple threads, 17-31
multiple views, 10-9, 10-65
multiview representation. See also
orthogonal projection
multiview representations, 10-5–10-6,
10-65
3-D modeling and, 10-63–10-64
index I-9common errors in, 10-51–10-62
with hidden lines, 10-55–10-57
incorrect visibility, 10-54–10-55
mismatched view scales,
10-59–10-60
missing lines, 10-51–10-53
missing views, 10-53–10-54
no centerlines/centermarks, 10-57
not showing small radii, 10-59
with tangent edges, 10-57–10-58
unaligned views, 10-59–10-60
with views, 10-60–10-62
of features with small radii, 10-46
first-angle versus third-angle
projection for, 10-19–10-22
holistic approach to constructing
pictorials from, 11-17–11-20
insufficient views for, 10-63
shortcuts for, 10-44–10-50
strategies for creating from pictorials,
10-22–10-44
edge tracking, 10-31–10-32
point tracking, 10-25–10-30
surface tracking, 10-33–10-44
of symmetrical features, 10-49
of threaded parts, 10-45
view layouts for, 11-4–11-7
of welds, 10-50
in working drawings, 18-59–18-60
musical ability, 3-2
N
nano-engineered devices, 1-14
National Elevation Dataset (NED), 20-20
National Map, 20-18–20-19
Native American pyramids, 1-3
naturalist ability, 3-2
Natural Resources Conservation Service
(NRCS), 20-20
nets, 3-6
nodes, 20-4, 20-22
nonlinear functions, 1-24
nonstandard sheet sizes, 18-66–18-67
non-uniform rational b-spline (NURBS)
models, 19-5
normal surfaces, 11-2–11-3, 11-45, 14-2
inverse tracking, 11-21–11-24
notation, for object rotation, 3-16, 3-17
notes
on detail drawings, 18-25
dimensioning, 15-21
on drawings, 18-73
handwritten, 18-70–18-71
on layout drawings, 18-20
on manufacturing drawings, 18-14,
18-16
thread, 17-12–17-14
note taker, 4-4, 4-11, 4-15
Notre Dame Cathedral, 1-6
nuclear engineering, 1-13
nuts, 17-15, 17-16, 17-31
O
object reflections, 3-23–3-25, 3-39–3-42
object rotations
about single axis, 3-11–3-20,
3-34–3-36
about two or more axes, 3-20–3-23,
3-36–3-38
equivalencies for, 3-18–3-20,
3-22–3-23
errors in, 3-49–3-50
by more than 90 degrees, 3-16–3-18
notation for, 3-16, 3-17
objects
auxiliary views for, 14-2–14-8
with circular features, 12-19–12-20
creating complex, 3-47–3-48
drawn to scale, 18-52–18-54
first-angle versus third-angle projection, 10-19–10-22
imagining successive cuts to,
11-37–11-44
multiple views of, 10-9
planes of symmetry for, 3-26
symmetrical, 10-49
viewing through glass box,
10-11–10-13
views of, 10-14–10-17
object symmetry, 3-25–3-27, 3-43–3-44
object views. See also views
on manufacturing drawings,
18-15–18-16
oblate ellipsoid, 20-8, 20-22
oblique axes, 2-18, 2-30
oblique cuts, 11-44
oblique pictorial drawings, 2-18–2-21,
2-26–2-30, 12-2–12-3, 12-29
construction of, 12-18–12-20
of coordinate system, 2-10–2-11
types of, 12-17–12-18
oblique surfaces, 11-2–11-4, 11-45, 14-2
auxiliary views, 14-16
defined, 14-17
inverse tracking, 11-28–11-30
isometric drawings of, 12-8–12-11
offset constraints, 7-10, 7-11
offset sections, 13-13–13-14, 13-27-13-30,
13-48, 13-52
omnidirectional lights, 19-8
one-offs, 18-2, 18-73
one-point perspective drawings, 12-21
opacity mapping, 19-15–19-16
operation phase, of project, 1-17
optimization, 1-31, 1-33
order of precedence, for datums,
16-23–16-25
organizational charts, 21-22, 21-23, 21-31
organizational table, 21-20
orientation tolerances, 16-35–16-38
orthogonal projection. See also multiview
representation
3-D modeling and, 10-63–10-64
advantages of, 10-6
auxiliary views and, 14-6–14-8
defined, 10-65
distortion and, 10-6–10-7
first-angle versus third-angle projection, 10-19–10-22
glass box, 10-11–10-13
necessary views, 10-14–10-17
principles of, 10-6–10-10
viewing planes and, 10-7–10-9,
10-9–10-10
orthogonal views, 12-10–12-11. See also
views
creating from pictorials, 10-22–10-44
multiple, 18-59
versus section views, 13-8–13-9
six standard views, 10-12–10-13
outline assembly drawings, 18-19–18-20,
18-73
output stage, of animation, 19-3,
19-27–19-29
outside corners, 9-50
overall dimensions, 15-9–15-10
overlapping objects, 3-31–3-32
P
paired bar chart, 21-8–21-9
parallel constraint, 6-16, 6-17
parallelism, 16-35–16-36
parallel lines, 14-16–14-17
parallels, 20-6, 20-22
parameters, 6-52, 6-80
parametric design, 1-24
parametric solid modeling, 6-9,
6-10–6-14, 6-80
parametric techniques, 6-19
parent-child relationships, 6-51
parent features, 6-51, 6-80
participation, by team members, 4-5
particle systems, 19-25–19-26, 19-32
part names, 18-10, 18-73
part numbers, 18-10, 18-64–18-65,
18-73
parts, 1-11, 1-33, 18-73
detail drawings of, 18-22–18-25,
18-68–18-70
dimensioning, 15-4–15-5,
15-11–15-13, 15-22–15-23
families of, 6-52–6-55
fits, 16-7–16-15
imperfections in, 16-16–16-17
interchangeable, 12-2
manufacturing drawings of,
18-16–18-18
relationships between different, 16-2
specifying fits between, 16-48–16-49
tolerancing, 16-2–16-53
part sizes, 8-10
parts list, 18-73
passive animation, 19-6, 19-32
patent disputes, 18-5
I-10 indexpatent drawings, 1-12, 1-13, 5-16–5-17
patents, 1-12, 5-16–5-17, 5-20
paths, 6-48, 6-80
patterns, 9-22, 9-23, 9-59
PC-based solid modeling, 1-24
pencils, 6-2
permanent fasteners, 17-2
perpendicular constraint, 6-16, 6-17
perpendicularity, 16-36–16-37
perpendicular lines, 14-16–14-17
perpetual motion machines, 1-9
personnel issues, in team environment,
4-13–4-14
perspective drawings, 12-2–12-3,
12-20-12-29
two-point, 12-21–12-28
types of, 12-21
vanishing points in, 12-20–12-23
physical properties, 8-12
pictorial drawings, 12-29
3-D modeling and, 12-28
axonometric, 12-2–12-17
constructing by inverse surface
tracking, 11-34–11-37
constructing by inverse tracking of
edges and vertices, 11-20–11-34
constructing from multiview drawings, 11-17–11-20
creating multiviews from,
10-22–10-44
edge tracking, 10-31–10-32
point tracking, 10-25–10-30
surface tracking, 10-33–10-44
creating sectioned, 13-30–13-32
on engineering drawing, 10-13
extracting from solid models, 12-28
importance of, in visualization,
12-2–12-3
oblique, 12-2–12-3, 12-17–12-20
perspective, 12-2–12-3, 12-20–12-29
problems with, 10-3–10-5
picture plane (PP), 12-22
pie charts, 21-14–21-17, 21-31
pins, 17-21–17-25, 17-31
conventional tolerancing when
locating, 16-18–16-20
pitch, 17-3, 17-31
pitch diameter, 17-3, 17-31
pivot point, 3-11, 19-32
pivot point axes, 19-24
pixels, 20-4, 20-22
plan and profile drawing, 18-51–18-52,
18-73
planar coordinate system, 20-8–20-11,
20-22
planar mapping, 19-17
planes
cross-sectional, 3-27–3-30, 3-44–3-46
cutting, 3-7, 3-44–3-46, 3-51,
13-5-13-8, 13-51, 13-52
datum, 6-10, 6-38, 6-41–6-42, 6-43,
6-80, 16-21, 16-24
for map projections, 20-8–20-9
picture, 12-22
primary modeling, 6-10, 6-80
principal viewing, 6-10, 6-80
sketching, 6-25, 6-81
of symmetry, 3-25–3-27, 3-43–3-44,
3-51
viewing, 10-5–10-13, 10-65
planning stage, of animation, 19-3, 19-4
plan views, 12-22, 12-29, 18-38, 18-73
plastics, 5-3, A-43
plates, 9-5
point features, 20-4
point lights, 19-8, 19-32
point on line, 6-16
points, 6-3, 20-22
anchor, 10-25, 10-65, 11-21, 11-45
vanishing, 12-20–12-21
point tracking, 10-25–10-30, 10-65,
11-22–11-23, 11-45
polygon feature, 20-4, 20-22
polygon mesh models, 19-5
Pont-du-Gard aqueduct, 1-4
Ponte Fabricio bridge, 1-4
portrait orientation, 18-6, 18-66, 18-73
position tolerances, 16-25–16-27, 16-39
power thread forms, 17-7–17-8
preferred configuration, 10-13, 10-65
preferred hole basis fits, 16-12
presentation tool, graphics as, 1-27–1-30
pressure fields, 8-19
primary colors, 19-8
primary modeling planes, 6-10, 6-80
primary views. See also specific views
creation of, 14-3
primitives, 6-8–6-9
principal axes of inertia, 8-15
principal axes of rotation, 8-12
principal viewing planes, 6-10, 6-80
problem identification stage, of design
process, 5-9, 5-20
problem statement, for reverse engineering project, 8-5–8-6
procedural textures, 19-16, 19-32
process check, 4-12, 4-15
process diagrams, 21-28–21-29, 21-31
product design, conventional, 1-15
production processes. See fabrication
processes
production stage, of design process, 5-15
product life cycle, 5-9
products-of-inertia, 8-12
professional engineer (PE), 18-2, 18-37,
18-42, 18-73
professionalism, 18-5
profile of a line, 16-30–16-31
profile of a surface, 16-32–16-34
profiles, 6-11–6-14, 6-80
constraints on, 6-15–6-24
improperly positioned base, 6-72
invalid, 6-72–6-73
misused constraints on, 6-74
overconstrained, 6-75
profile surfaces, 11-2, 11-45
profile tolerances, 16-30–16-34
profile views, 18-38, 18-73
project cost estimation, 18-3
projection rays, 14-3, 14-17
project life phases, 1-16–1-17
project organization, in team environment, 4-5–4-6
projects, 1-7, 1-33
project scheduling, 4-6–4-10
critical path method, 4-8–4-10
Gantt charts for, 4-7–4-8
task organization, 4-7
project timelines, 4-7
prototypes, 5-3, 5-20, 18-41
prototyping, rapid, 9-15–9-17, 9-21, 9-59
prototyping stage, of design process,
5-13–5-14
protractor, 1-21
protrusions, 6-25, 6-77–6-78, 6-81,
9-48–9-49
Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, 3-6,
3-7
pyramids, 1-3
Q
qualitative data, 21-22–21-31
quantitative data, 21-6–21-22, 21-31
quantity per machine (Q/M), 18-11, 18-73
QuickTime (MOV) format, 19-29
R
radial arrays, 6-45
radial dimensional constraints, 6-18
radii, 15-18
radii-of-gyration, 8-12
radius, A-8
radius-of-gyration, 8-15, 8-29
rapid prototyping, 5-14, 9-15–9-17,
9-21, 9-59
raster data model, 20-4, 20-5, 20-22
raytraced shadows, 19-11, 19-32
raytracing, 19-11, 19-12, 19-32
reaming, 9-9, 9-21, 9-59
rear views, 10-11–10-13
rebars, 18-45, 18-73
receding dimension, 2-19, 2-30
record keeping, engineering graphics
and, 1-2, 1-30
records, 20-6, 20-22
rectangular bars, 9-5
recursion, 19-12
redesign considerations, reverse engineering and, 8-12
index I-11reference dimensions, 15-10, 18-20, 18-73
reference lines, 14-6, 14-18
reference value, 21-5
refinement, of design, 5-10
reflection mapping, 19-14, 19-32
reflections, 3-23–3-25, 3-27, 3-39–3-42,
3-52
refraction, 19-16–19-17
regeneration, 6-21, 6-81
related views, 14-6–14-8, 14-18
removed sections, 13-32–13-34, 13-52
Renaissance, 1-7–1-11, 1-20
rendering, 19-2, 19-11–19-13,
19-16–19-17, 19-27–19-28, 19-32
research and development function, 1-17
retainer, fabrication of, 9-40–9-41
retaining rings, 17-25–17-27, 17-31
reverse engineering, 8-2–8-12, 8-29
defining the project, 8-5–8-7
developing 3-D CAD model,
8-10–8-11
dissecting a system, 8-7–8-10
metrology tool for, 8-3–8-5
obtaining part sizes, 8-10
process, 8-5–8-12
reasons for, 8-2–8-3
redesign considerations, 8-12
revision numbers, 18-10–18-11
revolution, 6-12–6-13
revolved cuts, 6-28
revolved protrusions, 6-28
revolved sections, 13-35–13-36, 13-53
revolved solids, 6-12–6-13, 6-81
RGB (red, blue, green) colors, 19-7–19-8
ribs, 6-35, 6-81
right angles, 11-9
right-handed system, 2-8–2-10, 2-30
right-hand rule, 2-8, 2-30, 3-12, 3-49
right-hand threads, 17-5–17-6
right-side view, 10-11–10-13
rigid systems, 7-30
rivets, 17-20–17-21, 17-31
roads, Roman, 1-5
rolled thread forms, 17-8
rolling, 9-27, 9-32, 9-60
Roman arches, 1-4–1-5
Roman roads, 1-5
Romans-shx, 15-18
root, 17-3, 17-31
rotational symmetry, section views and,
13-42–13-44
rotation orientation
incorrect, on section views,
13-46–13-47
incorrect, within view, 10-61–10-62
rough surfaces, 2-22
roundness, 16-29–16-30
rounds, 6-31–6-32, 6-81, 9-5
rules, team, 4-13
running clearance (RC) fits, 16-9
running fits, A-48–A-52
runout tolerances, 16-41–16-43
S
SAE grade markings, A-13
SAE steels, of slots, A-37–A-39
sales and buying function, 1-17
sand casting, 9-22–9-24, 9-32, 9-60
sawing, 9-6, 9-21, 9-60
scale, 1-21, 18-52–18-57
of section views, 13-9, 13-48–13-49
selection of proper, 18-62–18-63
scale models, 5-13–5-14
scale value, 21-5
scatter plots, 21-17–21-19, 21-31
scene development stage, of animation,
19-3, 19-6–19-18
schedule of materials, 18-42, 18-73
scheduling, construction projects, 18-38
schematic diagrams, 10-45, 21-25, 21-31
scientists, 5-2
screw threads, 17-2–17-8, 17-31
ISO metric threads, A-15–A-17
left-hand, 17-5–17-6
modeling, 17-9–17-12
multiple threads, 17-4–17-5
representations for drawings,
17-9–17-11
representations for solid models,
17-11–17-12
right-hand, 17-5–17-6
single threads, 17-4–17-5
standards, 17-6
terminology, 17-3–17-4
thread cutting, 17-8–17-9
thread forms, 17-6–17-8
thread notes, 17-12–17-14
Unified standard screw thread series,
A-14
scripting, 19-25, 19-32
secondary title block, 18-9, 18-73
sectioned assembly drawings, 18-21, 18-73
section lines, 13-5, 13-11–13-12, 13-42,
13-48, 13-50, 13-53
sections, on construction drawings,
18-47–18-51
section views, 13-53
3-D modeling and, 13-51–13-52
of assemblies, 13-39
broken-out sections, 13-37–13-38
common errors in, 13-44–13-51
deciding when to use, 13-16–13-17
full sections, 13-5–13-10, 13-18–13-21
half sections, 13-14–13-16, 13-21
identifying, 13-8, 13-48–13-49
introduction to, 13-2–13-4
multiple, 13-21–13-27
offset sections, 13-13–13-14,
13-27–13-30, 13-48
versus orthogonal views, 13-8–13-9
pictorial, 13-30–13-32
procedures for creating, 13-16–13-32
removed sections, 13-32–13-34
replacing hidden lines with, 13-11,
13-16–13-17
revolved sections, 13-35–13-36
scale, 13-9, 13-48–13-49
shortcuts for, 13-39–13-43
of small cutouts on curved surfaces,
13-39–13-40
symmetry and, 13-42–13-44
of thin features, 13-41–13-42
of threaded parts, 13-40–13-41
from wrong side, 13-46–13-47
selective laser sintering (SLS), 9-17
self-tapping screws, 17-19, 17-31
semicircles, on isometric surfaces,
12-14–12-15
sequence diagrams, 21-28–21-29, 21-31
service function, 1-17
set of construction plans, 18-38, 18-74
set screws, 17-19, 17-31
set screw specifications, A-23–A-24
shading, 2-21–2-22, 2-30
shading algorithms, 19-13, 19-32
shadows, 19-11
shaft basis, 16-8, 16-9, 16-12
shapes. See also objects; specific types
rotating about pivot point,
3-11–3-16
standard commercial, 9-4–9-5
sharp-V thread, 17-6–17-7
shear stress, 8-19
sheet metal and wire gage designation,
A-44
sheet sizes, 18-6–18-8, 18-39–18-40,
18-61–18-62, 18-66–18-67
shelling, 6-34–6-35, 6-81
shells, 6-34–6-35
ship building, 1-11
shrink fits, 16-10
sidebars, 21-27, 21-31
side views, 14-2
signature sheets, 4-13–4-14
simple objects, isometric corner views
of, 3-8–3-10
single threads, 17-31
sintering, 9-32, 9-33, 9-60
site plans, 18-44, 18-74
site surveys, 18-40–18-41, 18-74
six standard views, 10-12–10-13, 10-21,
10-65
size, 15-25
sketching, 1-31–1-32, 6-81
2-D, 6-10–6-11
for animations, 19-4
auxiliary views, 14-16–14-17
brainwriting, 5-6–5-7
complex objects, 2-22–2-23
coordinate systems, 2-8–2-12
corner views, 3-32–3-34, 3-48–3-49
curved entities, 2-4–2-6
in engineering design process, 2-2–2-3
extra lines in, 3-48–3-49
I-12 indexisometric, 2-12–2-18, 2-24–2-26,
2-27–2-28
lines, 2-3–2-4
oblique, 2-18–2-21, 2-26–2-27, 2-29
orientation of sketches, 6-14–6-15
shading, 2-21–2-22
special effects, 2-21–2-22
strategies, 2-24–2-29
subassemblies, 8-8–8-10
using construction lines, 2-6–2-7
visual thinking and, 5-5
sketching editor, 6-11, 6-81
sketching plane, 6-25, 6-81
sliding fits, 16-9, 16-11, A-48–A-52
slope, 20-16, 20-22
slot dimensions, A-31–A-37
slot feature, 6-36
slots, 15-20–15-21
small-scale models, 18-41
smooth surfaces, 2-22
snap-fit fasteners, 17-2, 17-29–17-30
Solano Wind Power Generation Facility,
1-16–1-17, 1-19
solid model databases, 6-3
solid modeling, 1-23–1-24, 1-33, 6-81
advanced techniques, 6-38–6-49
advantages of, 1-30
algebraic constraints, 6-19–6-20
analysis capabilities of, 1-25–1-27
associative constraints, 6-19–6-20
auxiliary views and, 14-14–14-16
with blends, 6-46–6-47
common errors in, 6-71–6-78
complex solids, 6-25–6-28
constraints and, 6-15–6-24
with datums, 6-38–6-43
dimensional constraints, 6-17–6-19
dimensioning and, 15-22
extraction of 2-D drawings, 6-70–6-71
fabrication processes and, 9-53
feature-based, 6-9
features, 6-28–6-37
geometric constraints, 6-15–6-17
introduction to, 6-2
with mirrored features, 6-46
with model tree, 6-49–6-51
multiview representations and,
10-63–10-64
orientation of sketch, 6-14–6-15
parametric, 6-10–6-14, 6-80
parent-child relationships in, 6-51
parts, 6-52–6-55
pictorial drawings and, 12-28
section views and, 13-51–13-52
step-by-step examples
guide block, 6-56–6-60
handwheel, 6-66–6-70
mounting brace, 6-60–6-65
strategies for, 6-55–6-56
surface models, 6-7–6-8
with sweeps, 6-48–6-49
tools for, 6-8–6-10
use of, in civil engineering,
18-37–18-38
using arrays, 6-44–6-45
valid profiles, 6-11–6-14
wireframe, 6-4–6-7
working drawings and, 18-71
solids
auxiliary views for, 14-2–14-8
blended, 6-46–6-47
combining, 3-30–3-32, 3-46–3-48,
3-51
constructive, 6-25–6-28
creating, 6-11–6-14
cross sections of, 3-27–3-30, 3-44–3-46
revolved, 6-12–6-13, 6-81
swept, 6-48–6-49
spatial data, 20-22, 20-23
description of, 20-6
entering into GIS, 20-11
introduction to, 20-2–20-4
sources of, 20-18–20-19
types of, 20-4–20-6
spatial orientation, 3-5, 3-52
spatial perception, 3-5, 3-52
spatial relations, 3-5, 3-52
spatial skills, 3-2, 3-5, 3-52
2-D, 3-3
assessing, 3-5–3-9
development of, 1-31–1-32, 3-3–3-5
exercises for, 3-8–3-51
combining solids, 3-30–3-32,
3-46–3-48
cross sections of solids, 3-27–3-30,
3-44–3-46
isometric corner views of simple
objects, 3-8–3-10
object rotations about single axis,
3-11–3-20, 3-34–3-36
object rotations about two or
more axes, 3-20–3-23, 3-36–3-38
reflections, 3-23–3-25, 3-39–3-42
symmetry, 3-25–3-27, 3-43–3-44
imaging successive cuts to objects,
11-37–11-44
need for, 3-7
strategies for developing, 3-32–3-51
types of, 3-5
specifications (specs), 18-38–18-39, 18-74
specular light transmission, 19-13
spheres, 6-8, A-8
spherical mapping, 19-17
spheroid, 20-8, 20-23
spindles, 9-9, 9-60
splined-based models, 19-5
splines, 6-4, 6-81
split lines, 9-22, 9-60
spokes, 13-42, 13-43, 13-50
spotface, 6-36
spotfaced holes, 15-19–15-20
spotlights, 19-8, 19-9, 19-32
spring lock washers, A-27
spring pins, 17-24–17-25, 17-31
sprue, 9-28, 9-60
square bars, 9-5
square prism, cross sections of, 3-28
squares, formulas for, A-8
square thread forms, 17-7
square tolerance zones, 16-25–16-26
square tubes, 9-5
stacked bar charts, 21-8
stage, 9-9
stamping, 9-31, 9-32, 9-60
standard commercial shapes, 9-4–9-5,
9-60
standard line types, A-9
standard views, 10-12–10-13, 10-21
State Plane Coordinate System, 20-9,
20-10–20-11, 20-23
station point (PP), 12-22, 12-29
statistical tolerancing, 16-6, 16-53
STATSGO (State Soil Geographic)
database, 20-20
steam engine, 1-12
steel alloys, A-41–A-43
step-by-step diagram, 21-29, 21-31
step lines, 13-48
step segments, 13-53
stereolithography (SLA), 9-15, 9-60
storyboards, 19-3, 19-4, 19-32
straight lines, 2-3
straightness, 16-28–16-29
stress
mechanical, 8-19, 8-29
shear, 8-19
stress analysis, 8-22–8-23
stress distribution, 1-29–1-30
structural metal shape designations,
A-53–A-66
studs, 17-17, 17-31
subassemblies, 7-4–7-5, 7-32, 18-74
manufacturing drawings of,
18-16–18-18
sketching, 8-8–8-10
subcontractors, 1-17, 18-3
subtraction operation, 6-9
successive cuts, 11-37–11-44, 11-45
suppressed features, 6-54, 6-81
surface area, 8-15, 8-29
surface modeling, 6-7–6-8, 19-5, 19-32
surface models, 6-7–6-8, 6-81
surface normals, 19-13, 19-32
surface roughness, A-45
surfaces, 11-2–11-8, 11-3
coplanar, 16-34
curved. See curved surfaces
frontal, 11-2, 11-45, 14-2
horizontal, 11-2, 11-45, 14-2, 14-3
inclined. See inclined surfaces
limits of, 11-9
normal, 11-2–11-3, 11-2–11-3,
11-21–11-24, 14-2
index I-13oblique. See oblique surfaces
profile, 11-2, 11-45
profile of, 16-32–16-34
right angles on, 11-9
visualization concepts with,
11-7–11-9
surface tracking, 10-33–10-44, 10-65,
11-45
constructing pictorial by inverse,
11-34–11-37
SURGO (Soil Survey Geographic)
database, 20-20
sustainable design, 5-3, 5-20
sweeps, 6-48–6-49
swept features, 6-48–6-49, 6-81
symbols
datum feature, 16-46–16-48
dimension, 15-18–15-19
geometry characteristic, 16-22–16-23
symmetrical features, approximations
of, 10-49
symmetric constraint, 6-16
symmetry, 3-25–3-27, 3-43–3-44, 3-51,
3-52
section views and, 13-42–13-44
tolerance, 16-40–16-41
systems, 1-7, 1-33
T
tables, 21-2, 21-31
for data display, 21-20–21-22
datum requirement, 16-45
for fits, 16-13–16-14, 16-44
Tagged Image File (TIF), 20-20
tangent constraint, 6-16, 6-17
tangent edges, 10-42, 10-57–10-58, 10-65
tap, 9-8, 9-60, 17-31
tap drills, 17-14, 17-32
tap drill sizes, A-30
taper feature, 6-36
taper pins, 17-21, 17-22
tapped holes, 6-33, 9-8, 9-60
taps, 17-8–17-9
task credit matrix, 4-13–4-14, 4-15
task definition, 4-5–4-6
T beams, 9-5
team contract, 4-13, 4-14, 4-15
team environments, 4-2–4-15
communication in, 4-10–4-12
personnel issues, 4-13–4-14
project organization, 4-5–4-6
project scheduling, 4-6–4-10
real world versus classroom, 4-3–4-4
reasons to work in, 4-2–4-3
team roles, 4-4
team leader, 4-4, 4-15
team meetings, 4-5, 4-11–4-12
team players, 4-3
team roles, 4-4, 4-15
teams, characteristics of effective, 4-5
technical diagrams, 21-25–21-27, 21-31
technicians, 1-18, 18-3
telephoto, 19-7, 19-32
temperature fields, 8-19–8-21
template, 1-21
temporary fasteners, 17-2
terrain mapping, 20-16–20-18
tests, of spatial skills, 3-5–3-9
text messaging, 4-11
texture mapping, 19-14, 19-32
thematic layer overlay, 20-14–20-16, 20-23
thematic layers, 20-11, 20-23
thermal flow, 8-19–8-21
thin features, section views of, 13-
41–13-42
third-angle projection, 10-65
versus first-angle, 10-19–10-22
thread cutting, 17-8–17-9
threaded fasteners, 17-15–17-19
threaded parts, 10-45, 13-40–13-41
thread forms, 17-6–17-8
thread notes, 17-12–17-14, 17-32
thread series, 14-4, 17-32
thread standards, 17-6
three-axis mill, 9-9, 9-60
three-dimensional (3-D) modeling,
1-23–1-24, 1-33
advantages of, 1-30
analysis capabilities of, 1-25–1-27
three-point lighting layout, 19-10–19-11
three-point perspective drawings, 12-21
through holes, 6-33, 9-8, 17-8, 17-32
tick marks, 2-4, 2-5, 2-30, 21-5
TiLite Wheelchairs, A-2–A-4
timekeeper, 4-4, 4-15
timelines, 4-7, 21-2–21-3, 21-29, 21-31
time management, 4-6-4-10
title blocks, 18-9–18-10, 18-12–18-14,
18-42, 18-57–18-58, 18-66, 18-74
titles, 21-4
tolerance distributions, 16-32–16-34
tolerances/tolerancing, 15-4–15-5, 15-7,
15-25, 16-1–16-60, 16-2
circularity, 16-29–16-30
common errors, 16-44–16-48
in construction projects, 18-40
conventional, 16-15–16-20,
16-25–16-27
default, 18-12
defined, 16-8
examples, 16-48–16-52
fits, 5-7–5-14
flatness, 16-27
form, 16-27–16-30
formats for, 16-4
geometric, 16-4
geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T), 16-20–16-44
introduction to, 16-2–16-4
location, 16-39–16-41
orientation, 16-35–16-38
position, 16-25–16-27
profile, 16-30–16-34
runout, 16-41–16-43
standard, A-45–A-46
statistical tolerancing, 16-6
straightness, 16-28–16-29
tolerance building problems,
16-5–16-6
too tight/too loose, 16-44
uninspectable, 16-46
tolerance values, inappropriate, 16-4
tool bits, 9-4, 9-60
tooling, 9-21, 9-60
tool runout, 17-18, 17-32
tooth lock washers, A-28–A-29
top-down modeling, 7-19, 7-32
topographical maps, 1-25–1-26. See also
geographic information systems
(GISs)
geographic coordinate systems,
20-6–20-7
planar coordinate system,
20-8–20-11
spatial data, 20-2–20-6
top views, 10-11–10-13, 14-2, 14-3
torus, 6-8
total runout, 16-42
trails, 18-19, 18-74
trajectory, 6-48, 6-81
transformations, 19-22–19-24
transition fit, 16-7
transparency, 19-2
transparency/opacity mapping, 19-14,
19-15–19-16, 19-32
trend lines, 21-4–21-5
triangles, 1-21, 14-16–14-17, A-5–A-7
trigonometric formulas
for circles, A-8
for triangles, A-5–A-7
trimetric drawings, 12-4–12-5, 12-29
true shape, 14-2, 14-18
true-size models, 5-13–5-14
T square, 1-21
tubes, 9-5
tumbling, 9-33–9-34, 9-60
turning, 9-7, 9-21, 9-60
two-dimensional (2-D) CAD, 6-3–6-4
two-dimensional (2-D) drawings,
1-20, 1-33
two-point perspective drawings,
12-21–12-28
of complex objects, 12-27–12-28
construction of, 12-23–12-27
Type A plain washers, A-26
typography, 21-24–21-25
U
undercut features, 9-51–9-52, 9-60
Unified national threads, 17-13
Unified Screw threads, 17-6, 17-7, A-14
I-14 indexunilateral-outside distribution, 16-32
unilateral tolerance, 16-4
union function, 20-14
union operation, 6-9
units of measure, 15-5
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
coordinate system, 20-9–20-10,
20-23
UNIX operating systems, 1-24
unsuppressed features, 6-54, 6-81
U-S- customary units, 15-5
U-S- Geological Survey (USGS), 18-40
USGS Land Cover Institute (LCI), 20-11
US sheet sizes, 18-7, 18-74
UV coordinates, 19-17
UVW coordinates, 19-17
V
vanes, 13-42, 13-43, 13-50
vanishing points (VP), 12-20–12-21,
12-22–12-23, 12-29
variational techniques, 6-19, 6-81
V-blocks, 16-42–16-43
vector data model, 20-4, 20-4–20-5,
20-23
vector feature, 20-4
vector normals, 19-13
Venn diagrams, 21-24, 21-31
vertex, 6-3, 6-81
vertices
inverse tracking with, 11-20–11-34
for curved surfaces, 11-30–11-34
for inclined surfaces, 11-24–11-28
for normal surfaces, 11-21–11-24
for oblique surfaces and hidden
features, 11-28–11-30
video compression, 19-29, 19-32
viewing direction, 13-5, 13-53
viewing planes, 10-5–10-13, 10-65
view layouts, 11-4–11-7
viewpoint, 3-9–3-10
views. See also auxiliary views; section views
adjacent, 10-10, 10-65, 14-6–14-8,
14-17
bird’s-eye, 3-9–3-10, 11-12–11-14
bottom, 10-11–10-13
corner, 3-9–3-10, 3-32–3-34,
3-48–3-49, 3-51, 11-12–11-13
edge, 14-3, 14-4, 14-17
elevation, 12-22, 12-29, 18-38, 18-45,
18-73
front, 10-11–10-13
front-adjacent, 14-8
hidden lines and, 10-17–10-19
incorrect orientation within,
10-61–10-62
in incorrect relative locations, 10-61
insufficient, 10-63
labeling, 14-6
left-side, 10-11–10-13
on manufacturing drawings,
18-15–18-16
missing, 10-53–10-54
multiple, 10-65
necessary, 10-14–10-17
orthographic, 12-10–12-11
plan, 12-22, 12-29, 18-38
possible features and single,
11-10–11-11
preferred configuration, 10-13
profile, 18-38, 18-73
rear, 10-11–10-13
related, 14-6–14-8, 14-18
right-side, 10-11–10-13
standard, 10-12–10-13, 10-21, 10-65
top, 10-11–10-13
unaligned, 10-59–10-60
worm’s eye, 11-12–11-14
view scales, mismatched, 10-59–10-60
visualization, 1-23
basic concepts, 11-2–11-9
pictorial drawings as aids to,
12-2–12-3
terminology, 11-2–11-9
visualization skills, 1-33, 3-2. See also
spatial skills
development of, 1-31–1-32, 3-32–3-51
visualization techniques
advanced, 11-14–11-44
with basic concepts, 11-14–11-16
constructing pictorials by inverse
surface tracking, 11-34–11-37
constructing pictorials by inverse
tracking, 11-20–11-34
holistic approach to constructing pictorials from multiview drawings,
11-17–11-20
imaging successive cuts to objects,
11-37–11-44
visual rays, 12-26–12-27
visual storytelling diagrams, 21-27–21-30,
21-31
visual thinking, 5-5, 5-20
Vitruvius, Marcus, 1-5
voice mail, 4-11
volume, 8-15, 8-29
volume lighting, 19-17
volume of interference, 3-31, 3-52
von Mises stress, 8-26–8-27
W
wall sections, 18-49–18-51, 18-74
wall thickness, on cast or molded parts,
9-52
Warwick Castle, 1-6
washers, 17-21, 17-32, A-26–A-29
waterwheels, 1-7
Watt, James, 1-12
wax masters, 9-41–9-43
webs, 6-35, 6-81
weighted decision tables, 5-10–5-11, 5-20
welding, 9-18, 9-21, 9-60
welds, representation of, 10-50
Whitworth threads, 17-6, 17-7
wide-angle perspective, 19-7, 19-32
windmills, Holland, 1-7, 1-8
wire drawing, 9-24–9-26, 9-60
wireframe modeling, 6-4–6-7, 6-5–6-7,
6-81
working drawings, 18-74. See also construction drawings; manufacturing
drawings
3-D modeling and, 18-71
errors in, 18-3–18-4, 18-57–18-71
examples of, 18-26–18-36
format of, 18-4–18-5
introduction to, 18-2
notes on, 18-16
purpose of, 18-3–18-5
scales, 18-52–18-57
sheet sizes, 18-6–18-8
workpiece, 9-4, 9-60
worm’s-eye view, 3-10, 11-12–11-14
X
x-axis, 2-8–2-12, 21-5
object rotations about, 3-15–3-16,
3-20–3-23
Y
y-axis, 2-8–2-12, 21-5
object rotations about, 3-15–3-16,
3-20–3-23
Z
z-axis, 2-8–2-12
object rotations about, 3-12–3-14,
3-20–3-23
z-buffer rendering, 19-11–19-12, 19-32
z-values, 20-16, 20-23
index I-15
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