Visible Light Communication Applications with MATLAB

Visible Light Communication Applications with MATLAB
اسم المؤلف
Suseela Vappangi, Vakamulla Venkata Mani, Mathini Sellathurai
التاريخ
15 أكتوبر 2021
المشاهدات
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Visible Light Communication Applications with MATLAB
Suseela Vappangi, Vakamulla Venkata Mani, Mathini Sellathurai
Contents
Preface .xiii
Authors .xvii
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO OWC-VLC .1
1.1 Current State-of-the-Art 1
1.2 History of the Origin of OWC 2
1.2.1 Advantages and Applications of OWC 5
1.3 Free Space Optical Wireless Communication 7
1.3.1 Advantages and Applications of FSOWC 9
1.3.2 Drawbacks Associated with FSO .11
1.4 Evolving and Introduction to Visible Light
Communication .12
1.5 Basic Architecture of VLC System Model .20
1.6 Significant Challenging Aspects of VLC .25
1.7 IEEE 802.15.7 Physical Layer Summary .26
1.8 IEEE 802:11 Light Communications Amendment-Task
Group “bb” .29
1.9 Comparisons between Radio Frequency-based Wireless
Communication and OWC 31
Chapter 2 VLC CHANNEL MODELS 35
2.1 Introduction .35
2.1.1 Review on Different Propagation Modes .35
2.2 Review on Photometry 37
2.2.1 Luminous Flux .38
2.2.2 Luminous Intensity 41
2.2.3 Illuminance 41
2.2.4 Lambert Radiator .42
2.3 Indoor VLC Channel Modeling 42
2.3.1 VLC Channel Modeling for the Single Source
Scenario 43
2.3.2 Channel Models for Multiple Sources .48
2.3.3 Signal to Noise Ratio Analysis 48
2.3.4 Other Parameters Associated with VLC 50
2.3.5 Illustration of the Distribution of Power and
SNR in Indoor VLC System 51
viiviii Contents
2.3.6 Review on Realistic Channel Model for VLC
Systems 56
2.4 Review on VLC Channel Models .59
2.4.1 Review on Indoor VLC Channel Characteristics
Modeled by Lee et al 66
2.4.2 Review on Diffuse Indoor Optical Wireless
Channel Modeled in Accordance to Rajbhandari et al 69
2.4.3 Review on Indoor VLC Channel Model Proposed by Ding De-qiang et al .70
2.4.4 Review on the Effect of Higher-Order Light Reflections on VLC Channel Modeling .71
2.4.5 Review on Integrated Sphere Model 74
2.5 Conclusion 75
Chapter 3 MODULATION FORMATS FOR VLC .77
3.1 Baseband Modulation Formats .78
3.1.1 ON-OFF-Keying (OOK)-based VLC Systems 78
3.1.2 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)-based VLC
Systems 82
3.1.3 Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)-based VLC
Systems 84
3.2 State-of-the-art Multicarrier Modulation Formats Compatible for IM/DD Systems .87
3.2.1 Performance Analysis of Earliest Unipolar Optical OFDM Variants 88
3.2.2 On the Performance of Different Superposition
Optical OFDM Variants .112
3.2.3 Performance Analysis of Different Hybrid Optical OFDM Variants 121
3.2.4 Other Multicarrier Modulation Formats 133
3.2.4.1 Complexity involved in the computation of Hermitian symmetry criteria 133
3.2.4.2 Performance analysis of DHT-based
optical OFDM system 136
3.2.4.3 Performance analysis of DCT/DSTbased optical OFDM system .142
3.2.4.4 Performance analysis of Hadamard
Coded Modulation (HCM)-based optical OFDM 159
3.2.4.5 Wavelet packet division multiplexing
(WPDM)-based VLC system 160
3.2.5 Carrierless Amplitude and Phase Modulation .162Contents ix
3.2.5.1 Principle aspects of realization of
CAP-VLC systems 162
3.2.5.2 Multiband CAP (m-CAP)-based VLC
systems 167
3.2.5.3 Related work on m-CAP-VLC systems 169
3.2.5.4 Challenging aspects and mitigation
techniques associated with CAP-VLC
systems 177
3.2.5.5 Research aspects pertaining to CAPVLC Systems .193
3.2.6 Color Shift Keying .194
3.3 Conclusion 197
Chapter 4 NON-LINEARITIES OF OPTICAL SOURCES 199
4.1 Non-linearity in Optical Sources 199
4.2 PAPR Reduction Techniques for IM/DD Systems .201
4.3 PAPR Analysis in DCT/DST-based Multicarrier System .204
4.3.1 Performance Analysis of DCT/DST-based Spreading Techniques for PAPR Reduction .204
4.3.2 Exploitation of PTS Technique in DCT/DSTbased Optical OFDM .208
4.3.3 Clipping and Filtering 212
4.3.4 Performance Analysis of PAPR Reduction
Techniques in a DCT/DST-based Multicarrier
System 213
4.4 PAPR Analysis in Multiple Access Schemes for VLC .218
4.4.1 DST-based Multiple Access Schemes 220
4.4.2 Fast Optical IFDMA and Fast Optical LFDMA 223
4.4.3 Optical Interleaved Frequency Division Multiple Access 225
4.4.4 Optical Localized Frequency Division Multiple
Access 228
4.4.5 Performance Analysis of DCT/DST-based Multiple Access Schemes Compatible with IM/DD
Systems for VLC 229
4.5 Conclusion 239
Chapter 5 MULTIPLE ACCESS SCHEMES AND VLC FOR SMART
CITIES .241
5.1 Motivation .241
5.2 Review on Conventional and Emerging RF-based Mul-
5.3 Multiple Access Schemes for VLC 244
5.3.1 Design Aspects of VLC Systems .245
tiple Access Schemes 243x Contents
5.3.2 Optical Frequency Division Multiple Access 247
5.3.2.1 Related work on OOFDMA-VLC
systems 250
5.3.3 Optical Code Division Multiple Access 255
5.3.3.1 CDMA-based VLC systems comprising unipolar codes 256
5.3.3.2 CDMA-based VLC systems comprising bipolar codes .261
5.3.4 Optical Space Division Multiple Access .266
5.3.4.1 System model of optical SDMA
(OSDMA)-based VLC system exploiting angle diversity transmitter 267
5.3.4.2 Research efforts pertaining to OSDMAbased VLC system .275
5.3.5 Optical Non-orthogonal Multiple Access 277
5.3.5.1 Underlying principle of NOMA technology 278
5.3.5.2 Power allocation mechanisms
in ONOMA 280
5.3.5.3 MIMO-NOMA-based VLC system .285
5.3.5.4 Inter-cell interference mitigation in
NOMA-VLC systems 288
5.3.5.5 Interface of OMA schemes with
NOMA-VLC systems 290
5.3.5.6 State-of-the-art research aspects associated with NOMA-VLC systems 292
5.3.5.7 Challenges associated with NOMAVLC systems .300
5.4 Smart Cities Exploiting Visible Light Communication
Technology .303
5.5 Conclusion 309
Chapter 6 INTEGRATION OF VLC WITH PLC 313
6.1 Introduction .313
6.2 Basic System Model .316
6.3 PLC Channel Modeling 317
6.3.1 Power-Line Noise 319
6.3.2 VLC Channel Modeling .320
6.3.3 Analysis of Cascaded PLC-VLC Channel .321
6.3.4 State-of-the-art Research Efforts Associated
with PLC-VLC Channel Modeling 323
6.4 Performance of OFDM-based PLC-VLC System 323
6.5 On the Performance of DWT-based PLC-VLC System .326
6.6 Related Work on the Combination of PLC with VLC 327Contents xi
6.6.1 Efforts toward the Realization of an Integrated
PLC-VLC System with Minimal Modifications 328
6.6.2 Assurance of Multiuser Support 330
6.6.3 Review on the Hybrid PLC/VLC/RF Communication Systems .336
6.7 Applications of Integrated PLC-VLC Systems 339
6.7.1 Exploitation of PLC-VLC Systems for
HealthCare .339
6.7.2 Deployment of PLC-VLC Systems in Airplanes .343
6.7.3 Utilization of PLC-VLC Systems in Emergency
Areas 344
6.8 Conclusion 344
Chapter 7 VLC FOR VEHICULAR COMMUNICATIONS .347
7.1 Brief Overview .347
7.2 Exploitation of VLC in Vehicular Communications 349
7.2.1 On the Performance of RF-based Dedicated
Short Range Communication to Buttress V2V
Communication 349
7.2.2 VLC-based Vehicular Communication 353
7.3 Challenging Aspects of VLC Exploitation in Enabling
Vehicular Communications .359
7.3.1 Noise Emanating due to Artificial and Ambient
Light Sources .360
7.3.2 Assurance of Long Distance Communication .367
7.3.3 Development of Hybrid RF and VLC-based
Wireless Communication Networks for Vehicular Applications 371
7.3.4 Ensuring High Data Rate Vehicular Communications by Using Complex Multicarrier Modulation Formats 377
7.3.5 Augmenting Mobility of V2V Communications .380
7.3.6 Enabling Visible Light Positioning for Vehicular Applications 385
7.4 Performance of Car-to-Car VLC 393
7.4.1 Analysis of Noise in VLC-based Car-to-Car
Communication System .401
7.4.2 Performance of VLC-based Car-to-Car Communication System .402
7.5 Conclusion 403
Chapter 8
8.1 Exploitation of Organic Light Emitting Diodes for VLC
Applications 407
RESEARCH CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH VLC .407xii Contents
8.2 Synchronization Aspects .416
8.2.1 Mathematical Illustration of the Effects of FO 418
8.2.2 Mathematical Depiction of the Effects of STO
on the Performance of DCO-OFDM-based
VLC System .420
8.2.3 Interpretation of the Effects of Timing Offsets
in DCO-SC-FDMA-based IM/DD Systems 424
8.3 Impact of Timing Errors in DCO-SC-FDMA for VLC 431
8.4 Amalgamation of OLED-based VLC Systems for Automotive Applications 438
8.5 Flickering and Dimming Issues 439
8.6 Influence of Ambient Noise on the Performance of VLC
System .439
8.7 Research Challenges Associated with VLC in the
Emerging Area of Indoor Positioning .440
References .441
Index
Index
access points, 6
Amplify-and-forward, 333
amplitude shift keying, 31
angle of arrival, 387
artificial neural network, 60
Asymmetrically and symmetrically
clipping optical OFDM, 122
Asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM,
88
Asymmetrically DC-biased optical
OFDM, 122
asynchronous transfer mode, 162
augmented and virtual reality, 1
avalanche photodiode, 80
Axial Intensity, 41
balanced incomplete block design, 260
base station, 19
bipolar to unipolar, 256
bit error rate, 61
Bluetooth, 440
carrier sense multiple access with
collision detection, 255
carrierless amplitude and phase
modulation, 162
channel estimation, 93
code cycle modulation, 260
code division multiple access, 31
code domain NOMA, 243
coded-multilevel expurgated PPM, 260
color shift keying, 23
communication pixels, 368
conjugate-gradient backpropagation,
413
Control Channel, 351
convolutional codes, 28
cooperative adaptive cruise control, 372
cross-channel interference, 183
cyclic code-shift extension, 259
DC-biased optical OFDM, 88
decision feedback equalization, 4
decode-and-forward, 333
dedicated short range communications,
349
Department of Transportation, 349
Differential Overlapping PPM, 85
Differential PPM, 85
digital audio broadcasting, 87
digital subscriber lines, 87
digital video broadcasting, 87
direct detection, 20
discrete cosine transform, 142
discrete multitone modulation, 23
discrete sine transform, 143
discrete wavelet packet transform, 160
Distance Estimation via Asynchronous
Phase Shift, 389
Doppler Shift, 418
Enhanced ACO-OFDM, 112
enhanced evolutionary game theory, 255
Enhanced PAM-DMT, 112
enhanced sub-band index CAP, 192
Enhanced unipolar optical OFDM, 112
error vector magnitude, 254
Exhaustive Search Power Allocation,
280
Expurgated PPM, 85
fast optical OFDM, 142
fast Walsh-Hadamard transform , 159
Federal Communications Commission,
349
field of view, 24
fifth generation, 241
Fixed Power Allocation, 280
flickering, 25
Flip OFDM, 88
fluorescent lamps, 439
forward error correction, 27
fractional frequency reuse, 252
fractionally-spaced equalizers, 187
479480 Index
free space, 7
frequency division multiple access, 243
Frequency offset, 416
Gain Ratio Power Allocation, 280
Generalized enhanced unipolar OFDM,
112
generalized frequency division
multiplexing, 31
global positioning system, 385
global system for mobile, 241
Gold Sequences, 261
Hadamard Coded Modulation, 160
Hadamard matrices, 159
Hadamard transform, 159
half-beam angle, 41
hard threshold, 255
Hartley transform, 136
Hermitian Symmetry, 88
Heterogeneous Networks, 371
high definition television, 1
high pass filter, 166
Hilbert transform, 168
Hybrid Asymmetrically clipped OFDM,
122
IEEE 1901, 315
IEEE 802.11bb, 30
IEEE 802.11p, 349
IEEE 802.15.7, 13
IEEE 802.15.7r1, 35
Illuminance, 41
illumination, 21
image sensor, 20
incandescent lamps, 439
indium tin oxide, 408
indoor positioning systems, 440
infrared, 2
infrastructure to vehicle, 7
intelligent transportation system, 347
intensity modulation, 20
inter carrier interference, 416
interband interference, 176
interim standard, 241
internet of things, 5
intersymbol interference, 5
inverse discrete wavelet packet
transform, 160
inverse fast Fourier transform, 87
inverted GMPC, 259
ITU-T G.9960/61, 315
Japan Electronics and Information
Technology Industries
Association, 13
Lambert Radiator, 42
Laser Radar Visible Light Bidirectional
Communication Boomerang
System, 391
laser range finder, 384
Layered ACO-OFDM, 112
least mean square, 62
least square, 93
Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation,
413
light detection and ranging, 385
light emitting diodes, 5
line of sight, 8
linear equalizer, 194
linear feed forward equalization, 78
liquid crystal displays, 407
luminous efficiency, 40
luminous flux, 38, 41
luminous intensity, 41
M-ary phase shift keying, 87
M-ary pulse amplitude modulation, 87
M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation,
87
m-sequences, 261
machine-to-machine, 1
maximum flickering time period, 25
maximum likelihood, 243
maximum likelihood sequence
detection, 78
mean square error, 62
medium access control, 87
minimum mean square error, 93Index 481
modified Gold sequences, 261
modified prime sequence code, 259
modified Walsh-Hadamard sequences,
261
Multi-level EPPM, 85
multiband CAP, 162
multiple input multiple output, 16
Multipulse PPM, 85
multiuser superposition transmission,
244
narrow band PLC, 314
network assisted interference
cancellation and suppression,
244
non-coherent, 88
non-imaging concentrator, 45
non-line of sight, 21
non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward,
253
non-orthogonal multiband carrierless
and amplitude phase
modulation, 176
non-orthogonal multiple access, 242
nonreturn-to-zero, 80
Normalized Gain Difference Power
Allocation, 280
normalized LMS, 62
on-off keying, 5
optical code division multiple access,
242
optical communication image sensor,
368
optical orthogonal codes, 256
optical orthogonal frequency division
multiple access, 242
optical spatial division multiple access,
242
optical wireless communication, 2
optimised Lambertian order, 61
organic light emitting diodes, 407
orientation-based random waypoint, 255
orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing, 7
orthogonal multiple access, 243
Overlapping MPPM, 85
Overlapping PPM, 85
PAM-DMT-based hybrid optical
OFDM, 122
pattern division multiple access, 292
Phase modulation-DCO-OFDM, 122
phase shift keying, 31
photopic vision, 38
Poisson point process, 253
Polar-based OFDM, 121
positioning systems, 440
positive intrinsic negative photodiode,
20
power delay profile, 67
power domain NOMA, 243
Power Line Communication, 19
power spectral distribution, 67
prime codes, 256
Pulse amplitude modulated discrete
multi-tone modulation, 88
pulse amplitude modulation, 78
pulse modulation, 7
pulse position modulation, 78
pulse width modulation, 78
quality of service, 294
radio frequency, 1
radio frequency identification module,
440
random access point assignment, 255
random optical codes, 256
received signal strength, 391
Reconstructed LACO-OFDM, 122
red-green-blue-yellow, 194
Reed-Solomon, 28
repetition coding, 66
repetitive coded CAP, 191
Reverse Polarity optical OFDM, 121
road side units, 349
roll-off factor, 166
root mean square, 60
run length limited, 27482 Index
second generation, 241
Service Channel, 351
short message services, 241
signal to interference noise ratio, 245
single frequency network, 328
small molecule OLEDs, 408
solid angle, 41
solid state lighting, 17
sparse code multiple access, 292
spatial modulation, 66
spatial multiplexing, 66
Spatial optical OFDM, 121
spectral efficiency, 109
Spectrally and energy-efficient OFDM,
112
Spectrally factorized optical OFDM,
122
square-root raised cosine, 168
step-index plastic optical fiber, 192
sub-band index, 192
successive interference cancellation, 244
Sum Rate Maximization Power
Allocation, 280
superluminescent diode, 407
superposition coding, 244
switch mode power supplies, 319
symbol spaced equalizer, 187
symbol time offset, 417
synchronization, 416
Terahertz, 2
third generation partnership project
long-term evolution, 87
time difference of arrival, 388
time division multiple access, 243
time domain equalization, 412
time hopping spread spectrum, 391
timing jitter, 177
transimpedance amplifier, 21
Triple-layer hybrid optical OFDM, 122
underwater sensor network, 254
unipolar, 88
Unipolar OFDM, 88
Unipolar orthogonal transmission, 112
Variable PPM, 85
variable pulse position modulation, 27
Variable pulse width unipolar optical
OFDM, 122
vehicle information and communication
system, 381
vehicle safety communications
consortium, 367
vehicle to infrastructure, 6
vehicle to vehicle, 7
vehicular adhoc networks, 351
vehicular communication, 17
visible light communication, 5
Visible Light Communication
Consortium, 13
Visible Light Communications
Associations, 13
Voice over Internet Protocol, 87
Volterra series-based non-linear
equalizer, 194
wavelength division multiple access,
242
white phosphorescent LED, 22
wireless access in vehicular
environments, 349
wireless fidelity, 15
wireless interoperability for microwave
access, 87
World Health Organization, 347
Xia pulses, 191
zero cross-correlation codes, 256

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