Technical Drawing With Engineering Graphics

Technical Drawing With Engineering Graphics
اسم المؤلف
Frederick E. Giesecke, Alva Mitchell, Henry Cecil Spencer, Ivan Leroy Hill, John Thomas Dygdon, James E. Novak, Shawna Lockhart, Marla Goodman
التاريخ
20 أغسطس 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Technical Drawing With Engineering Graphics
Fifteenth Edition
Frederick E. Giesecke
Late Professor Emeritus of Drawing
Texas a&m University
Alva Mitchell
Late Professor Emeritus of Engineering Drawing
Texas a & M University
Henry Cecil Spencer
Late Professor Emeritus of Technical Drawing
Illinois Institute of Technology
Ivan Leroy Hill
Late Professor Emeritus of Engineering Graphics
Illinois Institute of Technology
John Thomas Dygdon
Professor Emeritus of Engineering Graphics
Illinois Institute of Technology
James E. Novak
Senior Lecturer and Director, Engineering Graphics Division
Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
Shawna Lockhart
Formerly Adjunct Professor, Engineering Graphics
Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering
Montana State University
Marla Goodman
Cindy M. Johnson
Contents Xi
Chapter One
The Worldwide Language for
Graphic Design
Understanding the Role of Technical
Drawings
The Design Process
Concurrent Engineering
Computer-Aided Design and Product
Development
Designing Quality into Products
The Digital Database
. GRAPHICS TOOLS IN ACTION
Design Phase: Problem Identification
Design Phase: Ideation
Design Phase: Decision Process/Design Selection
Design Phase: Refinement
Design Phase: Analysis
Design Phase: Decision Process/Design Selection
Design Phase: Implementation
Design Phase: Documentation
. RAPID PROTOTYPING
. DRAFTING STANDARDS
. CREATIVITY TECHNIQUES
Examine Manufactured Products
Study the Natural World
Watch the Web
Research Patent Drawings
Design Groups
. PRODUCT DEFINITION
. SHOWING THE DESIGN PROCESS IN A
PORTFOLIO
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
REVERSE ENGINEERING PROJECTS
Can Opener Project
Locking Pliers Project
C H A P T E R T W O
LAYOUTS AND LETTERING
UNDERSTANDING PROJECTIONS
Types of Projections
Drawing Vocabulary
. ALPHABET OF LINES
. FREEHAND LINES
. MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS
U.S. Customary Units
The Metric System
. DRAWING SCALE
. SPECIFYING THE SCALE ON A
DRAWING
. LETTERING
. LETTERING STANDARDS
. USING GUIDELINES FOR HAND
LETTERING
. VERTICAL AND INCLINED LETTERS AND
NUMERALS
. FRACTIONS
. SPACING OF LETTERS AND WORDS
. LETTERING FOR TITLES
. DRAWING PENCILS
. TEMPLATES
. CAD TOOLS
. SKETCHING AND DRAWING MEDIA
. STANDARD SHEETS
. STANDARD LAYOUT ELEMENTS
Margins and Borders
Zones
Typical Letter Sizes
Title Block
. LAYOUTS
CONTENTSxii C O N T E N T S
. ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS
. MAKING AN ISOMETRIC DRAWING
. OFFSET LOCATION MEASUREMENTS
Isometric Drawings of Inclined Surfaces
. HIDDEN LINES AND CENTERLINES
. ANGLES IN ISOMETRIC
. IRREGULAR OBJECTS
. CURVES IN ISOMETRIC
. TRUE ELLIPSES IN ISOMETRIC
. ORIENTING ELLIPSES IN ISOMETRIC
DRAWINGS
. DRAWING ISOMETRIC CYLINDERS
. SCREW THREADS IN ISOMETRIC
. ARCS IN ISOMETRIC
. SPHERES IN ISOMETRIC
. OBLIQUE SKETCHES
Appearance of Oblique Drawings
Choosing the Front Surface
Angle of Receding Lines
. LENGTH OF RECEDING LINES
Cavalier Projection
Cabinet Projection
. CHOICE OF POSITION IN OBLIQUE
DRAWINGS
. ELLIPSES FOR OBLIQUE DRAWINGS
. ANGLES IN OBLIQUE PROJECTION
. SKETCHING ASSEMBLIES
. SKETCHING PERSPECTIVES
The Three Types of Perspective
Bird’s-Eye View Versus Worm’s-Eye View
. CURVES AND CIRCLES IN PERSPECTIVE
. SHADING
. COMPUTER GRAPHICS
. DRAWING ON DRAWING
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
SKETCHING EXERCISES
. PLANNING YOUR DRAWING
OR SKETCH
Show Details Clearly
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
Drawing Exercises
Lettering Exercises
C H A P T E R T H R E E
VISUALIZATION AND
SKETCHING
UNDERSTANDING SOLID OBJECTS
Types of Solids
UNDERSTANDING SKETCHING
TECHNIQUES
Analyzing Complex Objects
Viewpoint
Shading
Edges and Vertices
Points and Lines
Angles
Drawings and Sketches
Freehand Sketching
. TECHNIQUE OF LINES
Lineweights
. SKETCHING STRAIGHT LINES
Blocking in a Freehand Drawing
. SKETCHING CIRCLES,
ARCS, AND ELLIPSES
Circles
Sketching Arcs
Sketching Ellipses
. MAINTAINING PROPORTIONS
. ONE-VIEW DRAWINGS
. PICTORIAL SKETCHING
. PROJECTION METHODS
. AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION
Axonometric Projections and D Models
. ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Isometric Axes
Nonisometric Lines
Isometric Scales C O N T E N T S xiii
. USER COORDINATE SYSTEMS
. TRANSFORMATIONS
Geometric Transformations
Viewing Transformations
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
SKILLS SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R F I V E
MODELING AND DESIGN
REFINEMENT AND MODELING
KINDS OF MODELS
Descriptive Models
Analytical Models
. D MODELS
Paper Drawings
D CAD Models
D Constraint-Based Modeling
. D MODELS
Physical Models
D CAD Models
. TYPES OF D MODELS
Wireframe Models
Surface Models
Solid Models
. CONSTRAINT-BASED MODELING
. CONSTRAINTS DEFINE THE GEOMETRY
Feature-Based Modeling
. PLANNING PARTS FOR DESIGN
FLEXIBILITY
. SKETCH CONSTRAINTS
Overconstrained Sketches
Underconstrained Sketches
Applying Constraints
Setting the Base Point
. THE BASE FEATURE
Adding Features to the Model
Parent-Child Relationships
Datum Planes and Surfaces
. EDITING THE MODEL
Standard Features
Working with Built-in Features
Complex Shapes
C H A P T E R F O U R
GEOMETRY FOR MODELING
AND DESIGN
COORDINATES FOR D CAD MODELING
Specifying Location
GEOMETRIC ENTITIES
Points
Lines
Planes
Circles
Arcs
. MANUALLY BISECTING A LINE OR
CIRCULAR ARC
. DRAWING TANGENTS TO TWO
CIRCLES
. DRAWING AN ARC TANGENT TO A LINE OR
ARC AND THROUGH A POINT
. BISECTING AN ANGLE
. DRAWING A LINE THROUGH A POINT AND
PARALLEL TO A LINE
. DRAWING A TRIANGLE WITH SIDES
GIVEN
. DRAWING A RIGHT TRIANGLE WITH
HYPOTENUSE AND ONE SIDE GIVEN
. LAYING OUT AN ANGLE
. DRAWING AN EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE
. POLYGONS
. DRAWING A REGULAR PENTAGON
. DRAWING A HEXAGON
. ELLIPSES
. SPLINE CURVES
. GEOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS
. SOLID PRIMITIVES
Making Complex Shapes with Boolean
Operations
. RECOGNIZING SYMMETRY
Right- and Left-Hand Parts
Parting-Line Symmetry
. EXTRUDED FORMS
Swept Shapes
. REVOLVED FORMS
. IRREGULAR SURFACES xiv C O N T E N T S
. NORMAL EDGES
. INCLINED EDGES
. OBLIQUE EDGES
. PARALLEL EDGES
. ANGLES
. VERTICES
. INTERPRETING POINTS
. INTERPRETING LINES
. SIMILAR SHAPES OF SURFACES
. INTERPRETING VIEWS
. MODELS
Rules for Visualizing from a Drawing:
Putting It All Together
. PROJECTING A THIRD VIEW
. BECOMING A D VISUALIZER
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R S E V E N
D DRAWING
REPRESENTATION
PRACTICES FOR D DOCUMENTATION
DRAWINGS
Common Manufactured Features
Conventional Representations
Intersections and Tangencies
Removed Views
. VISUALIZING AND DRAWING COMPLEX
CYLINDRICAL SHAPES
. CYLINDERS WHEN SLICED
. CYLINDERS AND ELLIPSES
. INTERSECTIONS AND TANGENCIES
Intersections of Cylinders
. FILLETS AND ROUNDS
. RUNOUTS
. CONVENTIONAL EDGES
. NECESSARY VIEWS
. PARTIAL VIEWS
Showing Enlarged Details
Conventional Breaks
. CONSTRAINT-BASED MODELING
MODES
Assemblies
Drawings from the Model
. CHOOSING THE RIGHT MODELING
METHOD
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R S I X
ORTHOGRAPHIC
PROJECTION
UNDERSTANDING PROJECTIONS
Views of Objects
The Six Standard Views
Principal Dimensions
Projection Method
The Glass Box
Spacing between Views
Transferring Depth Dimensions
Measuring from a Reference Surface
Necessary Views
Orientation of the Front View
First- and Third-Angle Projection
Third-Angle Projection
Alternative Arrangements for
Third-Angle Projection
First-Angle Projection
Projection System Drawing Symbol
Hidden Lines
Centerlines
. HIDDEN LINE TECHNIQUE
. PRECEDENCE OF LINES
. CENTERLINES
. LAYING OUT A DRAWING
. DEVELOPING VIEWS FROM D
MODELS
Placing the Views
Isometric Views
. VISUALIZATION
Surfaces, Edges, and Corners
. VIEWS OF SURFACES
. NORMAL SURFACES
. INCLINED SURFACES
. OBLIQUE SURFACES
. EDGES C O N T E N T S xv
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R N I N E
AUXILIARY VIEWS
UNDERSTANDING AUXILIARY VIEWS
The Auxiliary Plane
Primary Auxiliary Views
Visualizing an Auxiliary View
as a Revolved Drawing
Classification of Auxiliary Views
Successive Auxiliary Views
Secondary Auxiliary Views
Reference Planes
. USING TRIANGLES TO SKETCH AUXILIARY
VIEWS
. USING GRID PAPER TO SKETCH AUXILIARY
VIEWS
. USING CAD TO CREATE AUXILIARY
VIEWS
. CIRCLES AND ELLIPSES IN AUXILIARY
VIEWS
. HIDDEN LINES IN AUXILIARY VIEWS
. PARTIAL AUXILIARY VIEWS
. HALF AUXILIARY VIEWS
. REVERSE CONSTRUCTION
. AUXILIARY SECTIONS
. VIEWING-PLANE LINES
AND ARROWS
. USES OF AUXILIARY VIEWS
. TRUE LENGTH OF A LINE
. POINT VIEW OF A LINE
Showing the Point View of a Line
. EDGE VIEW OF A PLANE
Showing the Edge View of a Plane
. TRUE SIZE OF AN OBLIQUE SURFACE
Showing the True Size and Shape
of an Oblique Surface
. DIHEDRAL ANGLES
UNDERSTANDING DEVELOPMENTS AND
INTERSECTIONS
Surface Terminology
Developable Surfaces
Principles of Intersections
. ALIGNMENT OF VIEWS
. REMOVED VIEWS
. RIGHT-HAND AND LEFT-HAND PARTS
. REVOLUTION CONVENTIONS
Common Hole Features Shown in
Orthographic Views
Common Features Shown in
Orthographic Views
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R E I G H T
SECTION VIEWS
UNDERSTANDING SECTIONS
Sections of Single Parts
Full Sections
The Cutting Plane
Lines behind the Cutting Plane
. PLACEMENT OF SECTION VIEWS
. LABELING CUTTING PLANES
. LINE PRECEDENCE
. RULES FOR LINES IN SECTION VIEWS
. CUTTING-PLANE LINE STYLE
Visualizing Cutting-Plane Direction
. SECTION-LINING TECHNIQUE
Section Lining Large Areas
Section-Lining Symbols
Section Lining in CAD
. HALF SECTIONS
. BROKEN OUT SECTIONS
. REVOLVED SECTIONS
. REMOVED SECTIONS
. OFFSET SECTIONS
. RIBS IN SECTION
. ALIGNED SECTIONS
. PARTIAL VIEWS
. INTERSECTIONS IN SECTIONS
. CONVENTIONAL BREAKS
AND SECTIONS
. ASSEMBLY SECTIONS
KEY WORDS xvi C O N T E N T S
. ASSEMBLIES AND DESIGN
Layout Drawings
Assembling to a Skeleton
Global Parameters
Seed Parts
Constraint-Based Drawing Elements
. ASSEMBLIES AND SIMULATION
. PARTS FOR ASSEMBLIES
Standard Parts
Fastener Libraries
. USING YOUR MODEL TO CHECK FITS
Interference Checking
Accessibility Checking
. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Designing Plastic Parts
Cast Parts
Modeling Machined Parts
Modeling Sheet Metal Parts
Other Methods of Production
. DOS AND DON’TS OF PRACTICAL
DESIGN
Casting Design
Practical Considerations
. MANUFACTURING MATERIALS
Material Assignment in Models
. APPEARANCE, SERVICE LIFE, AND
RECYCLING
. DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY AND SURFACE
FINISH
. NET-SHAPE MANUFACTURING
. COMPUTER-INTEGRATED
MANUFACTURING
. SHARED MANUFACTURING
. MANUFACTURING METHODS AND THE
DRAWING
. MODELING FOR TESTING AND
REFINEMENT
. DETERMINING MASS PROPERTIES
Understanding Mass Property Calculations
. EXPORTING DATA FROM THE
DATABASE
File Formats
Common Formats for Export
Vector versus Raster Data
. DOWNSTREAM APPLICATIONS
Spreadsheets
Equation Solvers
Finite Element Analysis
. DEVELOPMENTS
Finding the Intersection of a Plane and a Prism and
Developing the Prism
Finding the Intersection of a Plane
and a Cylinder and Developing
the Cylinder
. HEMS AND JOINTS FOR SHEET METAL AND
OTHER MATERIALS
. MORE EXAMPLES OF DEVELOPMENTS AND
INTERSECTIONS
Developing a Plane and an Oblique Prism
Developing a Plane and an Oblique Cylinder
Developing a Plane and a Pyramid
Developing a Plane and a Cone
Developing a Hood and Flue
. TRANSITION PIECES
. TRIANGULATION
. DEVELOPING A TRANSITION PIECE
CONNECTING RECTANGULAR PIPES ON THE
SAME AXIS
. DEVELOPING A PLANE AND A SPHERE
. REVOLUTION
Axis of Revolution
Creating a Revolved Drawing
. PRIMARY AND SUCCESSIVE
REVOLUTIONS
. TRUE LENGTH OF A LINE: REVOLUTION
METHOD
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
Design Project
Auxiliary View Exercises
Revolution Exercises
Development Exercises
C H A P T E R T E N
MODELING FOR MANUFACTURE
AND ASSEMBLY
DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE, ASSEMBLY,
DISASSEMBLY, AND SERVICE
. ASSEMBLY MODELS
Constraint-Based Assemblies
Choosing the Parent Part
Assembly Constraints
Managing Assembly Files C O N T E N T S xvii
. FILLETS AND ROUNDS
. SIZE DIMENSIONING: PRISMS
. SIZE DIMENSIONING: CYLINDERS
. SIZE DIMENSIONING: HOLES
. APPLYING STANDARD DIMENSIONING
SYMBOLS
. DIMENSIONING COUNTERBORES AND
SPOTFACES WITH FILLETS
. DIMENSIONING TRIANGULAR PRISMS,
PYRAMIDS, AND CONES
. DIMENSIONING CURVES
. DIMENSIONING
CURVED SURFACES
. DIMENSIONING ROUNDED-END
SHAPES
. DIMENSIONING THREADS
. DIMENSIONING TAPERS
. DIMENSIONING CHAMFERS
. SHAFT CENTERS
. DIMENSIONING KEYWAYS
. DIMENSIONING KNURLS
. FINISH MARKS
. SURFACE ROUGHNESS
Applications of Surface
Roughness Symbols
. LOCATION DIMENSIONS
. MATING DIMENSIONS
. COORDINATE DIMENSIONING
. TABULAR DIMENSIONS
. DIMENSIONING FOR NUMERICALLYCONTROLLED MACHINING
. MACHINE, PATTERN, AND FORGING
DIMENSIONS
. SHEET METAL BENDS
. NOTES
. STANDARDS
. DOS AND DON’TS OF DIMENSIONING
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
Simulation Software
Human Factors
Integrated Modeling and Design Software
. PROTOTYPING YOUR DESIGN
Rapid Prototyping
Translating the Model
Rapid Prototyping Systems
Rapid Tooling
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
Mass Properties Exercises
C H A P T E R E L E V E N
DIMENSIONING
UNDERSTANDING DIMENSIONING
Three Aspects of Good Dimensioning
Tolerance
Geometric Breakdown
. LINES USED IN DIMENSIONING
. USING DIMENSION AND
EXTENSION LINES
. ARROWHEADS
. LEADERS
. DRAWING SCALE AND
DIMENSIONING
. DIRECTION OF DIMENSION VALUES
AND NOTES
. DIMENSION UNITS
. MILLIMETER VALUES
. DECIMAL-INCH VALUES
. RULES FOR DIMENSION VALUES
. RULES FOR ROUNDING DECIMAL
DIMENSION VALUES
. DUAL DIMENSIONING
. COMBINATION UNITS
. DIMENSIONING SYMBOLS
. PLACING AND SHOWING DIMENSIONS
LEGIBLY
Rules for Placing Dimensions Properly
. SUPERFLUOUS DIMENSIONS
. DIMENSIONING ANGLES
. DIMENSIONING ARCS xviii C O N T E N T S
. TOLERANCES AND DIGITAL PRODUCT
DEFINITION
. COMPUTER GRAPHICS
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
Design Project
Tolerancing Projects
C H A P T E R T H I R T E E N
THREADS, FASTENERS, AND
SPRINGS
UNDERSTANDING THREADS AND
FASTENERS
Screw Thread Terms
Screw Thread Forms
Thread Pitch
Thread Series
Right-Hand and Left-Hand Threads
Single and Multiple Threads
American National Thread Fits
Metric and Unified Thread Fits
Three Methods for Drawing Thread
. THREAD NOTES
Acme Thread Notes
. EXTERNAL THREAD SYMBOLS
. INTERNAL THREAD SYMBOLS
. DETAILED REPRESENTATION:
METRIC, UNIFIED, AND AMERICAN
NATIONAL THREADS
Detailed Internal Square Thread
Detailed External Square Thread
. THREADS IN ASSEMBLY
. MODELING THREAD
. AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD PIPE
THREADS
. USE OF PHANTOM LINES
. TAPPED HOLES
. BOLTS, STUDS, AND SCREWS
. STANDARD BOLTS AND NUTS
. DRAWING STANDARD BOLTS
. SPECIFICATIONS FOR BOLTS AND
NUTS
. LOCKNUTS AND LOCKING DEVICES
. STANDARD CAP SCREWS
C H A P T E R T W E L V E
TOLERANCING
UNDERSTANDING TOLERANCE
Tolerance
Quality Control
Definitions for Size Designation
Variations in Form
Tolerance Envelope
Implied Right Angles
Fits between Mating Parts
Selective Assembly
Hole System
Shaft System
. SPECIFYING TOLERANCES
. GENERAL TOLERANCE NOTES
. LIMIT TOLERANCES
Single-Limit Dimensioning
. PLUS-OR-MINUS TOLERANCES
. TOLERANCE STACKING
Chained or Continuous Dimensioning
Baseline Dimensioning
. USING AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
LIMITS AND FIT TABLES
. TOLERANCES AND MACHINING
PROCESSES
. METRIC SYSTEM OF TOLERANCES
AND FITS
. PREFERRED SIZES
. PREFERRED FITS
. GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING
AND TOLERANCING
. SYMBOLS FOR TOLERANCES OF POSITION
AND FORM
. DATUM FEATURES
Datum Features Versus
Datum Feature Simulator
Datum Reference Frame
Datum Targets
. POSITIONAL TOLERANCES
. MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION
. TOLERANCES OF ANGLES
. FORM TOLERANCES FOR SINGLE
FEATURES
. ORIENTATIONS FOR RELATED
FEATURES
. USING GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND
TOLERANCING C O N T E N T S xix
. DRAWING REVISIONS
. SIMPLIFYING DRAWINGS
. PATENT DRAWINGS
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
Design Project
Working Drawing Exercises
C H A P T E R F I F T E E N
DRAWING CONTROL AND DATA
MANAGEMENT
DOCUMENTATION AND THE DESIGN
DATABASE
. REQUIREMENTS FOR ENGINEERING
DOCUMENTATION
. DRAWING CONTROL METHODS
Drawing Approval and Release
Change Orders
Revision Block
A Drawing as a Snapshot in Time
. GOOD PRACTICES FOR ELECTRONIC
DRAWING STORAGE
Storing Electronic Files
Organized Directory Structures
File Naming Conventions
. DRAWING STANDARDS
. PERMISSION AND OWNERSHIP
. BACKING UP DRAWING FILES
. STORAGE MEDIA
. USING THE D DESIGN DATABASE
IN CONCURRENT ENGINEERING
. QUALITY MANAGEMENT
ISO /
. PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT
Organized by Product
A Relational Database
. MANAGING WORK FLOW
Archiving Work History
Individual Productivity
. DATA MANAGEMENT AND THE WEB
CAD Files on the Web
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
. STANDARD MACHINE SCREWS
. STANDARD SET SCREWS
. AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
WOOD SCREWS
. MISCELLANEOUS FASTENERS
. KEYS
. MACHINE PINS
. RIVETS
Riveted Joints
Rivet Symbols
Small Rivets
Blind Rivets
. SPRINGS
Helical Springs
. DRAWING HELICAL SPRINGS
. MODELING SPRINGS
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
Design Project
Thread and Fastener Projects
C H A P T E R F O U R T E E N
WORKING DRAWINGS
WORKING DRAWINGS OR CONSTRUCTION
DRAWINGS
Assembly Drawings
Detail Drawings or Piece Part Drawings
. SUBASSEMBLIES
. IDENTIFICATION
Multidetail Drawings
. PARTS LISTS
. ASSEMBLY SECTIONS
. WORKING DRAWING ASSEMBLY
. INSTALLATION ASSEMBLIES
. CHECK ASSEMBLIES
. WORKING DRAWING FORMATS
Number of Details per Sheet
Digital Drawing Transmittal
Title and Record Strips
. DRAWING NUMBERS
. ZONING
. CHECKING DRAWINGS xx C O N T E N T S
. DRAWING SIZE, FORMAT, AND TITLE
. LINE CONVENTIONS AND LETTERING
. STANDARD SYMBOLS FOR ELECTRONIC
DIAGRAMS
. ABBREVIATIONS
. GROUPING PARTS
. ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRICAL/
ELECTRONIC SYMBOLS
. CONNECTIONS AND CROSSOVERS
. INTERRUPTED PATHS
. TERMINALS
. COLOR CODING
. DIVISION OF PARTS
. ELECTRON TUBE PIN IDENTIFICATION
. REFERENCE DESIGNATIONS
. NUMERICAL VALUES
. FUNCTIONAL IDENTIFICATION
AND OTHER INFORMATION
. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
. PRINTED CIRCUITS
. COMPUTER GRAPHICS
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R E I G H T E E N
STRUCTURAL DRAWING
STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS
. WOOD CONSTRUCTION
Nominal Sizes for Wood Products
Symbols for Finished Surfaces on
Wood Products
Wood Joints
Connector Designs
Metal Ring Connectors
Straps and Plates
. STRUCTURAL STEEL
Piece Marks
Erection Plans
. STRUCTURAL STEEL SHAPES
. SPECIFICATIONS
. WELDED AND BOLTED CONNECTIONS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R S I X T E E N
GEARS AND CAMS
UNDERSTANDING GEARS
Using Gears to Transmit Power
Spur Gear Definitions and Formulas
. CONSTRUCTING A BASE CIRCLE
. THE INVOLUTE TOOTH SHAPE
. APPROXIMATE INVOLUTE USING
CIRCULAR ARCS
. SPACING GEAR TEETH
. RACK TEETH
. WORKING DRAWINGS OF SPUR GEARS
. SPUR GEAR DESIGN
. WORM GEARS
. WORKING DRAWINGS OF
WORM GEARS
. BEVEL GEARS
. BEVEL GEAR DEFINITIONS AND
FORMULAS
. WORKING DRAWINGS OF
BEVEL GEARS
. CAMS
. DISPLACEMENT DIAGRAMS
. CAM PROFILES
. OFFSET AND PIVOTED CAM
FOLLOWERS
. CYLINDRICAL CAMS
. OTHER DRIVE DEVICES
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R S E V E N T E E N
ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS
UNDERSTANDING ELECTRONIC
DIAGRAMS
Standard Symbols
CAD Symbol Libraries
Types of Electronic Diagrams C O N T E N T S xxi
. STEEL AND WROUGHT IRON PIPE
. CAST IRON PIPE
. SEAMLESS BRASS AND COPPER PIPE
. COPPER TUBING
. PLASTIC AND SPECIALTY PIPES
. PIPE FITTINGS
. PIPE JOINTS
Flanged Joints
Welded Joints
. VALVES
Globe Valves
Check Valves
Gate Valves
Solenoid-Actuated Valves
. AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R T W E N T Y – O N E
WELDING REPRESENTATION
UNDERSTANDING WELDMENT
DRAWINGS
Welding Processes
Standard Symbols
UNDERSTANDING A WELDING SYMBOL
. TYPES OF WELDED JOINTS
. TYPES OF WELDS
. WELDING SYMBOLS
. FILLET WELDS
. GROOVE WELDS
. BACK OR BACKING WELDS
. SURFACE WELDS
. PLUG AND SLOT WELDS
. SPOT WELDS
. SEAM WELDS
. PROJECTION WELDS
. FLASH AND UPSET WELDS
. WELDING APPLICATIONS
. WELDING TEMPLATES
. RIVETED CONNECTIONS
. FRAME BEAM CONNECTIONS
. WELDING
. HIGH-STRENGTH BOLTING FOR
STRUCTURAL JOINTS
. ACCURACY OF DIMENSIONS
. CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
. REINFORCED CONCRETE DRAWINGS
. STRUCTURAL CLAY PRODUCTS
. STONE CONSTRUCTION
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R N I N E T E E N
LANDFORM DRAWINGS
UNDERSTANDING LANDFORM DRAWINGS
Definitions
GETTING INFORMATION FOR MAPS
. SYMBOLS
. BEARINGS
. ELEVATION
. CONTOURS
Interpolating Elevation Data
D Terrain Models
. CITY MAPS
Subdivision Plats
Uses for Subdivision Plats
Landscape Drawings
. STRUCTURE LOCATION PLANS
. HIGHWAY PLANS
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R T W E N T Y
PIPING DRAWINGS
UNDERSTANDING PIPING DRAWINGS
Standard Symbols
Types of Drawings
Dimensioning Piping Drawings xxii C O N T E N T S
. DRAWING AN ANGULAR PERSPECTIVE
. POSITION OF THE STATION POINT
. LOCATION OF THE PICTURE PLANE
. BIRD’S-EYE VIEW OR WORM’S-EYE VIEW
. THE THREE TYPES OF PERSPECTIVES
. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE
. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE OF A
CYLINDRICAL SHAPE
. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE
. THREE-POINT PERSPECTIVE
. MEASUREMENTS IN PERSPECTIVE
. DIRECT MEASUREMENTS ALONG
INCLINED LINES
. VANISHING POINTS OF INCLINED LINES
. INCLINED LINES IN PERSPECTIVE,
JOINING ENDPOINT METHOD
. CURVES AND CIRCLES IN PERSPECTIVE
. THE PERSPECTIVE PLAN METHOD
. PERSPECTIVE DIAGRAM
. SHADING
. COMPUTER GRAPHICS
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
GLOSSARY G-
APPENDICES A-
INDEX I-
CREDITS C-
. COMPUTER GRAPHICS
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
Roof Truss Exercises
C H A P T E R T W E N T Y – T W O
AXONOMETRIC
PROJECTION ONLINE ONLY
UNDERSTANDING AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION
Projection Methods Reviewed
Types of Axonometric Projection
. DIMETRIC PROJECTION
. APPROXIMATE DIMETRIC DRAWINGS
. TRIMETRIC PROJECTION
. TRIMETRIC SCALES
. TRIMETRIC ELLIPSES
. AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION USING
INTERSECTIONS
. COMPUTER GRAPHICS
. OBLIQUE PROJECTIONS
Directions of Projectors
. ELLIPSES FOR OBLIQUE DRAWINGS
Alternative Four-Center Ellipses
Four-Center Ellipse for Cavalier Drawings
. OFFSET MEASUREMENTS
. OBLIQUE DIMENSIONING
. COMPUTER GRAPHICS
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R T W E N T Y – T H R E E
PERSPECTIVE
DRAWINGS ONLINE ONLY
UNDERSTANDING PERSPECTIVES
. PERSPECTIVE FROM A MULTIVIEW
PROJECTION
. NONROTATED SIDE VIEW METHOD FOR
PERSPECTIVEINDEX
I-
D CAD models, –
D drawings. See also drawings.
aligned sections,
aligning views, –
break lines, –
common manufactured features, ,
complex cylindrical shapes,
conventional breaks, –
conventional edges,
conventions,
cylinders, –
ellipses,
enlarged details,
fillets, –
hole features, in orthographic views,
intersections, , –
necessary views, –
partial views, –
plotting curves by hand,
removed views, , –
revolution conventions,
revolved sectional views,
right- and left-hand parts, –
rounds, –
runouts,
tangencies, , –
tangent surfaces, hiding,
D models
constraint-based modeling,
paper drawings,
wireframe,
D CAD modeling
assembly drawings, example, –
case study: bicycle brake, –
combining shapes. See solid primitives.
coordinates, –
creating auxiliary views,
vertices,
virtual prototypes,
VR (virtual reality),
D data, contour maps from,
D models
developing views from, –
isometric projection,
physical models, –
prototypes, –
solid models, ,
surface models, –
terrain models,
types of, – ,
wireframe modeling, – ,
visualizing,
D printing, as prototyping tool,
D shapes, formulas for, A- –A-
-pitch thread,
-pitch thread,
-pitch thread,
° angles, estimating,
° miter line, ,
A
abbreviations
dimensioning,
electronic diagrams,
list of, A- –A-
absolute coordinates, ,
accessibility, checking fits,
accuracy
checking working drawings,
dimensional, –
dimensioning, structural drawings,
importance of,
isometric drawings,
surface models,
verifying,
working drawings,
Acme threads
detailed description,
forms,
notes,
fits,
specifications, A- , A-
actual local feature,
actual mating envelope,
actual minimal material envelope,
actual size,
adapters between copper pipe and threaded
pipe,
adaptive control (AC),
addendum,
addendum circle,
adjacent views,
aerial photogrammetry,
aeronautical maps,
AISC Manual of Steel Construction,
align constraint,
align offset,
aligned sections, , –
Allen key screw drivers,
allowance, ,
alloys and their characteristics,
alternate views,
aluminum, as drawing medium,
American bond,
American Gear Manufacturers Association
(AGMA),
American National screw threads,
A- –A-
American National Standard cap screws,

American National Standard Code for Pressure Piping,
American National Standard for Steel Pipe
Flanges and Flanged Fittings,
American National Standard pipe thread,

American National Standard Unified screw
threads, A- –A-
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) standards,
abbreviations, A- to A-
bolts, – , A- to A-
cap screws, , A- to A-
cast iron pipe flanges and fittings,
A- –A-
cast iron pipe screwed fittings,
A- –A-
cast iron pipe thicknesses and weights,
A-
clearance locational fits, A- –A-
cotter pins, A-
dimensions, – ,
electronic diagram symbols, A-
flanged fittings,
force and shrink fits, A- –A-
heating, ventilating, and ductwork symbols, A-
locational interference fits, A-
machine screws, A- –A-
metric hole basis clearance fits,
A- –A-
metric hole basis transition and
interference fits, A- –A-
metric shaft basis clearance fits,
A- –A-
metric shaft basis transition and
interference fits, A- –A-
nuts, – , A- –A-
pipe threads, –
piping symbols, A-
rivets, –
running and sliding fits, A- –A-
screw threads, – , – ,
A- –A-
sheets, I- I N D E X
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) standards, continued
slotted and socket heads, ,
A- –A-
springs,
taper pins, A-
tolerance, ,
transition locational fits, A-
twist drill sizes, A- to A-
washers, A- to A-
wood screws,
Woodruff keys, A-
wrought steel pipe and taper pipe threads,
A-
American National thread, ,
American National thread fits,
American Records Management Association
(ARMA),
American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE),
American Welding Society Standards,
A- –A-
analysis stage, design process, , –
analytical models, –
analyzing complex objects, –
angle of thread,
angles
bisecting,
dihedral,
dimensioning,
implied right,
isometric drawings,
oblique projection,
sketching techniques,
tolerance,
views of,
angles, laying out
chord method,
sine method,
tangent method,
angular perspective. See two-point
perspective.
angular tolerance,
angularity, specifying, –
annotation scaling,
annular space, copper pipe,
ANSI/AF&PA NDS National Design Specification for Wood Construction,
ANSI/AWS A . , Standard Symbols for
Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive
Examination,
ANSI/IEEE Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronic Diagrams,
apparent intersection,
appearance, manufacturing materials,
approval, engineering documents,
approval block, ,
approximated curves, ,
arc welding, ,
Archimedes, history of the screw
principle,
architects’ scale, , A-
architectural terra cotta,
archiving work history,
arcs
bisecting manually,
defining, –
delta angles,
dimensioning,
drawing tangents to, –
formulas for, –
included angles,
isometric,
sketching, –
arrow-side welds,
arrowheads, dimensioning,
artificial intelligence (AI),
ASCII file formats, –
ashlar masonry,
ASME Y . Digital Product Definition
Data Practices, ,
ASME/ANSI Y . Screw Thread Representation, ,
assemblies
constraint-based modeling, –
DFA (design for assembly),
simulation,
sketching techniques,
assemblies, and design
assembling to a skeleton, –
bottom-up design, , –
constraint-based drawing elements,

global parameters, –
layout drawings,
middle-out design,
overview,
seed parts, –
top-down design, , –
assemblies, checking fits, –
assembly constraints, –
assembly drawings
D CAD, example, –
assembly sections, , –
check assemblies,
dimensions,
exploded views, –
hidden lines,
installation assemblies,
outline assemblies,
overview, –
poche,
section lining,
views,
working drawings,
assembly files, managing,
assembly mode, constraint-based modeling,

assembly models
constraint-based assemblies,
dynamic assemblies, ,
parent parts, choosing,
static assemblies,
subassemblies,
assembly parts
fastener libraries,
standard parts, –
assembly sections, , , –
associativity, constraint-based
modeling,
AutoCAD
D CAD models, –
D constraints,
annotation scaling,
constraint defaults, changing,
constraints, ,
electronic diagram symbols,
geometric construction geometry,
isometric drawings,
object snap, , ,
perspective views,
scaling text,
Autodesk Inventor, spur gears,
automated assembly,
automated materials handling,
auxiliary plane,
auxiliary sections,
auxiliary views
adjacent views,
alternate views,
circles and ellipses, ,
classification of,
creating with CAD, ,
depth, –
descriptive geometry,
developments and intersections, –
front adjacent,
half,
height, –
hidden lines,
partial,
plotting curves manually, –
primary,
projecting, –
purpose of, ,
reference planes,
reverse construction,
secondary,
showing true size, ,
sketching,
successive,
third,
top adjacent,
visualizing as revolved drawing,
width, –
AWS Standard Welding Terms and Definitions,
axes, positioning in isometric drawings,
axes method for sketching ellipses,
axis of revolution,
axis of screw,
axonometric projection, , –
piping drawings,
sketches,
B
back or backing welds, ,
backing up drawing files,
ball tags, – I N D E X I-
balloon numbers, –
barreled parts, tolerance,
base circle, constructing,
base features, –
base points, setting, –
baseline dimensioning, ,
basic angle tolerancing method,
basic dimension symbols,
basic hole system, – ,
basic shaft system, – ,
basic size, metric tolerances,
batter,
beam web,
bearings, landform drawings,
bell and spigot joints,
bend allowance, ,
“bent” arrow symbol,
bevel gears, –
Bezier curves, –
bidirectional associativity, constraint-based
modeling,
bilateral system of tolerances,
bilateral tolerance,
bill of materials (BOM), , –
bird’s-eye view,
bisecting
angles,
arcs,
lines, ,
black pipe,
blind holes,
blind rivets,
blocking
freehand,
irregular objects,
bolted steel connections,
bolts, high-strength steel, –
bolts and nuts
bolt lengths,
clearance holes,
drawing standard bolts,
finish,
hex head bolt grades,
lock nuts,
overview, –
proportions,
SAE grades,
sketching,
specifications, A- –A-
threads,
BOM (bill of material), , –
Boolean operations, –
border blocking,
borders,
boss, ,
bottom views, –
bottom-up design, , –
bowed parts, tolerance,
box construction
isometric drawings,
oblique drawings,
box primitive,
bracket method for dual dimensioning,
brake press,
break lines, –
breaks, in D drawings, –
BREP (boundary representation),
brick and mortar construction,
Briggs standard threads, –
broken out sections,
B-splines, –
built-in features,
bushing, ,
butt joint,
butt welded fittings,
buttress thread,
C
C (centralizing) thread fits, Acme,
cabinet projection,
CAD (computer-aided design). See also D
CAD modeling; AutoCAD.
advantages of,
creating auxiliary views,
database,
definition,
files, documentation management on the
Web,
lettering examples,
model space,
paper space,
in product development, –
tools for structural drawings, –
cadastral maps,
CAE (computer-aided engineering),
calibration and inspection of tolerances,
CAM (computer-aided manufacturing),
,
cam followers
definition,
offset, –
pivoted, –
cams
cylindrical,
definition,
displacement diagrams,
pitch curve,
profiles, , –
cap screws
American National Standard,
sketching,
specifications, A- –A-
capillary joints. See solder joints.
cartography,
case studies
Ability Fabricators, Inc., –
bicycle brake, –
brake assembly, –
coffee brewer, ,
Delta Design, documentation management, –
floating bridge, –
furniture design,
graphics and design process, Santa Cruz
Bicycles, –
heart model,
Hyatt Regency walkway collapse,
modeling sheet metal parts, –
Oral-B toothbrush, –
vibration analysis, Quantel USA,

robot hand, –
Santa Cruz Bicycles, –
sketching techniques, , –
Smart Tourniquet, –
surface models, –
symmetry, –
Zuma coffee brewer, ,
cast iron pipe,
cast iron pipe ANSI standards
drilling for bolts, A- –A-
flanges and fittings, A- –A-
screwed fittings, A- –A-
thicknesses and weight, A-
casting
design tips, –
metal parts,
sand casting, ,
cavalier projection,
cavities,
cellular manufacturing, –
center of gravity,
centerline method
for four-center ellipses,
for sketching circles,
centerlines
dimensioning,
isometric drawings,
uses for, ,
centralizing (C) thread fits,
centroid,
ceramic manufacturing materials,
cgs (centimeter-gram-second) system,
chained dimensions,
chamfers
definition, , ,
dimensioning,
change permission, engineering
documents,
chassis, displaying functional
designations,
check valves,
checked-by block,
checking assemblies,
chord method for laying out angles,
chordal addendum,
chordal dimensions,
chordal thickness,
chords,
circled numbers in drawings, –
circles
in auxiliary views,
Circle command,
circumference,
defining, –
diameter,
dividing equally,
drawing tangents to,
formulas for, – , A- I- I N D E X
circles, continued
great, –
involutes,
oblique, ,
radius,
sketching,
in perspectives,
circuit diagrams, –
circular pitch,
circularity (roundness) tolerance,
circumference,
city maps, –
Class thread fits,
Class thread fits,
Class thread fits,
clay construction,
clearances
fits, , A- –A-
holes, –
clip angles,
close running fits, A-
close sliding fits, A-
CMM (coordinate measuring machine),
CNC (computer numerical control),
coarse threads,
coincident (align) constraint,
color coding, electronic diagrams,
combination screw drivers,
combination units, dimensioning,
combined tolerance symbols,
combining surfaces,
comma-delimited text format,
common manufactured features, ,
complex cylindrical shapes, in D
drawings,
complex surfaces, ,
composite materials,
compression springs,
computer graphics
electronic diagrams,
sketching techniques,
computer numerical control (CNC),
computer-aided design (CAD). See CAD.
computer-aided engineering (CAE),
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM),
,
computer-aided process planning
(CAPP),
computer-integrated manufacturing
AC (adaptive control),
AI (artificial intelligence),
automated assembly,
automated materials handling,
CAPP (computer-aided process
planning),
cellular manufacturing, –
CNC (computer numerical control),
expert systems,
FMS (flexible manufacturing
systems),
GT (group technology),
industrial robots,
JIT (just-in-time) production,
concentric (insert) constraint,
concentricity tolerance, –
concrete construction, –
concurrent engineering
design process,
documentation management,
cones
definition,
developments, –
dimensioning,
formulas, A-
primitive,
conic sections,
connection diagrams, –
connections
electronic diagrams,
structural steel drawings,
welded and bolted,
constraining
degrees of freedom,
sketches,
constraint-based modeling
D models,
advantages of,
assemblies, – ,
case studies, , – , –
cosmetic dimensions,
definition,
design intent, – , –
drawing elements, –
driven dimensions, ,
driving dimensions,
feature dimensions,
feature-based modeling, –
formulas in dimensions, –
global parameters,
parameters,
reference dimensions,
variables,
constraint-based modeling, features
adding,
base features, –
built-in,
datums, –
editing,
existing, specifying an edge for,
hole properties,
parent-child relationships, –
placed,
standard,
constraint-based modeling modes
assembly mode,
associativity,
bidirectional associativity,
drawing mode,
drawings from the model, –
part mode,
subassemblies,
constraints
applying,
base points, setting, –
AutoCAD,
defaults, changing,
design intent, –
geometric,
overconstrained sketches,
sketch constraints, , –
underconstrained sketches,
relationships, table of,
size,
types of,
construction drawings. See working
drawings.
construction lines, ,
continuous dimensioning,
contour intervals, landform drawings,
contour maps from D data,
contours
landform drawings, ,
sketching techniques,
convex,
conventions for D drawings,
breaks, – ,
edges,
converting
motion with gears. See gears.
between U.S. and metric measures, A-
Coon’s patch,
coordinate dimensions, ,
coordinate measuring machine (CMM),
coordinate systems
for D CAD modeling, – ,
invention of,
origins (point of intersection),
right-hand rule,
specifying location, , –
user-created, –
X- and Y-axes,
coordinates
absolute,
cylindrical,
definition,
polar,
relative,
spherical,
copper pipe
adapting to threaded pipe,
drawings,
joints and fittings,
copper tubing, –
cores,
corner joint,
corner views, . See also vertices.
corners, rounding on plastic parts,
cosmetic dimensions,
cost estimates, modeling, –
cotter pins, , A-
counterbored holes
definition, – ,
dimensioning,
countersunk holes, – , ,
CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride) pipe
drawings,
creativity techniques, –
crest (of thread),
cross section. See section views.I N D E X I-
crossovers, in electronic diagrams,
cubic splines,
curved surfaces, dimensioning,
curves
dimensioning,
freeform. See spline curves.
isometric drawings,
perspectives,
plotting by hand in D drawings,
cutaway views. See section views.
cutting planes
choosing,
description,
direction, visualizing,
half sections,
labeling,
cutting-plane lines
definition,
illustration,
line style,
cycloids, A-
cylinder primitive,
cylinders
in D drawings,
complex shapes in D drawings,
definition,
elements of,
formulas, A-
intersection with a plane,
isometric drawings,
size dimensioning, –
sliced,
cylindrical cams,
cylindrical coordinates,
cylindricity tolerance, ,
D
da Vinci, Leonardo, ,
DAI (Design Activity Identification), in title
blocks,
databases, , –
datum
description, –
identifying,
landform drawings,
tolerance symbols, , A-
datum features, –
versus datum feature simulator, ,
datum planes, –
datum reference frame,
datum targets,
decimal dimension values, rounding,
decimal-inch drawing scale, A- , A-
decimal-inch values, dimensioning,
dedendum,
default coordinate system,
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and
Control (DMAIC),
degrees of freedom, constraining,
delta angles,
depth
auxiliary views, –
thread,
in orthographic views,
depth dimensions, transferring,
derived surfaces,
Descartes, René,
descriptive geometry, ,
descriptive models,
Design Activity Identification (DAI), in title
blocks,
design database, documentation management,
design drawings,
design for assembly (DFA),
design for manufacture (DFM), . See
also manufacturing processes.
Design for Six Sigma (DFSS),
design intent
capturing, –
case study: Santa Cruz Bicycles,
constraint-based modeling, –
planning for, –
design process
case study: Santa Cruz bicycles, –
design intent,
in a portfolio, –
stages of, – , –
definition,
designating fitting size,
designing quality into products,
detail drawings, , –
detailed thread drawings, – ,
Detailing for Steel Construction,
developable surfaces,
developed piping drawings,
development of a surface,
developments
definition,
equator,
generatrix,
great circle, –
hems and joints,
hood and flue, –
hyperboloids,
intersections, –
laying out a surface,
meridian,
plane and a cone, –
plane and a pyramid,
plane and a sphere, –
plane and an oblique cylinder,
plane and an oblique prism,
polyconic method,
polycylindric method,
surface types,
transition pieces, –
triangulation,
deviation, metric tolerances,
DFA (design for assembly),
DFM (design for manufacture), . See
also manufacturing processes.
DFSS (Design for Six Sigma),
diameter,
diametral pitch, ,
difference (subtract) operation, –
differential leveling, landform drawings,
digital databases, , –
digital product definition, –
digitizing, surface models,
dihedral angles,
dimension lines, ,
dimension values, rules for,
dimensional accuracy, –
dimensional constraints,
dimensioning
abbreviations,
angles,
arcs,
arrowheads,
BA (bend allowance),
centerlines,
chamfers,
choosing dimensions,
cones,
coordinate,
counterbores,
curved surfaces,
curves,
cylinders, –
direction of values and notes,
dos and don’ts, –
drawing scale, indicating,
extension lines, ,
fillet welds,
fillets,
finish marks,
general notes,
geometric breakdown, –
holes, –
IML (inside mold line),
isometric drawings,
keyways,
knurls,
lay symbols,
leaders,
legibility, , –
lines used in,
local notes, –
mold line,
neutral axis,
for numerically-controlled
machining,
OML (outside mold line),
overview, –
piping drawings,
placing dimensions, , –
portfolio, –
prisms,
pyramids,
roughness values,
rounded-end shapes,
rounds,
shaft centers,
sheet metal bends,
spotfaces,
standards,
stretchout,
structural steel drawings, I- I N D E X
dimensioning, continued
supplementary notes, –
surface roughness, –
surface texture symbols, – ,
symbols, , –
tabular,
tapers,
technique,
in terms of material removal,
threads,
tolerance,
triangular prisms,
units, –
waviness values,
dimensions
assembly drawings,
baseline,
chordal,
coordinate,
forging,
holes about a common center, –
location, – , –
machine,
mating,
pattern,
size, –
superfluous,
units of measure,
dimetric projection,
diode symbol, electronic diagrams,
directory structures, documentation management, –
displacement diagrams for cams,
Divide command,
Dividers Method for drawing pentagons,

dividing lines equally or proportionally,
DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze,
Improve, and Control),
documentation
purpose of technical drawing,
design process,
documentation management
approval block,
archiving work history,
ARMA (American Records Management
Association),
ASME Y . Digital Product Definition Data Practices,
backing up drawing files,
case studies, , –
checked-by block,
in concurrent engineering teams,
design database,
drawing control methods, –
drawing standards,
drawn-by block,
ECOs (engineering change orders),
electronic storage,
engineering ethics,
enterprise level,
FDA guidelines,
file naming conventions,
flat-file databases, –
individual productivity,
International Organization for Standardization, –
ISO / , –
organizing by product,
organizing directory structures, –
ownership,
PIN (part identification number),
PDM (product data management) system, ,
permissions,
quality management, –
relational databases, –
release,
requirements for,
retention period,
revision blocks, –
storage media,
on the Web,
work flow management, –
work group level,
dos and don’ts, dimensioning, –
double-curved surfaces, ,
double-line piping drawings, –
double-square screw drivers,
doughnut-shaped solids. See tori.
downloading, fasteners,
downstream applications. See modeling,
downstream applications.
draft, plastic parts, ,
drafting standards. See standards.
drawing control methods, –
Drawing Exchange Format (DXF),
drawing format, electronic diagrams,
drawing media,
drawing mode,
drawing number, in title blocks,
drawing pencils, –
drawing scales, – , , A- –A-
drawing size, electronic diagrams,
drawing standards,
drawing title, electronic diagrams,
drawings. See also D drawings; electronic
diagrams; sketching.
ball tags, –
balloon numbers, –
BOM (bill of material), , –
for buildings. See structural drawings.
circled numbers, –
for civil structures. See structural
drawings.
concrete construction. See structural
drawings, concrete construction.
construction. See structural drawings;
working drawings.
detail, –
identification, –
of individual parts, –
of landforms. See landform drawings.
laying out,
managing. See documentation
management.
multidetail,
part, –
parts list. See BOM (bill of material).
piece part, –
piping. See piping drawings.
reading,
sheet metal, , ,
size, in title blocks,
standard bolts,
structural steel. See structural drawings,
structural steel.
subassemblies,
threads. See threads, drawing.
title, in title blocks,
welding, ,
wood construction. See structural drawings, wood construction.
drawings, assembly. See assembly drawings.
drawings, lines. See also lines.
definition,
freehand technique, ,
types of, –
drawings, scale. See also scale.
definition,
indicating,
laying out a drawing,
specifying on a drawing,
drawn-by block,
drill bits, sizes, A- –A-
driven dimensions, ,
driving dimensions,
dual dimensioning,
ductwork symbols, A-
Dview, AutoCAD command,
DXF (Drawing Exchange Format),
dynamic assemblies, ,
E
ECN (engineering change notification),
ECOs (engineering change orders), ,
ECR (engineering change request),
edge joint,
edges
in D drawings,
sketching techniques,
in views, –
editing
features,
surface models,
EDM (enterprise data management),
egg-shaped solids. See ellipsoids.
-pitch thread,
eight-point method for sketching ellipses,
ejector pins, plastic parts, –
elasticity,
electric resistance welding. See resistance
welding.
electron tube pin identification, in electronic
diagrams,
electronic diagrams
abbreviations,
IEEE Graphic Symbols for Electrical
and Electronic Diagrams, I N D E X I-
chassis, displaying functional
designations,
circuit diagram, –
color coding,
computer graphics,
connection diagram, –
connections,
crossovers,
division of parts,
drawing size, format, and title,
electron tube pin identification,
examples, ,
functional block diagram,
functional identification,
ground points,
grouping parts,
inductance,
integrated circuits,
interconnection diagram,
interrupted paths,
lettering,
line conventions,
MIL-STD- Identification Coding and
Application of Hook Up and Lead
Wires,
numerical values,
part value placement,
portfolio,
printed circuits,
reference designations,
resistors,
schematic diagram, –
semiconductors,
signal paths,
single-line diagram,
standards, , A-
terminals, –
transformer windings,
types of, –
UL (Underwriters’ Laboratory)
standards,
wiring diagram, –
electronic diagrams, symbols
arranging, –
AutoCAD tool palette,
diodes,
relays,
signal paths, –
size,
stages,
standard symbols, , , A-
switches,
symbol libraries,
template for,
electronic survey instruments,
elements
cylinders,
standard layouts, –
surface,
elevation view, . See also landform
drawings, elevation.
ellipses
in D drawings,
approximate, A-
approximating perimeter of,
in auxiliary views,
definition,
double-curved surface,
drawing,
examples,
formulas, A-
locating the foci of,
orienting in isometric drawings,
pencil and string method for drawing,

sketching,
embryo heart model,
enclosing-square method for sketching
circles,
enclosing-rectangle method for four-center
ellipses,
engineering change notification (ECN),
engineering change orders (ECOs), ,
engineering change request (ECR),
engineering drawings. See documentation
management; drawings; sketching.
engineering ethics,
engineering maps,
engineers’ drawing scale, , A- , A-
English bond,
enlarging shapes with a grid of squares,
enterprise data management (EDM),
enterprise level documentation management,

epicycloid, A-
equation solvers,
equator,
equilateral hyperbolas, A-
erasers,
erection plans, –
ergonomics, . See also human factors.
essential shapes,
ethics, of engineering drawings,
examples. See case studies; portfolios
(examples).
expert systems,
exploded views, assembly drawings,

export formats, –
exporting data from the database. See modeling, exporting data from the database.
extension figure,
extension lines, ,
extension springs, –
external square thread,
external threads
defined,
dimensioning,
forms, –
notes, –
symbols,
extruded forms,
extruded surfaces, –
extrusion, definition,
F
faces
flanges,
objects. See planar surfaces; polyhedra.
factor of safety,
fasteners
downloading,
overview, ,
portfolio, –
FDA guidelines, documentation management,
FDM (fused deposition modeling),
FEA (finite element analysis), , ,

feather keys,
features. See also constraint-based modeling, features.
datum, –
definition,
first created. See base feature.
size designation,
tolerance,
feature control frame,
feature dimensions,
feature of size,
feature-based modeling, – . See also
constraint-based modeling.
ferrous metals, manufacturing materials,
field rivets,
file formats, –
file naming conventions, documentation
management,
filler beams,
fillets. See also runouts.
in D drawings, –
definition, ,
dimensioning,
example, ,
shading,
fillet weld length,
fillet welds, , , –
filling sectioned areas, assembly drawings,

fillister head cap screws,
fine thread,
finish, bolts,
finish marks, dimensioning,
finishing operations,
finite element analysis (FEA), , ,

finite elements,
first-angle projection, – , –
fit. See also tolerance.
allowance, – ,
assemblies. See assemblies, checking fits.
case study,
clearance locational, A- –A-
force and shrink, A- –A-
interference, , –
line,
locational interference, A-
mating parts,
metric hole basis clearance, A- –A- I- I N D E X
fit, continued
metric hole basis transition and interference, A- –A-
metric shaft basis clearance, A- –A-
metric shaft basis transition and interference, A- –A-
metric system, –
running and sliding, A- –A-
specifying,
study,
thread, –
transition locational, , A-
types and subtypes,
fit, threads
Acme thread notes,
American National thread fits,
C (centralizing),
definition and classes,
G (general purpose),
metric,
unified,
fitting size, designating,
flanged fittings,
flanged joints, ,
flanges
cast iron pipe, A- –A-
definition, ,
in structural steel shapes,
flared joints, –
flash welds, , ,
flat head cap screws,
flat keys, , A-
flat patterns. See also developments.
definition,
modeling sheet metal parts, –
flat springs, –
flat-file databases, –
flatness tolerance,
Flemish bond,
flip constraint,
flush symbol,
FMS (flexible manufacturing systems),
foci of an ellipse, locating,
folding lines, ,
fonts (lettering),
force fits, A- –A-
foreshortening,
forging, ,
form tolerance
for single features, –
symbols, –
variations,
forming metal, principal methods,
formulas
circles and arcs,
in dimensions, –
for geometric entities, A- –A-
operators, table of,
° miter line, ,
four-center ellipses, sketching, –
fps (foot-pound-second) system,
fractions, lettering,
frame beam connections,
freeform curves. See spline curves.
freehand compass,
freehand sketching
arcs,
blocking in borders,
construction lines,
ellipses,
finding the midpoint on a line,
lines, , ,
long freehand lines,
friction wheels,
front adjacent,
front orientation,
front views, –
frontal plane projection,
full sections
definition, –
visualizing, –
functional block diagrams,
functional decomposition, as design aid,
functional identification, in electronic diagrams,
fundamental deviation, metric tolerances,

fused deposition modeling (FDM),
G
G (general purpose) notes for thread fits,

gage
line thickness,
thread pitch,
wire, standards, A-
gage blocks,
gage line, of angles,
galvanized pipe,
gas metal arc welding (GMAW),
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW),
gas welding, ,
gaskets,
gate valves,
gauge, sheet metal,
GDT (geometric dimensioning and tolerancing), , A- –A-
gear blanks,
gear ratio,
gears
alternative devices,
base circle, constructing,
bevel, –
circular pitch,
converting motion,
definition,
friction wheels,
gear ratio,
helical,
herringbone,
hypoid,
line of contact,
linear pitch,
pinion,
pitch circles,
pitch diameter,
portfolio, –
rack,
rack teeth,
rpm (revolutions per minute),
spacing gear teeth,
spur, –
stock models and drawings,
transmitting power,
worm, –
gears, involute tooth shape
addendum circle,
approximating with circular arcs,

diametral pitch,
hobbing,
root circle,
chordal addendum,
chordal thickness,
dedendum,
definition, –
designing,
diametral pitch,
formulas, –
gear blanks,
outside diameter,
pitch diameter,
root diameter,
whole depth,
working drawings, –
general notes, dimensioning,
general purpose (G) notes for thread fits,

generatrix,
Genesis space capsule crash,
geometric breakdown, dimensioning,

geometric characteristic symbols, , A-
geometric constraints, , ,
geometric constructions
angle layout,
arcs,
arcs tangent to arcs,
bisecting angles,
bisecting lines and circular arcs,
circles, – ,
conic sections,
cycloids, A-
ellipses, , – , A-
epicycloid, A-
equilateral triangles,
equilateral hyperbolas, A-
geometric entities, –
helix, A-
hexagons,
hyperbolas, A-
hypocycloids, A-
involutes, A-
parabolas, A- –A-
parallel lines,
pentagons,
polygons, –
spiral of Archimedes, A-
spline curves, – I N D E X I-
tangents with arcs, –
tangents with circles,
triangles, ,
geometric continuity,
geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
(GDT), , A- –A-
geometric entities. See specific shapes.
geometric method for drawing pentagons,

geometric methods for plane figures,
geometric tolerances. See GDT (geometric
dimensioning and tolerancing).
geometric transformations,
gib head keys, , A-
girders,
glass box, –
global parameters
assemblies and design, –
definition,
global positioning system (GPS),
globe valves,
GMAW (gas metal arc welding),
GPS (global positioning system),
GPS satellite constellation,
grade (slope),
grades of steel,
graphics exchange format, –
great circle, –
green lumber,
grid paper, sketching auxiliary views,
groove welds, ,
ground points, in electronic diagrams,
grouping parts, in electronic diagrams,
GT (group technology),
GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding),
guidelines, for lettering, ,
H
half auxiliary views,
half sections,
hard temper copper tubing, –
hatching
description,
section lining,
sectioned areas, assembly drawings,
hatchures, landform drawings,
HDPE (high-density polyethylene) pipe
drawings,
heart model,
heating, ventilating, and ductwork symbols,
A-
height, in views,
height auxiliary views, –
helical gears,
helical springs, –
helix, A-
hems, sheet metal, ,
herringbone gears,
hex head bolts, A- –A-
grades,
sketching,
hex screw drivers,
hexagon head cap screws,
hexagon socket cap screws,
hexagons
centerline variation,
drawing,
hexalobular screw drivers,
hidden lines
assembly drawings,
in auxiliary views,
correct and incorrect practices,
description,
intersecting,
isometric drawings,
techniques for drawing,
high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe
drawings,
high-strength concrete,
high-strength steel bolts, –
highway plans, landform drawings,
hobbing, involute tooth shape,
hole features, in orthographic views,
hole properties,
hole system
metric tolerances,
tolerances, –
holes
blind,
counterbored,
countersunk,
locating about a common
center, –
size dimensioning, –
spotface,
through,
hood and a flue, developing, –
horizon line,
horizontal plane projection,
human factors, – . See also
ergonomics.
HumanCAD software models,
hyperbolas, A-
hydrographic maps,
hyperboloids, double-curved surface,
hypocycloids, A-
hypoid gears,
I
ideation, design process,
case study: Santa Cruz Bicycles,
universal possibilities,
identifying drawings, –
IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification),
IML (inside mold line), dimensioning,
implementation, design process, ,
implied right angles, tolerances,
inch-pound-second (ips) system,
inclined edges, in views,
inclined (italic) fonts, –
inclined surfaces
isometric drawings,
in views, –
included angles,
individual productivity, documentation
management,
inductance, in electronic diagrams,
industrial robots,
industry cases. See case studies.
injection-molding, plastic parts, –
insert (concentric) constraint,
installation assemblies, assembly drawings,

integrated circuits, in electronic diagrams,

integrated modeling and design, –
interconnection diagrams,
interference, checking fits, –
Interference Detection command,
interference fit
locational, A-
metric tolerances,
preferred metric hole basis, A- –A-
preferred metric shaft basis, A- –A-
tolerances, , –
intermittent fillet welding,
internal square thread,
internal thread,
internal thread symbols,
international drafting standards,
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), , –
international tolerance grade (IT),
interpolated patches,
interpolated splines, ,
interpolating polynomials,
interpreting
lines,
points,
views,
interrupted paths, in electronic
diagrams,
intersecting hidden lines,
intersection operation, –
intersections
in D drawings, , –
apparent intersection,
definition, ,
plane and a cylinder,
plane and a prism, –
principles of,
in sections,
investment casting,
involute tooth shape
addendum circle,
approximating with circular
arcs, –
description,
diametral pitch,
hobbing,
root circle,
involutes, construction, A-
ips (inch-pound-second) system,
irregular objects, isometric drawings,
irregular surfaces,
ISO (International Organization for Standardization), , – I- I N D E X
ISO / , –
isometric axes,
isometric drawings
° angles, estimating,
angles,
arcs,
with AutoCAD software,
box construction,
centerlines,
curves,
cylinders,
definition,
dimensioning,
ellipses, –
hidden lines,
inclined surfaces,
irregular objects,
nonisometric lines,
normal surfaces, –
from an object,
oblique surfaces,
offset location measurements,
overview,
positioning the axes,
of rectangular objects,
screw threads,
spheres,
isometric projection, –
isometric scales,
isometric sketches. See isometric drawings.
isometric views,
IT (international tolerance grade),
italic (inclined) fonts, –
J
JIT (just-in-time) production,
Jo blocks,
join/add (union) operation, –
joints
bell and spigot,
butt,
capillary. See solder joints.
cast iron pipe,
copper tubing,
corner,
edge,
flanged, ,
flared, –
lap,
pipe expansion,
riveted,
screwed,
sheet metal,
solder, – ,
T-joint,
welded,
wood,
K
kerned pairs of letters,
keys
feather,
flat, , A-
gib head, , A-
plain taper, A-
Pratt & Whitney, , A-
square, , A-
Woodruff, , A-
keyway/keyseat
definition, ,
dimensioning,
K-factor,
knuckle thread,
knurls
definition, ,
dimensioning,
L
labeling cutting planes,
laminated object manufacturing (LOM),
land survey plat,
landform drawings
D terrain models,
aeronautical maps,
bearings,
cadastral maps,
cartography,
contour intervals,
contour maps from D data,
contours, ,
datum,
differential leveling,
engineering maps,
hatchures,
highway plans,
hydrographic maps,
landscape maps,
military maps,
monuments,
nautical maps,
overview, –
plats,
portfolio,
profiles,
structure location plans,
surveys,
symbols,
topographic maps,
topographic symbols, A-
traverses,
landform drawings, city maps
landscape drawings, –
overview,
subdivision plats, –
landform drawings, elevation
calculation of vertical curves,
definition,
determining,
getting information for, –
interpolating data, –
landform drawings, getting information for
aerial photogrammetry,
electronic survey instruments,
GPS (global positioning system),
GPS satellite constellation,
laser distance meters,
Manual of Surveying Instructions for
the Survey of the Public Lands of the
United States,
NGS (National Geodetic Survey),
optical mechanical systems,
photogrammetry,
satellite imagery,
scaled measurements,
stadia method,
steel tape,
terrestrial photogrammetry,
landscape drawings, –
landscape maps,
landscape orientation,
lap joint,
laser distance meters,
lay symbols,
layers, D CAD models,
laying out a drawing,
layout drawings, assemblies, and design,

layouts
borders,
definition,
letter sizes,
margins,
planning, –
portfolio, –
title block,
zone numbers,
zones,
lead (of a screw thread),
lead, worm gears, –
lead grades for drawing pencils,
leaders, dimensioning,
least material condition (LMC), tolerance
symbols,
left- and right-hand parts, , –
left-hand rule of coordinate systems,
left-hand screw threads,
left-handed lettering,
left-side views, –
legibility, dimensioning, , –
length, in views,
letter sizes, on page layout,
lettering
CAD examples,
consistent letter height,
definition,
in electronic diagrams,
fractions,
guidelines, ,
by hand,
inclined (italic), –
kerned pairs of letters,
for left-handers,
with a pencil,
spacing, ,
stability,
standards,
template for,
for titles,
vertical, I N D E X I-
lettering (fonts),
library of standard punches,
life cycle design,
life-cycle analysis,
lift check valves,
limit dimensions,
limit tolerances,
line conventions, in electronic diagrams,
line fit,
line gage,
line of contact,
line patterns,
linear pitch,
lines
bisecting manually, ,
break,
center. See centerlines.
description,
dividing equally or proportionally,
drawing through points,
folding,
freehand construction,
hidden. See hidden lines.
interpreting,
parallel. See parallel lines.
perpendicular. See perpendicular lines.
point view,
precedence,
sketching techniques,
specifying,
styles, –
thick,
thin,
true length, in CAD, –
used in dimensioning,
lines, cutting-plane
definition,
illustration,
line style,
lines, section views
behind the cutting plane,
general rules for,
lines, sketching
blocking, freehand,
border blocking,
calculating proportions,
dividing lines,
equal parts,
finding a midpoint,
line patterns,
lineweights,
long freehand lines,
parallel, exaggerating closely spaced,
proportional parts,
straight lines,
techniques for,
lines of sight. See projectors.
lineweights,
LMC (least material condition), tolerance
symbols,
Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD),
local coordinate systems,
local notes, dimensioning, –
location, specifying with coordinate systems, , –
location dimensions, , –
lock nuts and locking devices
cotter pins, , A-
lock washers, , A-
overview,
set screws, ,
lock washers, , A-
lofting, –
LOM (laminated object manufacturing),
long freehand lines,
lower deviation, metric tolerances,
lugs, ,
M
machine dimensions,
machine pins,
machine screws, , A- –A- . See also
cap screws.
machined parts, modeling, –
machining parts,
machining processes, tolerances,
MAG (metal active gas) welding,
major diameter (of a screw thread),
Manual of Standard Practice for Detailing
Reinforced Concrete Structures,
Manual of Steel Construction,
Manual of Surveying Instructions for the
Survey of the Public Lands of the
United States,
manufactured stone construction,
manufacturing materials
alloys and their characteristics,
appearance,
ceramics,
composite materials,
ferrous metals,
materials assignment,
nanomaterials,
nonferrous metals,
plastics,
product failure, definition,
recycling,
service life,
manufacturing processes
assembling an aircraft, –
brake press,
cast parts, , – ,
common production methods,
computer integrated. See computer-integrated manufacturing.
DFM (design for manufacture),
dimensional accuracy, –
forging,
library of standard punches,
machined parts, modeling, –
machining,
metal forming, principal methods, .
See also specific methods.
molds, ,
nanofabrication,
nanotechnology,
net-shape manufacturing,
permanent molds,
sand casting, ,
shared manufacturing,
Standard for Aluminum Sand and
Permanent Mold Castings,
surface finish, –
welding drawings, ,
manufacturing processes, plastic parts
constant wall thickness,
draft,
draft angle,
drawings, portfolio,
ejector pins, –
injection-molding characteristics,
injection-molding guidelines,
parting line, –
projections,
rounding corners,
taper,
manufacturing processes, sheet metal
bend allowance,
case study: Ability Fabricators, Inc.,

gauge,
hems,
K-factor,
modeling, – , –
sheet metal drawings, , ,
thickness,
maps. See landform drawings.
margins,
mass,
mass density,
mass properties, determining. See modeling,
determining mass properties.
master, creating,
mate constraint,
mate offset,
material files,
materials assignment,
mating dimensions,
maximum material condition (MMC),
tolerance symbols, , –
measurement systems, definition, . See
also specific systems.
measuring, from a reference surface,
mechanical engineers’ drawing scale, A-
media for drawings,
member marks, in welding,
members, in welding,
meridian,
meshes, , –
metal active gas (MAG) welding,
metal connectors for wood construction,

metal forming, principal methods,
metal parts, casting,
metric drawing scale, A- –A-
metric fastener standard,
metric fits, tolerance symbols,
metric screw threads, A- –A- I- I N D E X
metric system. See also U.S. customary
units.
converting to U.S., A-
description, –
dual dimensioning systems, –
preferred scale ratios,
unit conversion,
metric thread,
metric thread fits,
metric tolerances, –
middle-out design,
midpoint of a line, finding,
MIG (metal inert gas) welding,
military maps,
millimeter values, dimensioning, –
milling machines, tolerances,
MIL-STD- Identification Coding and
Application of Hook Up and Lead
Wires,
minor diameter (of a screw thread),
mirrored shapes,
MMC (maximum material condition), ,

model space,
modeling
case study: brake assembly, –
factors of safety,
interpolating polynomials,
machined parts, –
P-elements, interpolating,
sheet metal parts, – , –
springs,
threads,
visible embryo heart model, example,

modeling, determining mass properties
accuracy, verifying,
calculations, –
center of gravity,
centroid,
cgs (centimeter-gram-second)
system,
fps (foot-pound-second) system,
ips (inch-pound-second) system,
mass,
mass density,
moment of inertia,
overview,
portfolio,
pounds force,
pounds mass,
radii of gyration,
right cylinder,
SI (Système International),
surface area,
units and assumptions, –
volume,
modeling, downstream applications
elasticity,
equation solvers,
FEA (finite element analysis), –
finite elements,
going green,
human factors, –
HumanCAD software models,
integrated modeling and design, –
meshes, –
ROBOGUIDE software, –
simulation software, –
spreadsheets,
virtual prototypes,
what-if analysis,
modeling, exporting data from the database
ASCII file formats, –
comma-delimited text format,
common export formats, –
for cost estimates, –
DXF (Drawing Exchange Format),
file formats, –
graphics exchange format, –
IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification),
native file formats, –
native formats,
neutral formats,
overview,
space-delimited text format,
STEP (Standard for the Exchange of
Product model data),
STL (STereo Lithography) format,
tab-delimited text format,
vector versus raster data,
modeling, for testing and refinement
case study: testing vibration analysis,

overview,
models
D. See D models.
D. See D models.
choosing a method, –
creating,
definition,
machined parts, –
materials assignment,
qualities of,
sheet metal parts, –
molded parts, –
models, types of
analytical, –
comparison of characteristics, –
descriptive,
FEA (finite element analysis) model,
,
motion analysis,
scale, example,
solid,
surface, –
constraint-based, –
mold line, dimensioning,
molds
casting metal parts,
plastic parts, –
cavities and cores,
permanent,
moment of inertia,
monuments, landform drawings,
motion analysis,
Mountz, John,
mules,
multidetail drawings,
multiple threads,
multiview projections
definition,
description,
illustration,
My Documents folder, documentation
management,
N
name, in title bocks,
nanofabrication,
nanomaterials,
nanotechnology,
NASA space capsule crash,
native file formats, – ,
nautical maps,
necessary views, – , –
neck, ,
negative space,
net-shape manufacturing,
neutral axis, dimensioning,
neutral formats,
NGS (National Geodetic Survey),
nominal size
metric tolerances,
tolerances,
for wood products,
nonferrous metals,
nonisometric lines
isometric drawings,
isometric projection,
sketching ellipses,
normal edges, in views,
normal surfaces
isometric drawings, –
in views, –
notes, dimensioning
direction of values and notes,
general notes,
local notes, –
supplementary notes, –
thread, –
tolerance,
numbering, working drawings,
numerical values, in electronic diagrams,

numerically-controlled machining, dimensioning,
NURBS (nonuniform rational B-spline)
curves,
NURBS-based surfaces, – ,
nuts. See bolts and nuts.
O
object snap feature
definition,
drawing parallel lines,
enabling,
locating drawing geometry, I N D E X I-
oblique cylinder, development with
a plane,
oblique drawings. See sketching techniques,
oblique sketches.
oblique edges, in views,
oblique prism, development with a
plane,
oblique projection
angles,
cabinet projection,
cavalier projection,
definition,
receding lines,
oblique projectors,
oblique surfaces
isometric drawings,
showing true size and shape, –
in views, –
offset cam followers, –
Offset command, , –
offset constraint,
offset measurements
creating irregular shapes,
isometric drawings,
offset sections,
OML (outside mold line), dimensioning,
one-point perspective,
one-view drawings,
opposite views, –
optical mechanical systems,
orient (parallel) constraint,
origins (point of intersection),
Orth method for four-center ellipses,
orthographic, definition,
orthographic projection
axonometric projection,
centerlines, ,
definition, ,
hidden lines, , ,
indicating symmetrical axes of objects.
See centerlines.
laying out a drawing,
line precedence,
multiview projection,
versus photographs,
portfolio, –
other side welds,
outline assemblies, assembly drawings,
outside diameter, spur gears,
outside mold line (OML), dimensioning,
overconstrained sketches,
ownership, documentation management,
P
paper
for drawing and drafting,
landscape orientation,
for sketching,
standard sheet sizes,
conservation,
paper drawings
D models, –
versus other models, –
paper method for sketching circles,
paper space,
parabolas, A- –A-
parallel (orient) constraint,
parallel edges, in views,
parallel lines
closely spaced, exaggerating,
definition,
drawing,
receding lines,
symbol for,
parallel perspective. See one-point
perspective.
parallel projections,
parallelepiped,
parallelism tolerance, –
parameters,
parametric modeling, See also
constraint-based modeling.
floating bridge example, –
Santa Cruz Bicycles,
parent parts, choosing,
parent-child relationships, features, –
part identification number (PIN), documentation management,
part mode, constraint-based modeling,
part value placement, in electronic diagrams,

partial auxiliary views,
partial sections,
partial views, – ,
parting line, plastic parts, –
parting-line symmetry,
parts drawings, –
parts list. See BOM (bill of material).
patches
Coon’s,
interpolated,
surface,
patent applications, working drawings,

patent drawings, as design aids,
pattern dimensions,
PDM (product data management), , ,

P-elements, interpolating,
pencil and string method for drawing
ellipses,
pencils, for drawing. See drawing pencils.
pentagons, drawing,
perfect form envelope,
permanent molds,
permission, documentation
management,
perpendicular constraint,
perpendicular lines
definition,
symbol for,
perpendicularity tolerance, –
perspective projections,
perspective sketches,
perspectives
angular. See two-point perspective.
in AutoCAD,
bird’s-eye view,
circles,
curves,
horizon line,
one-point,
parallel. See one-point perspective.
pictorial sketching, –
three-point, ,
two-point, ,
types of, – . See also specific
types.
vanishing point,
worm’s-eye view,
phantom lines,
Phillips screw drivers,
photogrammetry,
photographs versus orthographic projections,
physical datum feature simulators,
physical models
description, –
versus other models, –
pictorial sketching, –
piece marks,
piece part drawings, –
piecewise splines,
piercing points,
PIN (part identification number), documentation management,
pinion gears,
pipe
cast iron. See cast iron pipe.
compound,
fittings,
joints,
schedules,
sizes. See pipe schedules.
pipe schedules,
pipe threads, –
piping drawings
adapters between copper pipe and
threaded pipe,
American National Standard Code for
Pressure Piping,
American National Standard for Steel
Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings,

annular space,
bell and spigot joints,
black pipe,
butt welded fittings,
capillary joints,
cast iron pipe,
check valves,
copper pipe,
copper tubing, –
CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride)
pipe,
designating fitting size,
developed piping drawings,
dimensioning,
double-line drawings, – I- I N D E X
piping drawings, continued
for a field instrument, example,
flanged fittings,
flanged joints, ,
flared joints, –
galvanized pipe,
gaskets,
gate valves,
globe valves,
hard temper copper tubing, –
HDPE (high-density polyethylene)
pipe,
lift check valves,
pipe compound,
pipe fittings,
pipe joints,
pipe schedules,
pipe sizes. See pipe schedules.
plastic pipe,
portfolio,
pressure-reducing valves,
PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipe,
red brass pipe,
reduced fittings,
safety valves,
screwed fittings,
screwed joints,
screwed reducing tee,
screwed tee fittings,
seamless brass pipe,
single-line drawings, –
soft copper tubing, –
solder fittings,
solder joints, – ,
solenoid-actuated valves,
specialty pipe,
standard symbols, , A-
steel pipe,
swing check valves,
symbols, A-
taper pipe threads, A-
types of drawings, –
valves, –
welded joints,
wrought iron pipe,
wrought steel pipe, A-
piping drawings, cast iron pipe
screwed fittings, A- –A-
thickness and weight, A-
piping drawings, cast iron pipe flanges
drilling for bolts, A- –A-
fittings, A- –A-
pitch
welding drawings,
worm gears, –
pitch circles,
pitch curve, cams,
pitch diameter, , ,
pivoted cam followers, –
placed features,
placing, section views, –
placing dimensions, , –
plain taper keys, A-
plan. See top view.
planar surfaces,
plane figures, geometric methods for
sketching,
plane of projection, ,
planes
angles between. See dihedral angles.
auxiliary,
cutting. See cutting planes.
defining,
definition, ,
edge view,
intersecting with a prism, –
intersection with a cylinder,
planes, developments with
a cone, –
an oblique cylinder,
an oblique prism,
a pyramid,
a sphere, –
plastic parts, manufacturing. See manufacturing processes, plastic parts.
plastic pipe,
plastics, manufacturing materials,
plates, ,
plats
definition,
subdivision, –
plotting curves manually, in auxiliary views,

plug welds, , –
plus-or-minus tolerances,
poche,
points
description,
drawing arcs through,
drawing lines through,
interpreting,
sketching techniques,
specifying,
polar arrays, creating gears,
polar coordinates,
polyconic method for developing a sphere,

polycylindric method for developing a
sphere,
polyester film, as drawing medium,
Polygon command,
polygons
drawing,
formulas, A- –A-
rectangle method for sketching,
sketching techniques,
triangle method for sketching,
polyhedra,
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe
drawings,
pop rivets,
portfolios (examples)
D drawings, –
determining mass properties,
dimensioning, –
in electronic diagrams,
fasteners, –
gears, –
landform drawings,
layouts, –
molded plastic parts drawings,
orthographic projection, –
piping drawings,
section views, –
sheet metal drawings, ,
showing your design process, –
structural drawings,
threads, drawing,
tolerances, –
welded assembly drawings,
welding drawings, , –
position, tolerance symbols, –
position method for dual dimensioning,
positional tolerance, –
pounds force,
pounds mass,
pozidriv screw drivers,
Pratt & Whitney keys, , A-
preferred fits
metric hole basis clearance, A- –A-
metric hole basis transition and
interference, A- –A-
metric shaft basis clearance, A- –A-
metric shaft basis transition and interference, A- –A-
metric tolerances, –
preferred sizes, metric tolerances,
pressure-reducing valves,
prestressed concrete,
primary auxiliary view,
primary datum,
primary revolution,
primitives. See solid primitives.
principal dimensions,
principal views, –
Principles of Brick Engineering and Principles of Tile Engineering,
printed circuits, in electronic diagrams,
prisms
definition and examples,
intersecting with a plane, –
size dimensioning,
triangular, dimensioning,
truncated,
types of,
problem identification, design process
case study: Santa Cruz Bicycles,
definition,
product data management (PDM), , ,

product definition,
product failure,
product life cycle,
profile plane projection,
profile tolerance, –
profiles
cams, –
landform drawings, I N D E X I-
projection methods
first angle, – , –
frontal plane,
horizontal plane,
orthographic,
plane of projection,
profile plane,
projecting at right angles. See orthographic projection.
third angle, –
projection symbols,
projection welds, ,
projections
cabinet,
cavalier,
definition,
length of receding lines,
multiview,
piercing points,
plane of projection,
plastic parts,
principal dimensions,
principal views, –
projectors,
station point,
of a third view, –
types of, – . See also specific types.
views of objects, . See also views.
projectors
definition,
oblique,
perspective,
proportion
bolts,
definition,
sketching techniques,
prototype drawings. See seed parts.
prototypes
D models, –
case study: Santa Cruz Bicycles, ,
virtual prototypes,
prototypes, in the design process
case study: Santa Cruz bicycles, ,
definition,
rapid prototyping,
prototyping
overview,
translating the model, –
virtual prototypes,
prototyping, RP (rapid prototyping)
D printing,
case study,
FDM (fused deposition modeling),
investment casting,
LOM (laminated object manufacturing),

master, creating,
overview,
rapid tooling,
SGC (solid ground curing), –
SLA (stereolithography apparatus),
SLS (selective laser sintering),
systems for, –
TSF (topographic shell fabrication),
purlins,
PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipe
drawings,
pyramid primitive,
pyramids
definition,
development with a plane,
dimensioning,
Q
QC (quality certify)
calibration and inspection, tolerance,
gage blocks,
Jo blocks,
tolerances,
QFD (Quality Function Deployment),
quality,
Quality Function Deployment (QFD),
quality management, documentation management, –
R
rack,
rack teeth,
radial leader line, –
radii of gyration,
radius,
arcs,
dimension symbols,
isometric spheres,
radius method for sketching arcs,
random-line method for sketching ellipses,

rapid prototyping. See prototyping, RP
(rapid prototyping).
rapid tooling,
raster versus vector data,
rational curves,
RBM (reinforced brick or masonry),
reading drawings,
read-only permission,
rear views, –
receding lines
angle,
length,
oblique projection,
sketching techniques,
recess for a bolt head. See counterbore.
Rectangle command,
rectangle method for sketching ellipses,
rectangular objects, isometric drawings,
recycling, manufacturing materials,
red brass pipe,
reducing fittings,
reference designations, in electronic diagrams,
reference dimensions, ,
reference planes,
reference surface, measuring from,
reference to a datum, tolerance symbols,
refinement
case study: Santa Cruz Bicycles, –
definition,
and modeling,
regular polyhedra,
regular views, –
reinforced brick or masonry (RBM),
reinforced concrete, –
relational databases, documentation management, –
relative coordinates,
relay symbols, electronic diagrams,
release of engineering documents, documentation management,
removed sections, section views, –
removed views, D drawings, , –
requirements, for engineering documentation,
resistance welding, ,
resistors, in electronic diagrams,
retention period, documentation management,
reverse construction,
reverse engineering
existing products,
surface models,
revision blocks, , –
revision numbers, working drawings,

revision tracking, in title blocks,
revolution conventions, D drawings,
revolutions
axis of,
creating revolved drawings,
definition,
primary and successive,
true length of a line,
revolutions per minute (rpm),
revolved sections
D drawings,
section views, –
revolved shapes,
revolved surfaces, –
revolving objects, to create views,
ribs in section,
right- and left-hand parts, , –
right angles, implied,
right cylinder, determining mass properties,

right-hand rule of coordinate systems,
right-hand screw threads,
right-side views, –
rivet symbols,
riveted connections,
riveted joints,
rivets
overview, –
structural steel drawings, –
robot arm, case study, –
robotic assembly,
robots, industrial, , –
Roman fonts, I- I N D E X
roof truss, , ,
root (of a screw thread),
root circle,
root diameter,
rotation arrows,
rotation transformation,
rough sketches,
roughness values, dimensioning,
round head cap screws,
rounded-end shapes, dimensioning,
rounding
corners on plastic parts,
decimal dimension values,
roundness (circularity) tolerance,
rounds
D drawings, –
definition, – ,
dimensioning,
example, ,
shading,
RP (rapid prototyping). See prototyping, RP.
rpm (revolutions per minute),
rubble masonry,
ruled surfaces,
ruler. See drawing scale.
running bond,
running fits, A- –A-
runouts, . See also fillets.
S
SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers),
SAE grades for bolts,
safety valves,
sand casting, ,
sans serif fonts,
Santa Cruz Bicycles. See case studies, Santa
Cruz bicycles.
satellite imagery,
scale
definition,
for detailing structural steel
drawings,
of drawings, indicating,
measuring instrument. See scales.
in title blocks,
scale guards, A-
scale models, example,
scaled measurements,
scales
architects’, , A-
decimal-inch, A- , A-
dividing lines equally or
proportionally,
engineers’, , A- , A-
isometric,
mechanical engineers’, A-
metric, A- –A-
scaling text,
scaling transformations,
schedules, pipe,
schematic diagrams, –
schematic thread drawings, ,
– ,
screw drivers, types of,
screw principle, history of the,
screw threads. See also threads.
-pitch,
-pitch,
-pitch,
American National, A- –A-
definition,
isometric drawings,
metric, A- –A-
screw threads, Acme
detailed description,
forms,
notes,
specifications, A- , A-
screwed fittings,
screwed joints,
screwed reducing tee,
screwed tee fittings,
screws
cap, , A- –A-
heads, – , A- –A-
machine, , A- –A-
miscellaneous,
set,
sketching,
threads. See threads.
wood,
seam welds, , ,
seamless brass pipe,
secondary auxiliary view,
secondary datum,
section lining. See also section views.
in CAD,
correct and incorrect techniques,
definition and illustration,
hatching,
large areas,
symbols,
section views
aligned sections, –
assembly sections,
auxiliary,
broken out sections,
CAD techniques for,
conventional breaks,
cutting-plane lines, – ,
cutting planes, , ,
full sections, – ,
half sections,
intersections in sections,
lines behind the cutting plane,
line rules,
offset sections,
partial sections,
partial views,
placing, –
portfolio, –
purposes of,
removed sections, –
revolved sections, –
ribs in section,
rotation arrows,
section lining,
shortening objects. See conventional
breaks.
of single parts,
security T screw drivers,
seed parts, –
selective assembly,
selective laser sintering (SLS),
Sellers, William,
semiconductors, in electronic diagrams,
series of thread, ,
serif fonts,
service life, manufacturing materials,
set screws
definition,
as locking device,
standard,
SGC (solid ground curing), –
shading, sketching techniques, ,
shaft centers
dimensioning,
sizes, A-
shafts
basic shaft system, – ,
shaft basis clearance fits, A- –A-
shaft basis transition and interference
fits, A- –A-
metric tolerances,
tolerancing,
shared manufacturing,
sharp-V thread,
sheet metal, manufacturing. See manufacturing processes, sheet metal.
sheet metal bends, dimensioning
BA (bend allowance),
general notes,
IML (inside mold line),
local notes, –
mold line,
neutral axis,
OML (outside mold line),
sheet metal bends,
stretchout,
supplementary notes, –
sheet metal parts, modeling, – ,

sheet number, in title blocks,
sheet revision block,
sheet size, in title blocks,
shop drawings,
shop rivets,
shortening identical features,
showing an inclined elliptical surface in true
size,
showing true size,
shrink fits, A- –A-
SI (Système International), . See also
metric system.
side of a screw thread,
side views, –
signal paths, in electronic diagrams, ,
– I N D E X I-
simplified thread drawings, , – ,

simplifying, working drawings,
simulation software, –
sine method for laying out angles,
single thread,
single-curved surfaces, ,
single-limit dimensioning,
single-line diagrams,
single-line piping drawings, –
single-view drawings. See one-view drawings.
Six Sigma,
-pitch thread,
size constraints,
size designation for tolerance,
size dimensioning
cylinders, –
holes, –
prisms,
skeleton
assembling to, –
modeling, –
sketch constraints, –
sketching. See also drawings.
assemblies,
auxiliary views,
bolts and nuts,
cap screws,
circles, arcs, ellipses, –
hex head bolts,
managing sketches. See documentation
management.
nuts,
pictorials, –
perspectives,
plane figures,
straight lines,
thread,
sketching techniques. See also isometric
drawings, sketching.
accuracy, importance of,
analyzing complex objects, –
angles,
arcs,
assemblies,
box construction, ,
blocking irregular objects,
case study: Oral-B toothbrush, –
circles,
with computer graphics,
constraining sketches,
construction lines,
contours,
edges,
ellipses,
enlarging shapes with a grid of squares,

essential shapes,
extruded shapes,
freehand,
freehand compass,
freehand sketching,
geometric methods for plane figures,
hatching,
important skills,
irregular shapes using offset measurements,
lines, . See also lines, sketching.
maintaining proportions,
negative space,
one-view drawings,
parametric modeling,
points,
polygons,
receding lines,
rectangle method for sketching polygons,

rough sketches,
shading, ,
stippling,
triangle method for sketching polygons,

vanishing point,
vertices,
viewpoint,
sketching techniques, oblique sketches
angles,
angle of receding lines,
appearance of,
box construction,
choice of position,
choosing the front surface,
definition, ,
ellipses for,
length of receding lines,
overview,
pictorial sketches, –
projection methods,
skeleton construction,
sketching techniques, perspectives
angular. See two-point perspective.
in AutoCAD,
bird’s-eye view,
circles,
curves,
horizon line,
one-point,
parallel. See one-point perspective.
pictorial sketching, –
three-point, ,
two-point, ,
types of, – . See also specific
types.
worm’s-eye view,
sketching techniques, pictorial sketching.
See also sketching techniques, oblique
sketches.
axonometric sketches,
definition,
overview, –
perspective sketches,
sketching techniques, projection methods
for D CAD models,
axonometric, –
dimetric,
foreshortening,
isometric,
multiview,
orthographic,
overview,
trimetric,
types of, . See also specific types.
SLA (stereolithography apparatus),
sliding fits, A- –A-
slope (grade),
slot welds, , –
slotted head screws, , A- –A-
slotted screw drivers,
SLS (selective laser sintering),
small rivets,
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE),
socket head screws, A- –A-
socket weld,
soft copper tubing, –
solder joints
copper pipe, –
on metallic materials,
solenoid-actuated valves,
solid ground curing (SGC), –
solid models
description,
versus other models,
solid objects, – . See also specific
types.
solid primitives
Boolean operations, –
box,
cone,
cylinder,
difference (subtract) operation, –
drawing complex shapes with Boolean
operations, –
intersection operation, –
overview, –
pyramid,
sphere,
torus,
union (join/add) operation, –
wedge,
SolidWorks
assembly file management,
constraint relationships, table of,
drag-and-drop fasteners,
fit study,
operators, table of,
Pack and Go feature,
space-delimited text format,
spacing
gear teeth,
lettering. See lettering, spacing.
parallel lines,
section lining,
between views,
specialty pipe drawings,
specific gravity, I- I N D E X
specifications, structural steel,
sphere primitive,
spheres
definition,
double-curved surfaces,
examples,
isometric drawings,
developments, –
spherical coordinates,
spiral of Archimedes, A-
spline, definition,
spline curves
approximated curves, ,
Bezier curves, –
B-spline approximation,
B-splines, –
cubic splines,
drawing, –
interpolated splines, ,
NURBS (nonuniform rational B-spline)
curves,
overview,
piecewise splines,
rational curves,
split ring connectors for wood construction,

spot welds, ,
spotfaces, , ,
dimensioning,
spreadsheets,
springs
flat, –
helical, –
modeling,
portfolio,
springs, helical
compression springs,
definition,
drawing, –
extension springs, –
torsion springs, –
types of,
spur gears
addendum,
chordal addendum,
chordal thickness,
dedendum,
definition, –
designing,
diametral pitch,
formulas, –
gear blanks,
involute tooth shape,
outside diameter,
pitch diameter,
rack teeth,
root diameter,
tooth spacing,
whole depth,
working drawings, –
square keys, , A-
square threads, , , A-
squares, drawing,
stability, of lettering,
stadia method,
stages,
standard features,
Standard for Aluminum Sand and Permanent Mold Castings,
Standard for the Exchange of Product model
data (STEP),
standard punches, library of,
standard symbols,
standard worm thread,
standards. See also specific standards.
ANSI, See American National Standards
Institute standards.
dimensioning,
electronic diagrams,
international,
lettering,
wire gage, A-
standards organizations
ANSI (American National Standards
Institute),
ISO (International Organization for
Standards),
list of, A- –A-
SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers),

UL (Underwriters’ Laboratory),
United States,
standards publications
AISC Manual of Steel Construction,
Allowable Stress Design (ASD),
American National Standard Code
for Pressure Piping (ANSI/ASME
B . ),
American National Standard Drafting
Manual – Y ,
American National Standard for Steel
Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
(ANSI/ASME B . ),
ANSI B . Preferred Limits for Fits for
Cylindrical Parts,
ANSI B . ,
ANSI/AF&PA NDS National Design
Specification for Wood Construction,

ANSI/ASME Y . M standard, –
ANSI/ASME Y . M- standard,

ANSI/AWS A . , Standard Symbols for
Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive Examination,
ANSI/IEEE Graphic Symbols for
Electrical and Electronic Diagrams,

ASEE (American Society for Engineering Education),
ASME Y . Digital Product Definition Data Practices, ,
ASME Y . ,
ASME/ANSI Y . Screw Thread Representation, ,
ASM-Y . M,
AWS A . , Metric Practice Guide for the
Welding Industry, and ANSI/AWS
A . , Standard Welding Terms and
Definitions,
Detailing for Steel Construction,
Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD),

Manual of Standard Practice for Detailing Reinforced Concrete Structures,

Manual of Steel Construction,
Manual of Surveying Instructions for
the Survey of the Public Lands of the
United States,
MIL-STD- Identification Coding and
Application of Hook Up and Lead
Wires,
Principles of Brick Engineering and Principles of Tile Engineering,
Standard for Aluminum Sand and Permanent Mold Castings,
static assemblies,
station point,
steel construction drawings. See structural
drawings, structural steel.
steel pipe,
steel tape,
STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product
model data),
stereolithography apparatus (SLA),
stippling,
STL (STereo Lithography) format,
stone construction,
storage media,
straight lines,
straightness tolerance,
straps for wood construction,
stretchout, dimensioning,
structural clay products,
structural drawings
accurate dimensioning,
American bond,
architectural terra cotta,
ashlar masonry,
brick and mortar,
CAD tools for, –
concrete construction, –
definition,
elevation view,
English bond,
Flemish bond,
manufactured stone,
overview,
portfolio,
Principles of Brick Engineering and Principles of Tile Engineering,
RBM (reinforced brick or masonry),
rubble masonry,
running bond,
stone construction,
structural clay products,
structural steel, –
wood construction, – I N D E X I-
structural drawings, concrete construction
high-strength concrete,
Manual of Standard Practice,
overview,
prestressed concrete,
reinforced concrete, –
structural drawings, structural steel
AISC Manual of Steel Construction,
Allowable Stress Design (ASD),
beam web,
bolted connections,
chords,
clip angles,
design drawings,
Detailing for Steel Construction,
erection plans, –
extension figure,
filler beams,
fillet weld,
flanges,
frame beam connections,
gage line,
girders,
grades of,
high-strength steel bolts, –
Load Resistance Factor Design
(LRFD),
Manual of Steel Construction,
member marks,
members,
overview,
piece marks,
plate material,
riveted connections,
scales for detailing,
shapes of,
shop drawings,
specifications,
types of,
weld symbols,
welded connections,
welding, –
structural drawings, wood construction
ANSI/AF&PA NDS National Design
Specification for Wood
Construction,
green lumber,
metal connectors, –
nominal sizes for wood products,
plates,
purlins,
split ring connectors,
straps,
symbols for finished surfaces,
toothed ring connectors,
trusses, , ,
wood joints,
structural steel drawings. See structural
drawings, structural steel.
structure location plans, landform
drawings,
studs, definition,
studying the natural world, as design aid,
subassemblies
constraint-based modeling,
definition,
drawing,
subdivision plats, –
subtract (difference) operation, –
successive auxiliary views,
successive revolutions,
superfluous dimensions,
supplementary, tolerance symbols,
surface area, determining mass properties,

surface continuity,
surface contour
fillet welds,
groove welds,
surface finish, –
surface models
accuracy,
BREP (boundary representation),
case studies, Smart Tourniquet, –
choosing a method for, –
combining surfaces,
complex surfaces, ,
Coon’s patches,
definition,
derived surfaces,
digitizing,
editing,
extruded surfaces, –
interpolated patches,
lofting, –
meshes,
NURBS-based surfaces, –
versus other model types,
patches,
reverse engineering,
revolved surfaces, –
surface information in the database,
surface normal,
sweeping, –
tessellation lines,
TINs (triangulated irregular networks),

trimming,
tweaking,
uses for,
surface normal vector,
surface patches,
surface roughness, dimensioning, –
surface texture symbols, – ,
surface welds,
surfaces
ellipsoids,
generatrix,
hyperboloids,
intersections, definition,
plane,
ruled surfaces,
single-curved surface,
spheres,
tori,
types of, . See also specific types.
in views. See views, surfaces.
warped,
surveys, landform drawings,
sweeping, –
swept shapes,
swing check valves,
switch symbols, electronic diagrams,
symbols
comparison of, A-
dimensioning, , – , – ,

ductwork, A-
electronic diagrams. See electronic diagrams, symbols.
for finished wood surfaces,
heating, A-
landform drawings,
piping drawings, A-
projection,
section lining,
surface texture, –
tolerance, ,
topographic, A-
ventilating, A-
welding structural steel,
symbols, electronic diagrams
arranging, –
AutoCAD tool palette,
diodes,
relays,
signal paths, –
size,
stages,
standard symbols, ,
standards, A-
switches,
symbol libraries,
template for,
symbols, form and proportion of
datum, A-
dimensioning symbols and letters, A-
geometric characteristics, A-
geometric dimensioning, A-
modifying symbols, A-
symmetry
case study: bicycle brake, –
definition,
mirrored shapes,
parting line,
right- and left-hand parts,
Système International (SI), . See also
metric system.
T
tab-delimited text format,
tabular dimensioning,
tangencies, D drawings, , –
tangency, definition,
tangent constraint,
tangent method for
laying out angles,
sketching arcs,
tangent surfaces, hiding in D drawings, I- I N D E X
tangents
drawing to arcs, –
drawing to circles,
tap breakage,
tap drills,
taper, plastic parts,
taper pins, specifications, A-
taper pipe threads, A-
tapered parts, tolerance,
tapers,
tapped holes,
teams, as design aids,
technical drawing, – . See also specific
forms.
template files, saving settings,
templates for
drawing,
lettering,
map symbols,
seed parts, –
sketching arcs,
sketching ellipses,
symbols for electronic diagrams,
terminals, in electronic diagrams, –
terrestrial photogrammetry,
tertiary datum,
tessellation lines,
theoretically exact datum feature
simulators,
thick lines,
thickness, in views,
thickness, sheet metal,
thin lines,
third auxiliary view,
third-angle projection, –
° angles, estimating,
thread fits, – ,
thread forms
Acme thread,
American national thread,
buttress thread,
knuckle thread,
metric thread,
sharp-V,
square thread,
standard worm thread,
UNEF (unified extra fine thread
series),
Unified thread,
Whitworth thread, ,
thread lengths, bolts,
thread notes, –
thread pitch, ,
thread series, ,
thread symbols,
threaded pipe, adapting to copper pipe,
threads. See also screw threads.
Acme, , A-
American national thread,
angle of thread,
in assembly,
axis of screw,
basic applications,
bolts,
clearance holes,
crest,
depth of thread,
dimensioning,
external threads,
history of the screw principle,
internal thread,
isometric drawings,
lead,
major diameter,
metric fastener standard,
minor diameter,
multiple threads,
pitch diameter,
right-hand/left-hand,
root,
series of thread, ,
side,
single thread,
tap breakage,
tap drills,
tapped holes,
threads, drawing
Acme thread notes,
Acme threads, detailed description,
American National Standard pipe thread,

Briggs standard threads, –
detailed, – ,
external square thread,
internal square thread,
modeling thread,
phantom lines,
pipe threads, –
portfolio,
schematic, , – ,
shortening identical features,
simplified, , – ,
square threads, , A-
tapped holes,
thread notes, –
threads in assembly,
three dimensional. See D.
D figures. See solid objects.
three-point perspective, ,
through holes,
Through option,
TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding,
TINs (triangulated irregular networks),
title blocks
centering words in,
components of,
definition,
drawing control, –
general notes in, ,
lettering for,
T-joint,
tolerance
actual local feature,
actual mating envelope,
actual minimal material envelope,
actual size,
allowance,
angular, ,
ANSI Standard, –
applying with computer graphics,
barreled parts,
baseline dimensioning,
basic angle tolerancing method,
bilateral,
bilateral system,
bowed parts,
calibration and inspection,
case study,
chained dimensions,
circularity (roundness),
clearance fit,
continuous dimensions,
cylindricity, ,
definition,
digital product definition, –
dimensioning,
feature,
feature of size,
fit, specifying,
fit types and subtypes,
fits between mating parts,
flatness,
form tolerances for single
features, –
gage blocks,
GDT (geometric dimensioning and
tolerancing),
general notes,
hole system, –
implied right angles,
interference fit, , –
international tolerance grades, A-
Jo blocks,
limit,
limit dimensions,
line fit,
and machining processes,
metric tolerances,
milling machines,
nominal size,
overview,
perfect form envelope,
plus-or-minus,
portfolio, –
positional, –
profile, –
QC (quality certify),
reference dimensions,
selective assembly,
shaft system,
single-limit dimensioning,
size designation,
specifying,
straightness,
tapered parts,
transition fit,
true-position dimensioning, –
unilateral system,
variations in form, I N D E X I-
waisted parts,
tolerance, datum features
ASME Y . ,
constraining degrees of freedom,
datum features versus datum feature
simulator,
datum reference frame,
datum targets, –
overview,
physical datum feature simulators,
primary datum,
secondary datum,
tertiary datum,
theoretically exact datum feature
simulators,
tolerance, metric fits
ANSI B . standard,
basic size,
deviation,
fundamental deviation, –
hole system,
interference fit,
IT (international tolerance grade),
lower deviation,
nominal size,
overview,
preferred fits, –
preferred sizes,
shaft system,
tolerance,
tolerance symbols,
tolerance zone, –
transition fit,
upper deviation,
tolerance, orientations for related features
angularity, –
concentricity, –
parallelism, –
perpendicularity, –
tolerance envelope,
tolerance stacking,
tolerance symbols
ANSI/ASME Y . M standard, –
basic dimensions,
combined,
datum feature simulator,
datum features,
datum identifying,
feature control frame,
form, –
form tolerance,
geometric characteristics,
LMC (least material condition),
metric fits,
metric tolerances,
MMC (maximum material condition),
, –
position, –
reference to a datum,
supplementary,
tolerance zone, metric tolerances, –
toothed ring connectors for wood
construction,
top adjacent,
top views, –
top-down design, , –
topographic maps,
topographic shell fabrication (TSF),
topographic symbols, A-
tori, , ,
torsion springs, –
tourniquet, case study, –
trammel method for sketching arcs and
ellipses,
transformations
geometric,
viewing, –
transformer windings, in electronic diagrams,
transition fits
definition,
metric tolerances,
hole basis, A- –A-
shaft basis, A- –A-
locational, A-
transition pieces, developing, –
translation,
transmitting power with gears. See gears.
traverses, landform drawings,
triangles
drawing, –
sketching auxiliary views with,
triangular prisms, dimensioning,
triangulated irregular networks (TINs),
triangulation, finding the development of an
oblique cone,
trimetric projection,
trimming surface models,
true ellipses,
true size, showing
in auxiliary views,
inclined elliptical surface,
line length, with revolutions,
lines, true length in CAD, –
oblique surfaces, –
true-position dimensioning, tolerances,

truncated prisms,
truss, welded,
trusses, , ,
TSF (topographic shell fabrication),
tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding,
tweaking surface models,
-pitch thread,
twist bits, sizes, A- –A-
two dimensional. See D.
two-point perspective, ,
types of drawings, –
U
UL (Underwriters’ Laboratory) standards for
electronic diagrams,
UN threads,
underconstrained sketches,
UNEF (unified extra fine thread series),
unidirectional dimensioning,
unified thread,
fits,
unilateral system of tolerances,
union (join/add) operation, –
United States, drafting standards,
units of measure, for dimensions,
UNJ threads,
UNR threads,
upper deviation, metric tolerances,
upset welds, ,
U.S. customary units. See also metric
system.
converting to metric, A-
definition,
dual dimensioning systems, –
unit conversion,
user coordinate systems, –
V
valves, –
vanishing point,
variables, versus parameters,
variations in form, tolerances,
vector versus raster data,
ventilating symbols, A-
vertical lettering,
vertices. See also points.
D CAD modeling,
identifying with numbers,
sketching techniques,
viewing direction arrow,
viewing transformations, –
viewing-plane lines, definition,
viewpoint, sketching techniques,
views. See also auxiliary views; orthographic projection; projection; section
views.
° miter line, ,
alignment, –
angles,
arranging on paper, . See also glass
box.
assembly drawings,
bottom, –
corners, . See also vertices.
creating by revolving objects,
depth,
developing from D models, –
edges, ,
folding lines,
front, –
front, orientation,
glass box, –
height,
interpreting,
isometric,
left side, –
length,
lines, interpreting,
measuring from a reference surface,
necessary, – , –
opposites, –
partial, – , I- I N D E X
views, continued
placing, –
planes, definition,
points, interpreting,
principal, –
principal dimensions,
rear, –
regular, –
removed, , –
revolved sections,
right side, –
showing height. See elevation.
side, –
spacing between,
thickness,
top, –
transferring depth dimensions,
vertices, ,
visualizing,
width,
views, surfaces
definition,
inclined, –
normal, –
oblique, –
orientation to the plane of
projection, –
similar shapes,
using numbers to identity vertices,
virtual prototypes, ,
visual rays. See projectors.
visualization
from a drawing,
purpose of technical drawing,
visualizing
D complex cylindrical shapes,
in D,
edges,
full sections, –
with models,
as revolved drawing,
views,
volume, determining mass properties,
VR (virtual reality), D CAD models,
W
waisted parts, tolerance,
wall thickness, plastic parts,
warped surfaces, ,
washers
lock, , A-
plain, A-
waviness values, dimensioning,
Web, documentation management,
wedge primitive,
weight of the part, in title blocks,
welded connections, structural steel,
welded joints,
welding, structural steel, –
welding applications, a welded truss,
welding, –
ANSI standard symbols, – ,
A- –
arc welding, ,
arrow side welds,
AWS A . , Metric Practice Guide for the
Welding Industry, and ANSI/AWS
A . , Standard Welding Terms and
Definitions,
back welds, ,
backing welds, ,
“bent” arrow symbol,
butt joint,
convex contour,
corner joint,
dimensioning fillet welds,
edge joint,
electric resistance welding. See resistance welding.
fillet weld length,
fillet welds, , –
flash welds, , ,
flush symbol,
gas welding, ,
GMAW (gas metal arc welding),
groove welds, ,
GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding),
intermittent fillet welding,
lap joint,
MAG (metal active gas) welding,
metal forming,
MIG (metal inert gas) welding,
other side welds,
plug welds, , –
portfolio, , –
principal methods,
projection welds, ,
resistance welding, ,
seam welds, , ,
slot welds, , –
spot welds, ,
standards, A- –
surface contour and fillet welds,
surface welds,
symbols from CAD, –
templates,
TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding,
T-joint,
types of welded joints,
upset welds, ,
welded roof truss, example,
what-if analysis,
Whitworth, Joseph,
Whitworth thread, ,
whole depth,
width, in views,
width auxiliary views, –
wireframe, D models,
wireframe modeler versus wireframe
display,
wireframe modeling, D models,
– ,
wireframe skeleton, –
wiring diagram, in electronic
diagrams, –
wood construction drawings. See structural
drawings, wood construction.
wood joints,
Woodruff keys, , A-
work flow management, –
work group level, documentation
management,
working drawing assembly, , –
working drawings
checking accuracy,
definition,
detail drawings,
numbering,
paper conservation,
for patent applications, –
revision numbers, –
simplifying,
zoning,
working drawings, formats
digital drawing transmittal,
number of details per sheet,
PDF (Portable Document Format),
title and record strips,
world coordinate system,
worm gears, –
worm’s-eye view,
write permission, documentation
management,
wrought iron pipe,
wrought steel pipe, A-
X
X- and Y-axes, coordinate systems,
Z
zone numbers, ,
Zuma coffee brewer, case study, ,

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