Simulation of Fluid Power Systems with Simcenter Amesim

Simulation of Fluid Power Systems with Simcenter Amesim
اسم المؤلف
Nicolae Vasiliu, Daniela Vasiliu, Constantin Călinoiu, Radu Puhalschi
التاريخ
3 أغسطس 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Simulation of Fluid Power Systems with Simcenter Amesim
Nicolae Vasiliu, Daniela Vasiliu, Constantin Călinoiu, Radu Puhalschi
Contents
Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xxiii
Authors xxv
Chapter 1 Overview on the numerical engineering simulation software 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Free software capabilities 2
1.3 Proprietary software capabilities .5
Bibliography 10
Chapter 2 Capabilities of Simcenter Amesim platform for solving engineering
problems 11
2.1 Platform overview 11
2.2 Amesim platform capabilities 12
2.2.1 Personalization features 12
2.2.2 Analysis tools 13
2.2.3 Optimization, Robustness, and Design of Experiments 14
2.2.4 Amesim Simulator Scripting 14
2.2.5 Amesim Customization . 15
2.2.6 Solvers and Numerics 15
2.2.7 Model-in-the-Loop, Software-in-the-Loop, Hardware-in-the-Loop,
and Real Time . 16
2.2.8 Amesim Software Interfaces 17
2.2.9 1D/3D CAE 18
2.2.10 Amesim Libraries . 18
2.3 LMS Imagine.Lab Solutions 19
2.3.1 LMS Imagine.Lab Powertrain Transmission 19
2.3.1.1 LMS Imagine.Lab Drivability 20
2.3.1.2 Noise, Vibration, and Harshness .20
2.3.1.3 Performance and Losses . 21
2.3.1.4 LMS Imagine.Lab Hybrid Vehicle . 21
2.3.2 LMS Imagine.Lab Internal Combustion Engine 22
2.3.2.1 Engine Control .22
2.3.2.2 Air Path Management .23
2.3.2.3 Combustion 23
2.3.2.4 Emissions 24
2.3.2.5 Internal Combustion Engine Related Hydraulics 24viii Contents
2.3.3 LMS Imagine.Lab Vehicle System Dynamics .25
2.3.3.1 Vehicle Dynamics 25
2.3.3.2 LMS Imagine.Lab Vehicle Dynamics Control .26
2.3.3.3 LMS Imagine.Lab Braking System 26
2.3.3.4 LMS Imagine.Lab Power Steering .27
2.3.3.5 LMS Imagine.Lab Suspension and Anti-Roll 27
2.3.4 LMS Imagine.Lab Vehicle Thermal Management .28
2.3.4.1 LMS Imagine.Lab Engine Cooling System 29
2.3.4.2 LMS Imagine.Lab Refrigerant Loop 29
2.3.4.3 LMS Imagine.Lab Passenger Comfort 29
2.3.4.4 LMS Imagine.Lab Lubrication .30
2.3.5 LMS Imagine.Lab Aerospace Systems .30
2.3.5.1 LMS Imagine.Lab Landing Gear .30
2.3.5.2 LMS Imagine.Lab Flight Controls Actuations . 31
2.3.5.3 LMS Imagine.Lab Aerospace Engine Equipment . 31
2.3.5.4 LMS Imagine.Lab Environmental Control Systems . 32
2.3.5.5 LMS Imagine.Lab Aircraft Engine 32
2.3.5.6 LMS Imagine.Lab Aircraft Fuel Systems 32
2.3.5.7 LMS Imagine.Lab Electrical Aircraft 33
2.3.6 LMS Imagine.Lab Thermofluid Systems and Components .33
2.3.6.1 LMS Imagine.Lab Hydraulics 33
2.3.6.2 LMS Imagine.Lab Pneumatics .34
2.3.6.3 LMS Imagine.Lab Gas Mixtures 34
2.3.6.4 LMS Imagine.Lab Thermal–Hydraulics .35
2.3.6.5 LMS Imagine.Lab Two-Phase Flow Systems .35
2.3.6.6 LMS Imagine.Lab Mobile Hydraulics Actuation Systems .35
2.3.6.7 LMS Imagine.Lab Thermofluids Systems 36
2.3.7 LMS Imagine.Lab Electromechanical 36
2.3.7.1 LMS Imagine.Lab Electric Storage Systems .36
2.3.7.2 LMS Imagine.Lab Electromechanical Components . 37
2.3.7.3 LMS Imagine.Lab Electrical Systems 37
2.3.7.4 LMS Imagine.Lab Automotive Electrics . 37
2.3.7.5 LMS Imagine.Lab Fuel Cells 38
2.3.8 LMS Imagine.Lab Vehicle Energy Management 38
2.3.8.1 LMS Imagine.Lab Vehicle Energy Management and Thermal .39
2.3.8.2 LMS Imagine.Lab Vehicle Energy Management and
Drivability .39
2.3.8.3 LMS Imagine.Lab Engine Integration .39
Bibliography 40
Chapter 3 Numerical simulation of the basic hydraulic components 41
3.1 Flow through orifices . 41
3.2 Three-way flow valves .54
3.3 Four-way flow valves .60
3.3.1 The aim of the simulations .60
3.3.2 Critical lap case .63
3.3.3 Positive lap spool 66
3.3.4 Case of negative lap .71Contents ix
3.4 Hydraulic single-stage pressure relief valves dynamics 73
3.4.1 Problem formulation 73
3.4.2 Mathematic modeling of the valve dynamic behavior .75
3.4.3 Steady-state characteristics . 81
3.4.4 Sizing the valve damper 82
3.4.5 Numerical simulation of the valve dynamics by SIMULINK .85
3.4.6 Conclusion .90
3.5 Simulation of a pressure relief valve by Amesim 91
3.5.1 Building the simulation model . 91
3.5.2 Running the simulation 93
3.5.3 Conclusion .98
3.6 Simulation of the two-stages pressure relief valves 98
3.6.1 The structure of the two-stages pressure relief valves .98
3.6.2 Simulation of a typical piloted pressure relief valve with conical seat
and conical pilot . 101
3.6.3 The influence of the geometry of the main valve and the pilot valve 112
Section 1: Bibliography . 116
Section 2: Bibliography . 116
Section 3: Bibliography . 117
Section 4: Bibliography . 117
Section 5: Bibliography . 117
Section 6: Bibliography . 118
Chapter 4 Simulation and identification of the electrohydraulic servovalves .119
4.1 Simulating the behavior of the electrohydraulic servovalves with additional
electric feedback . 119
4.1.1 Problem formulation 119
4.1.2 Mathematical modeling 120
4.1.3 Simulations results . 124
4.1.4 Experimental results 127
4.1.5 Conclusion . 130
4.2 Simulation with Amesim as a tool for dynamic identification of the
electrohydraulic servovalves 130
4.2.1 Problem formulation 130
4.2.2 Preliminary simulations . 131
4.2.3 Simulation results . 131
4.2.4 Experimental results 134
4.2.5 Conclusion . 135
4.3 Simulation and experimental validation of the overlap influence on the flow
servovalves performance 138
4.3.1 Introduction 138
4.3.2 Problem formulation 139
4.3.3 Numerical simulation 141
4.3.4 Experimental validation of the simulations . 147
4.3.5 Conclusion . 150
4.4 Designing the controller of a servovalve by simulation . 152
4.4.1 Introduction . 152
4.4.2 Problem formulation 153
4.4.3 New hardware design 155x Contents
4.4.4 New controller design . 156
4.4.5 Numerical validation of the new design 157
4.4.6 Experimental validation 160
4.4.7 Conclusion . 163
Acknowledgments 166
Section 1: Bibliography . 167
Section 2: Bibliography . 167
Section 3: Bibliography . 168
Section 4: Bibliography . 169
Chapter 5 Numerical simulation and experimental identification of the
hydraulic servomechanisms 171
5.1 Signal port approach versus multiport approach in simulating hydraulic
servomechanisms . 171
5.1.1 Problem formulation 171
5.1.2 Mathematical modeling of an electrohydraulic servomechanism
controlling the displacement of a servopump . 172
5.1.2.1 The steady-state characteristics of the servovalve main stage
(four way, critical centre, spool valve) 173
5.1.2.2 The spool motion equation 174
5.1.2.3 The position transducer equation . 175
5.1.2.4 The error amplifier equation 175
5.1.2.5 The servocontroller current generator equation . 175
5.1.2.6 The continuity equation . 175
5.1.2.7 The piston motion equation . 176
5.1.3 Numerical simulation with SIMULINK . 176
5.1.4 Experimental results 181
5.1.5 Conclusion . 183
5.2 Dynamics of the electrohydraulic servomechanisms used in variable valve
trains of the diesel engines . 183
5.2.1 Problem formulation 183
5.2.2 EHVS features . 183
5.2.3 EHVS types and performances 184
5.2.4 New patented design description 186
5.2.5 Conclusion . 193
5.3 Modeling and simulation of a hybrid electrohydraulic flight control
servomechanism 193
5.3.1 Problem formulation 193
5.3.2 Preliminary study 195
5.3.3 Conclusion . 201
5.4 Increasing the stability of an electrohydraulic flight control servomechanisms
by a hydraulic damper . 201
5.4.1 Problem formulation 201
5.4.2 Sine input response of the servomechanism .203
5.4.3 Step input response of the servomechanism .208
5.4.4 Frequency response . 211
5.4.5 Conclusion . 213Contents xi
5.5 Dynamics of the hydromechanical servomechanisms supplied at constant
pressure . 213
5.5.1 Applications of hydromechanical servomechanisms constant
pressure supplied . 213
5.5.2 Mathematical modeling and dynamic analysis of the hydraulic
servomechanisms . 215
5.5.3 Numerical study of the stability 220
5.5.4 The final result of the stability study 223
5.5.5 Experimental results 225
5.5.6 Numerical simulation of a moving body servomechanism 227
5.5.7 Conclusion .233
5.6 Improving the accuracy of the electrohydraulic servomechanisms by
additional feedback 233
5.6.1 Problem formulation 233
5.6.2 Introduction 234
5.6.3 Mathematical modeling 236
5.6.4 Numerical simulation with Amesim . 240
5.6.5 Experimental validation of the theoretical developments . 243
5.7 Modeling, simulation, and experimental validation of the synchronized
electrohydraulic servomechanisms . 246
5.7.1 Practical problem formulation 246
5.7.2 Dynamics of the synchronization systems with servopumps 247
5.7.3 Dynamics of the synchronization systems with industrial servovalves . 252
5.7.4 Experimental identification of the relation between the synchronizing
error and the maximum effort introduced in the structure 256
5.7.5 Conclusion .259
Section 1: Bibliography .259
Section 2: Bibliography .259
Section 3: Bibliography .260
Section 4: Bibliography .260
Section 5: Bibliography .260
Section 6: Bibliography . 261
Section 7: Bibliography . 261
Chapter 6 Numerical simulation of the automotive hydraulic steering systems 263
6.1 Numerical simulation and experimental identification of the car hydraulic
steering systems .263
6.1.1 Steady-state behavior of an open-center flow valve 263
6.1.2 Continuity equation for the flow control valve—hydraulic linear
motor subsystem 267
6.1.3 Motion equation of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder 268
6.1.4 Equation of the following error 268
6.1.5 Numerical simulation 271
6.1.6 Conclusion .272
6.2 Modeling and simulation of the hydraulic power steering systems
with Amesim 273
6.2.1 Nonlinear analysis of a steering system dynamics for a linear input 273
6.2.2 Study of a linear periodical input steering process 275xii Contents
6.2.3 Study of the sine periodical input process . 279
6.2.4 Conclusion .285
6.3 Researches on the electrohydraulic steering systems of the articulated
vehicles .286
6.3.1 Defining precision agriculture .286
6.3.2 Options for a new hybrid steering system .289
6.3.3 Numerical simulation 294
6.3.4 Experimental results 297
6.3.5 Conclusion .302
Section 1: Bibliography .302
Section 2: Bibliography .303
Section 3: Bibliography .304
Chapter 7 Modeling, simulation, and identification of the hydrostatic pumps
and motors .305
7.1 Numerical simulation of a single-stage pressure compensator 305
7.1.1 Structure of the servopumps 305
7.1.2 Dynamics of a single-stage pressure compensator .309
7.1.3 Dynamics of two-stage pressure compensators 312
7.1.4 Conclusion . 314
7.2 Dynamics of two-stage pressure compensator for swashplate pumps 315
7.2.1 Structure of the swashplate pumps with pressure compensator 315
7.2.2 Numerical simulation of the dynamic behavior 320
7.2.3 Experimental researches . 327
7.2.4 Conclusion .334
7.3 Open-circuits electrohydraulic servopumps dynamics .334
7.3.1 Structure of the electrohydraulic servopumps for open circuits 334
7.3.2 Numeric simulation of open-circuit servopump dynamics 337
7.3.3 Experimental validation of the simulations .345
7.3.4 Conclusion .347
7.4 Numerical simulation of the mechanical feedback servopumps by Amesim 347
7.4.1 Mechanical feedback servopump structure .347
7.4.2 Modeling the kinematics of the servomechanism 349
7.4.3 Modeling and simulation of the servomechanism dynamics . 351
7.4.4 Modeling and simulation of the servopump dynamics .355
7.4.5 Conclusion .360
7.5 Numerical simulation of the dynamics of the electrohydraulic bent axis force
feedback servomotors 361
7.5.1 Modern structures for the bent axis force feedback servomotors 361
7.5.2 Mathematical modeling 364
7.5.3 Numerical simulation by SIMULINK© . 369
7.5.4 Numerical simulation by Amesim 372
7.5.5 Conclusion . 378
Section 1: Bibliography . 378
Section 2: Bibliography . 378
Section 3: Bibliography . 379
Section 4: Bibliography . 379
Section 5: Bibliography . 379Contents xiii
Chapter 8 Numerical simulation of the hydrostatic transmissions 381
8.1 Design problems of the hydrostatic transmissions . 381
8.1.1 Structure and applications of hydrostatic transmissions . 381
8.1.2 Electrohydraulic control systems in automotive powertrains .385
8.1.3 Hydrostatic transmission performances .385
8.1.4 Innovations in the field of the hydrostatic transmissions 389
8.1.5 Approached problems and solving methods . 391
8.2 Dynamics of the hydrostatic transmissions for mobile equipments 392
8.2.1 Design criteria for the hydraulic scheme 392
8.2.2 Optimization of the hydrostatic transmissions by numerical
simulation 395
8.2.3 Conclusion . 401
Section 1: Bibliography . 401
Section 2: Bibliography .402
Chapter 9 Design of the speed governors for hydraulic turbines by Amesim .403
9.1 Modeling and simulation of the high-head Francis turbines 403
9.1.1 Problem formulation 403
9.1.2 Mathematical model of a high-head Francis turbine 404
9.1.3 Mathematical modeling of the synchronous generator 411
9.1.4 Main characteristics of the high power servovalves . 414
9.1.5 Numerical simulation of the dynamic behavior of nonlinear
electrohydraulic servovalves . 417
9.1.6 Modeling and simulation of a speed governor for high-head turbines
with Amesim .420
9.1.7 Synthesis of the speed governor .421
9.1.8 Real-Time simulation with MATLAB©/SIMULINK© of a speed
governor for high-head turbines 423
9.1.9 Simulation of a redundant position control system with Amesim .427
9.1.10 Conclusion .432
9.2 Example of sizing and tuning the speed governors for Kaplan turbines by
Amesim 434
9.2.1 General design options 434
9.2.2 Tuning the speed governor .437
9.2.3 Experimental validation of the design 440
9.2.4 Conclusion .446
Section 1: Bibliography .447
Section 2: Bibliography .448
Chapter 10 Numerical simulation of the fuel injection systems .449
10.1 Numerical simulation of common rail injection systems with solenoid injectors . 449
10.1.1 Structure of the common rail fuel injection systems 449
10.1.2 Simulation of a single injector in ideal conditions .449
10.1.3 Using the Discrete Partitioning Technique in high-speed simulation
of the common rail fuel injection systems 458
10.1.4 Conclusion .463
10.2 Dynamics of the piezoceramic actuated fuel injectors .463
10.2.1 Progress elements in fuel injection 463xiv Contents
10.2.2 Numerical simulations results 464
10.2.3 Conclusion . 471
10.3 Applications of Amesim in the optimization of the common rail agrofuel
injection systems . 471
10.3.1 Agrofuel problems 471
10.3.2 Agrofuel’s sustainability 472
10.3.3 Agrofuel versus “Biodiesel” 473
10.3.4 Agrofuel versus fossil diesel fuel . 474
10.3.5 Materials and methods 474
10.3.6 Main results of the numerical simulations .477
10.3.7 Conclusion .482
Section 1: Bibliography .482
Section 2: Bibliography .483
Section 3: Bibliography .483
Chapter 11 Numerical simulation and experimental validation of ABS systems
for automotive systems .485
11.1 Development and validation of ABS/ESP models for braking system
components 485
11.1.1 Models and libraries used in the modeling of the road vehicles 485
11.1.2 Basic layouts of the ABS/ESP systems .489
11.1.3 Model inputs and outputs .490
11.1.4 Modeling system components 492
11.1.5 Using Amesim facilities for simplifying the models 495
11.1.6 Conclusion .504
11.2 Brake system model reduction and integration in a HiL environment 504
11.2.1 Problems of reduction of the ABS/ESP system for HiL 504
11.2.2 Reduction of the ABS/ESP global model 512
11.2.3 Conclusion .522
11.3 Validation of the Real-Time global model by comparison with the
experimental data . 524
11.3.1 Validation with dry surface (asphalt) experimental data . 524
11.3.2 Validation with compact snow experimental data 524
11.3.3 Validation with very frozen snow experimental data . 525
11.3.4 Validation with mixed surface brake experimental data . 526
11.3.5 Validation on mixed surface acceleration experimental data 526
11.3.6 Conclusion . 527
Section 1: Bibliography . 528
Section 2: Bibliography . 529
Section 3: Bibliography . 529
Chapter 12 Numerical simulation and experimental tuning of the
electrohydraulic servosystems for mobile equipments .531
12.1 Structure of the electrohydraulic servosystems with laser feedback used for
ground leveling equipments . 531
12.2 Test bench for simulation of the real operational conditions of the laser
module on the equipment .534
12.3 Numerical simulation and experimental identification of the laser-controlled
modular systems for leveling machine in horizontal plane .535Contents xv
12.4 Experimental identification 541
12.5 Conclusion .543
Bibliography 544
Chapter 13 Using Amesim for solving multiphysics problems .545
13.1 Real-Time systems and Hardware-in-the-Loop testing .545
13.2 Objectives of the Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation of the road vehicles
electrical power train .547
13.3 Specific tools used in the development of a test bench for electric power train .548
13.4 Amesim simulation environment features used for Hardware-in-the-Loop .549
13.5 Vehicle modeling in Amesim .550
13.6 Connecting the real electrical motor to the virtual model .553
13.7 Modeling aerodynamic parameters 555
13.8 Determining the vehicle speed 557
13.9 Results obtained using a model with an ideal power source 558
13.10 Results obtained using a model with a nonideal power source .560
13.11 Simulation results for the complete vehicle model in Amesim .563
13.12 Preparing the Amesim models for Real-Time simulation 570
13.13 Hardware-in-the-Loop test stand hardware structure . 573
13.14 Hardware-in-the-Loop test stand software structure 577
13.15 The graphical interface 581
13.16 Simulation results .583
13.17 Conclusion . 594
Bibliography 594
Index .
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