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Plastic Product Material and Process Selection Handbook

Plastic Product Material and Process Selection Handbook
Dominick V. Rosato,
Donald V. Rosato,
Matthew V. Rosato
Table of Contents
Ch. 1 Introduction
Ch. 2 Plastic property
Ch. 3 Fabricating product
Ch. 4 Injection molding
Ch. 5 Extrusion
Ch. 6 Blow molding
Ch. 7 Thermoforming
Ch. 8 Foaming
Ch. 9 Calendering
Ch. 10 Coating
Ch. 11 Casting
Ch. 12 Reaction injection molding
Ch. 13 Rotational molding
Ch. 14 Compression molding
Ch. 15 Reinforced plastics
Ch. 16 Other process
Ch. 17 Mold and die tooling
Ch. 18 Auxiliary equipment
Ch. 19 Summary
Examples of major plastic families
Thermoplastic thermal properties are compared to
aluminum and steel
General properties of thermoplastic
General properties of thermoset plastic
General properties of reinforced thermoplastic
General properties of reinforced thermoset plastic
Examples of drying different plastics (courtesy of
Spirex Corp.)
General properties of plastics
Example of plastic shrinkage without and with glass
Density, melt index, and molecular weight influence
PEs performances
Examples of polyethylene film properties
Property guide for thermoset plastics
Elastomer names
Elastomers cost to performance guide
Guide to elastomer performances where E = Excellent,
G – Good, F = Fair, and P = Poor)
Example for comparing cost and performance of
nylon and die-cast alloys
Examples of processes for plastic materials
Examples of processes and plastic materials to
Chemical resistance of plastics (courtesy of Plastics
Examples of permeability for plastics
Examples of transparent plastics
Examples of names of plastic fabricating processes 133
Flow chart in fabricating plastic products (courtesy
of Adaptive Instruments Corp.) 138
Examples of thermoplastic processing temperatures
for extrusion and injection molding (courtesy of
Spirex Corp.) 143
Purging: preheat/soak time (courtesy of Spirex Corp.) 165
Guide to performance of different sensors 171
4.1 Processing window analysis
Example of thermoplastics that are extruded
(courtesy of Spirex)
Selection guide for barrel heater bands (courtesy of
Examples of film yields
Guide on different information pertaining to different
coating methods
7.1 Comparison of thermoformer heaters 314
8.1 Examples of rigid plastic foam properties 334
8.2 Examples of physical blowing agent performances 339
8.3 Examples of chemical blowing agents 339
8.4 Properties of 1/4″thick thermoplastic structural foam
(20% weight reduction) 344
9.1 Example of comparing calendering and extrusion
processes 380
10.1 Examples of coating processes 387
12.1 Comparing processes to mold large, complex products 420
13.1 Comparison of different processes 429
13.2 Examples of RM products
Example of applications for compression molded
thermoset plastics
Comparing compression molded properties with
other processes
15.1 Review of a few processes to fabricate RP products 457xxviii List of tables
15.2 Examples of reinforced thermoplastic properties 458
15.3 Examples of properties and processes of reinforced
thermoset plastics
Properties of fiber reinforcements
Examples of different carbon fibers
General properties of thermoset RPs per ASTM
testing procedures
Reinforcement orientation layup patterns
Examples of interrelating product-RP material-process
Guide to product design vs. processing methods
16.1 Example of a PVC blend formulation
Examples of the properties of different tool materials
SPI Moldmakers Division quotations guide
Examples of extrusion dies (courtesy of Extrusion
Dies, Inc.)
Rapid prototyping processes
Examples of different rolls used in different extrusion
Examples of machining
19.1 Comparison of theoretically possible and actual
experimental values for properties of various materials
Overview of the plastic industries from source to
products that includes plastics and fabrication
processes (courtesy of Plastics FALLO)
Highlighting load-time/viscoelasticity of plastics:
(1) stress-strain-time in creep and (2) strainstress-time in stress relaxation
Examples of plastics subjected to temperatures
Guide on strength to temperature of plastics & steel
(courtesy of Plastics FALLO)
Temperature-time guides retaining 50% plastic
properties (courtesy of Plastics FALLO)
FALLO approach includes going from material to
fabricated product (courtesy of Plastics FALLO)
Example how melt index and density influence PE
performances; properties increase in the direction of
Examples of plasticized flexible PVC
Examples of rigid PVC
Guide to fluoroplastic properties
Basic compounding of natural rubber
With modifications each of these plastics can be
moved into literally any position in the pie section
meeting different requirements
Examples of plastic contraction at low temperatures
Guide to clear and opaque plastics
Examples of the weatherability of plastics
Non-plastic (Newtonian) and plastic (non-Newtonian)
melt flow behavior (courtesy of Plastics FALLO)
Relationship of viscosity to time at constant
Molecular weight distribution influence on melt flow
Examples of reinforced plastic directional properties
Nomenclature of an injection screw (top) and
extrusion screw (courtesy of Spirex Corp.)
Nomenclature of an injection barrel (top) and
extrusion barrel (courtesy of Spirex Corp.)
Assembled screw-barrel plasticator for injection
molding (top) and extruding (courtesy of Plastics
Action of plastic in a screw channel during its rotation
in a fixed barrel: (1) highlights the channel where the
plastic travels; (2) basic plastic drag action; and
(3) example of melting action as the plastic travels
through the barrel where areas A and B has the melt
occurring from the barrel surface to the forward screw
surface, area C has the melt developing from the solid
plastic, and area D is solid plastic; and (4) melt model
of a single screw (courtesy of Spirex Corp.)
Schematic of an IM machine
Three basic parts of an injection molding machine
(courtesy of Plastics FALLO)
Schematics of single and two-stage plasticators
Simplified plastic flow through a single-stage IMM
Example of mold operation controls
Plastic residence time
Molding area diagram processing window concept
Molding volume diagram processing window concept
Quality surface as a function of process variables
Example of a 3-layer coinjection system (courtesy of
Battenfeld of America)
Example of mold action during injection-compression
(courtesy of Plastic FALLO)
Schematic of a ram (plunger) injection molding
Metal injection molding cycle (courtesy of Phillips
Simplifies example of a single-screw extruder
Schematic identifies the different components in an
extruder (courtesy of Welex Inc.)
Blown film control
Sheet line control
Assembled blown film line (courtesy of Battcnfelt
Blown film line schematic with more details
Schematic of flat film chilled roll-processing line
Example neck-in and beading that occurs between
die orifice and chill roll
Simplified water quenched film line
Schematic of sheet line processing plastic
Coextruded (two-layer) sheet line
Schematic of a three-roll sheet cooling stack
Introduction to downstream pipe/tube line
(a) Example of an inexpensive plate die. (b) Examples
of precision dies to produce close tolerance profiles
Coating extruder line highlights the hot melt
contacting the substrate just prior to entry into the
nip of the pressure-chill rolls
Example of a wire coating extrusion line
Example in using a gear pump to produce fibers (left)
and example in using an extruder and gear pump to
produce fibers
Schematic of a basic three layered cocxtrusion sheet
or film system
Example of upward extruded blown film process for
biaxially orienting film
Example of two-step tenter process
Few examples of many different postformed shapes
and cuts with some showing dies
Examples and performances of compounding
Schematic of compounding PVC
Examples of extrusion, injection, and stretch blow
molding techniques
Example of a 3-layer coextrusion parison blow mold
head with die profiling (left) and example of a 5-layer
coextrusion parison blow mold head with die
profiling (courtesy of Graham Machinery Group)
Schematic of extrusion blow molding a single parison
Simplified view of a heart shaped parison die head
(left) and grooved core parison die head
6.5 Examples ofparison wall thickness control by axial
movement of the mandrel
6.6 Example of rectangular parison shapes where (1) dic
opening had a uniform thickness resulting in weak
corners and (2) die opening designed to meet the
thickness requirements required
6.7 Introduction to a continuous extruded blow
molding system with its accumulator dic head
6.8 Schematics of vertical wheel machine in a production
line (courtesy of Graham Machinery Group)
6.9 Three station injection blow molding system
6.10 Schematic of injection blow mold with a solid handle
(left) and simple handles (ring, strap, etc.) can be
molded with blow molded bottles
6.11 Example of stretched injection blow molding using a
rod (left) and example of stretched injection blow
molding by gripping and stretching the preform
6.12 Examples of different shaped sequential extrusion
blow molding products
6.13 Example of a suction extrusion blow molding process
fabricating 3-D products (courtesy of SIG Plastics
6.14 Examples of 3-D extrusion blow molded products in
their mold cavities (courtesy of SIG Plastics
6.15 Example of a 3-part mold to fabricate a complex
threaded lid 305
6.16 Examples of water flood cooling blow molding molds
7.1 Examples of thermoforming methods 309
7.2 (1) In-line high-speed sheet extruder feeding a rotary
thcrmoformer and (2) view of the thermoforming
drum (courtesy ofWelex/Irwin)
Schematic of roll-fed thermoforming line
Schematic example of a rotating clockwise three-stage
View of a rotating clockwise five-stage machine
(courtesy of Wilmington Machinery)
Example of tandem extruder foam sheet line (courtesy
of Battcnfeld Gloucester
Expandable polystyrene process line starts with
precxpanding the PS beads
357List of figures xxiii
8.3 View of PS beads in a perforated mold cavity that are
expanding when subjected to steam heat
8.4 Schematic of foam reciprocating injection molding
machine for low pressure
8.5 (a) Schematic of gas counterpressure foam injection
molding (Cashiers Structural Foam patent). (b) Example
of an IMM modified nozzle that handles simultaneously
the melt and gas. (c) Microcellular foaming system
directing the melt-gas through its shutoff nozzle
into the mold cavity
8.6 Liquid (left), froth (center), and spray polyurethane
foaming processes 366
8.7 Example of flexible foam density profile
Example of the sheet or film passing through nip rolls
to decrease thickness 370
Calender line starting with mixer 371
Examples of the arrangements of rolls in calender lines 372
Example of roll covering
Simplified examples of basic roll coating processes
Example of knife spread coating
Examples of transfer paper coating line
Example of an extrusion coating line
Example of a liquid injection molding casting process
Example of a more accurate mixing of components
for liquid injection casting
Example of typical polyurethane RIM processes
(courtesy of Bayer)
RIM machine with mold in the open position
(courtesy of Milacron)
Gating and runner systems demonstrating laminar
melt flow and uniform flow front (courtesy of Bayer)
Example of a dam gate and runner system (courtesy
of Bayer)
Example of melt flow around obstructions near the
vent (courtesy of Bayer)
13.1 Rotational molding’s four basic stations (courtesy of
The Queen’s University, Belfast) 430xxiv List of figures
13.2 Rotational rate of the two axes is at 7″1 for this
product (courtesy of Plastics FALLO ) 432
13.3 Example of large tank that is RM 433
14.1 Schematics of compression molding plastic materials. 439
14.2 Examples of flash in a mold: (a) horizontal,
(b) vertical, and (c) modified vertical
Example of mold types: (a) positive compression mold,
(b) flash compression mold, and (c) semipositive
compression mold
Example of land locations in a split-wedge mold
Schematic of transfer molding
Effect of matrix content on strength (F) or elastic
moduli (E) of reinforced plastics
Properties vs. amount of reinforcement
Modulus of different materials can be related to their
specific gravities with RPs providing an interesting
Short to long fibers influence properties of RPs
Reinforced plastics, steel, and aluminum tensile
properties compared (courtesy of Plastics FALLO)
Fiber arrangements and property behavior (courtesy
of Plastics FALLO)
Layout of reinforcement is designed to meet structural
Views of fiber filament wound isotensoid pattern of
the reinforcing fibers without plastic (left) and
with plastic cured
Use is made of vacuum, pressure, or pressure-vacuum
in the Marco process
Cut away example of a mold used for resin transfer
Examples of mold layouts, configurations, and
Sequence of mold operations
Examples to simplify mold design and action
Example of 3-plate mold
Examples of stacked molds
Examples of melt flow patterns in a coathanger and
T-type die
17.7 Examples of melt flow patterns behavior 531
17.8 Flow coefficients calculated at different aspect
ratios for various shapes using the same equation
Example of the land in an extrusion blow molding die
that can have a ratio of 10 to 1 and film or sheet rigid
(R) and flexible (F) die lip land
Examples of a flat die with its controls
Examples of single layer blown film dies include side
fed type (left), bottom fed with spiders type (center)
and spiral fed type
Examples of different pipe die inline and crosshead
(a) Schematic for determining wire coated draw ratio
balance in dies. (b) Schematic for determining wire
coated draw down ratio in dies
Examples of layer plastics based on four modes of
die rotation Examples of plant layout with extrusion and injection
molding primary and auxiliary equipment
18.2 Example of an extrusion laminator with auxiliary
18.3 Examples of tension control rollers in a film, sheet,
or coating line
18.4 Example of roll-change sequence winder (courtesy
of Black Clawson) 559
18.5 Guide to slitting extruded film or coating
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