حل كتاب Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics Solution Manual

حل كتاب Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics Solution Manual
اسم المؤلف
Raymond A. Serway, John W. Jewett
التاريخ
17 مارس 2018
المشاهدات
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حل كتاب
Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics Solution Manual
Raymond A. Serway
Emeritus, James Madison University
John W. Jewett, Jr.
Emeritus, California State
Polytechnic University, Pomona
With contributions from Vahé Peroomian
University of Southern California
contents
About the Authors x
Preface xi
To the Student xxvi
P a R T 1
Mechanics 1
1 Physics and Measurement 2
1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time 3
1.2 Modeling and Alternative Representations 6
1.3 Dimensional Analysis 10
1.4 Conversion of Units 12
1.5 Estimates and Order-of-Magnitude
Calculations 12
1.6 Significant Figures 13
2 Motion in one dimension 20
2.1 Position, Velocity, and Speed
of a Particle 21
2.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 24
2.3 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant
Velocity 27
2.4 The Analysis Model Approach to Problem
Solving 30
2.5 Acceleration 32
2.6 Motion Diagrams 36
2.7 Analysis Model: Particle
Under Constant Acceleration 37
2.8 Freely Falling Objects 41
2.9 Kinematic Equations Derived from
Calculus 44
3 Vectors 52
3.1 Coordinate Systems 53
3.2 Vector and Scalar Quantities 54
3.3 Basic Vector Arithmetic 55
3.4 Components of a Vector and Unit
Vectors 58
4 Motion in two dimensions 68
4.1 The Position, Velocity, and Acceleration
Vectors 69
4.2 Two-Dimensional Motion with Constant
Acceleration 71
4.3 Projectile Motion 74
4.4 Analysis Model: Particle in Uniform Circular
Motion 81
4.5 Tangential and Radial Acceleration 84
4.6 Relative Velocity and Relative Acceleration 85
5 the Laws of Motion 95
5.1 The Concept of Force 96
5.2 Newton’s First Law and Inertial Frames 97
5.3 Mass 99
5.4 Newton’s Second Law 99
5.5 The Gravitational Force and Weight 102
5.6 Newton’s Third Law 103
5.7 Analysis Models Using Newton’s
Second Law 105
5.8 Forces of Friction 114
6 Circular Motion and other Applications
of newton’s Laws 127
6.1 Extending the Particle in Uniform
Circular Motion Model 128
6.2 Nonuniform Circular Motion 133
6.3 Motion in Accelerated Frames 135
6.4 Motion in the Presence of Resistive
Forces 138
7 Energy of a System 150
7.1 Systems and Environments 151
7.2 Work Done by a Constant Force 151
7.3 The Scalar Product of Two Vectors 154
7.4 Work Done by a Varying Force 156
7.5 Kinetic Energy and the Work–Kinetic
Energy Theorem 161
7.6 Potential Energy of a System 165
7.7 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces 169
7.8 Relationship Between Conservative Forces and
Potential Energy 171
7.9 Energy Diagrams and Equilibrium of a
System 173
8 Conservation of Energy 181
8.1 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System
(Energy) 182
8.2 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Energy) 185
8.3 Situations Involving Kinetic Friction 191
8.4 Changes in Mechanical Energy
for Nonconservative Forces 196
8.5 Power 200
9 Linear Momentum and Collisions 210
9.1 Linear Momentum 211
9.2 Analysis Model: Isolated System
(Momentum) 213
9.3 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System
(Momentum) 215
9.4 Collisions in One Dimension 219
9.5 Collisions in Two Dimensions 227
vP a R T 2
oscillations and
Mechanical Waves 385
15 oscillatory Motion 386
15.1 Motion of an Object Attached to a Spring 387
15.2 Analysis Model: Particle in Simple Harmonic
Motion 388
15.3 Energy of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 394
15.4 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with
Uniform Circular Motion 398
15.5 The Pendulum 400
15.6 Damped Oscillations 404
15.7 Forced Oscillations 405
16 Wave Motion 415
16.1 Propagation of a Disturbance 416
16.2 Analysis Model: Traveling Wave 419
16.3 The Speed of Waves on Strings 423
16.4 Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal
Waves on Strings 426
16.5 The Linear Wave Equation 428
16.6 Sound Waves 429
16.7 Speed of Sound Waves 431
16.8 Intensity of Sound Waves 433
16.9 The Doppler Effect 438
17 Superposition and Standing Waves 451
17.1 Analysis Model: Waves in Interference 452
17.2 Standing Waves 456
17.3 Boundary Effects: Reflection and
Transmission 459
17.4 Analysis Model: Waves Under Boundary
Conditions 461
17.5 Resonance 465
17.6 Standing Waves in Air Columns 466
17.7 Beats: Interference in Time 469
17.8 Nonsinusoidal Waveforms 472
P a R T 3
thermodynamics 481
18 temperature 482
18.1 Temperature and the Zeroth Law
of Thermodynamics 483
18.2 Thermometers and the Celsius
Temperature Scale 484
18.3 The Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer
and the Absolute Temperature Scale 485
18.4 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 488
18.5 Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas 492
9.6 The Center of Mass 230
9.7 Systems of Many Particles 234
9.8 Deformable Systems 237
9.9 Rocket Propulsion 239
10 Rotation of a Rigid object About
a Fixed Axis 249
10.1 Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration 250
10.2 Analysis Model: Rigid Object Under Constant
Angular Acceleration 252
10.3 Angular and Translational Quantities 254
10.4 Torque 257
10.5 Analysis Model: Rigid Object Under a Net
Torque 259
10.6 Calculation of Moments of Inertia 263
10.7 Rotational Kinetic Energy 267
10.8 Energy Considerations in Rotational
Motion 269
10.9 Rolling Motion of a Rigid Object 272
11 Angular Momentum 285
11.1 The Vector Product and Torque 286
11.2 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Angular
Momentum) 288
11.3 Angular Momentum of a Rotating Rigid
Object 293
11.4 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Angular
Momentum) 295
11.5 The Motion of Gyroscopes and Tops 301
12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity 310
12.1 Analysis Model: Rigid Object in Equilibrium 311
12.2 More on the Center of Gravity 312
12.3 Examples of Rigid Objects in Static
Equilibrium 313
12.4 Elastic Properties of Solids 319
13 Universal Gravitation 332
13.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 333
13.2 Free-Fall Acceleration and the Gravitational
Force 335
13.3 Analysis Model: Particle in a Field
(Gravitational) 336
13.4 Kepler’s Laws and the Motion of Planets 339
13.5 Gravitational Potential Energy 345
13.6 Energy Considerations in Planetary and Satellite
Motion 347
14 Fluid Mechanics 358
14.1 Pressure 359
14.2 Variation of Pressure with Depth 360
14.3 Pressure Measurements 364
14.4 Buoyant Forces and Archimedes’s Principle 365
14.5 Fluid Dynamics 368
14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation 371
14.7 Flow of Viscous Fluids in Pipes 375
14.8 Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics 377
vi Contents24.3 Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to
Point Charges 642
24.4 Obtaining the Value of the Electric Field
from the Electric Potential 645
24.5 Electric Potential Due to Continuous
Charge Distributions 646
24.6 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium 651
25 Capacitance and dielectrics 663
25.1 Definition of Capacitance 664
25.2 Calculating Capacitance 665
25.3 Combinations of Capacitors 668
25.4 Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor 672
25.5 Capacitors with Dielectrics 676
25.6 Electric Dipole in an Electric Field 678
25.7 An Atomic Description of Dielectrics 681
26 Current and Resistance 691
26.1 Electric Current 692
26.2 Resistance 694
26.3 A Model for Electrical Conduction 699
26.4 Resistance and Temperature 701
26.5 Superconductors 702
26.6 Electrical Power 703
27 direct-Current Circuits 713
27.1 Electromotive Force 714
27.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel 716
27.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules 723
27.4 RC Circuits 726
27.5 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety 732
28 Magnetic Fields 742
28.1 Analysis Model: Particle in a Field
(Magnetic) 743
28.2 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform
Magnetic Field 748
28.3 Applications Involving Charged Particles
Moving in a Magnetic Field 752
28.4 Magnetic Force Acting on a CurrentCarrying Conductor 755
28.5 Torque on a Current Loop in a Uniform
Magnetic Field 757
28.6 The Hall Effect 761
29 Sources of the Magnetic Field 771
29.1 The Biot–Savart Law 772
29.2 The Magnetic Force Between Two
Parallel Conductors 777
29.3 Ampère’s Law 779
29.4 The Magnetic Field of a Solenoid 782
29.5 Gauss’s Law in Magnetism 784
29.6 Magnetism in Matter 786
30 Faraday’s Law 797
30.1 Faraday’s Law of Induction 798
30.2 Motional emf 801
30.3 Lenz’s Law 805
19 the First Law of thermodynamics 501
19.1 Heat and Internal Energy 502
19.2 Specific Heat and Calorimetry 505
19.3 Latent Heat 509
19.4 Work in Thermodynamic Processes 513
19.5 The First Law of Thermodynamics 514
19.6 Energy Transfer Mechanisms in Thermal
Processes 518
20 the Kinetic theory of Gases 533
20.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas 534
20.2 Molar Specific Heat of an Ideal Gas 539
20.3 The Equipartition of Energy 542
20.4 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas 545
20.5 Distribution of Molecular Speeds 547
21 Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law
of thermodynamics 556
21.1 Heat Engines and the Second Law
of Thermodynamics 557
21.2 Heat Pumps and Refrigerators 559
21.3 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 562
21.4 The Carnot Engine 563
21.5 Gasoline and Diesel Engines 567
21.6 Entropy 570
21.7 Entropy in Thermodynamic Systems 572
21.8 Entropy and the Second Law 578
P a R T 4
Electricity and
Magnetism 587
22 Electric Fields 588
22.1 Properties of Electric Charges 589
22.2 Charging Objects by Induction 591
22.3 Coulomb’s Law 593
22.4 Analysis Model: Particle in a Field (Electric) 598
22.5 Electric Field Lines 603
22.6 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform
Electric Field 605
23 Continuous Charge distributions
and Gauss’s Law 615
23.1 Electric Field of a Continuous Charge
Distribution 616
23.2 Electric Flux 620
23.3 Gauss’s Law 623
23.4 Application of Gauss’s Law to Various
Charge Distributions 625
24 Electric Potential 636
24.1 Electric Potential and Potential Difference 637
24.2 Potential Difference in a Uniform Electric
Field 639
Contents vii36 Wave optics 962
36.1 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment 963
36.2 Analysis Model: Waves in Interference 965
36.3 Intensity Distribution of the Double-Slit
Interference Pattern 968
36.4 Change of Phase Due to Reflection 969
36.5 Interference in Thin Films 970
36.6 The Michelson Interferometer 973
37 diffraction Patterns and Polarization 983
37.1 Introduction to Diffraction Patterns 984
37.2 Diffraction Patterns from Narrow Slits 985
37.3 Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular
Apertures 988
37.4 The Diffraction Grating 992
37.5 Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals 996
37.6 Polarization of Light Waves 998
P a R T 6
Modern Physics 1011
38 Relativity 1012
38.1 The Principle of Galilean Relativity 1013
38.2 The Michelson–Morley Experiment 1016
38.3 Einstein’s Principle of Relativity 1018
38.4 Consequences of the Special Theory
of Relativity 1019
38.5 The Lorentz Transformation Equations 1030
38.6 The Lorentz Velocity Transformation
Equations 1031
38.7 Relativistic Linear Momentum 1034
38.8 Relativistic Energy 1035
38.9 The General Theory of Relativity 1039
39 introduction to Quantum Physics 1048
39.1 Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s
Hypothesis 1049
39.2 The Photoelectric Effect 1055
39.3 The Compton Effect 1061
39.4 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves 1063
39.5 The Wave Properties of Particles 1064
39.6 A New Model: The Quantum Particle 1067
39.7 The Double-Slit Experiment Revisited 1070
39.8 The Uncertainty Principle 1071
40 Quantum Mechanics 1079
40.1 The Wave Function 1079
40.2 Analysis Model: Quantum Particle Under
Boundary Conditions 1084
40.3 The Schrödinger Equation 1089
40.4 A Particle in a Well of Finite Height 1091
40.5 Tunneling Through a Potential Energy
Barrier 1093
40.6 Applications of Tunneling 1095
40.7 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator 1096
30.4 The General Form of Faraday’s Law 808
30.5 Generators and Motors 810
30.6 Eddy Currents 814
31 inductance 824
31.1 Self-Induction and Inductance 825
31.2 RL Circuits 827
31.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field 830
31.4 Mutual Inductance 832
31.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit 834
31.6 The RLC Circuit 837
32 Alternating-Current Circuits 847
32.1 AC Sources 848
32.2 Resistors in an AC Circuit 848
32.3 Inductors in an AC Circuit 851
32.4 Capacitors in an AC Circuit 854
32.5 The RLC Series Circuit 856
32.6 Power in an AC Circuit 859
32.7 Resonance in a Series RLC Circuit 861
32.8 The Transformer and Power Transmission 863
33 Electromagnetic Waves 873
33.1 Displacement Current and the General
Form of Ampère’s Law 874
33.2 Maxwell’s Equations and Hertz’s
Discoveries 876
33.3 Plane Electromagnetic Waves 878
33.4 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic
Waves 882
33.5 Momentum and Radiation Pressure 884
33.6 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
by an Antenna 886
33.7 The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves 887
P a R T 5
Light and optics 897
34 the nature of Light and the Principles
of Ray optics 898
34.1 The Nature of Light 899
34.2 The Ray Approximation in Ray Optics 901
34.3 Analysis Model: Wave Under Reflection 902
34.4 Analysis Model: Wave Under Refraction 905
34.5 Huygens’s Principle 911
34.6 Dispersion 912
34.7 Total Internal Reflection 914
35 image Formation 925
35.1 Images Formed by Flat Mirrors 926
35.2 Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors 928
35.3 Images Formed by Refraction 935
35.4 Images Formed by Thin Lenses 939
35.5 Lens Aberrations 947
35.6 Optical Instruments 947
viii Contents44.2 Positrons and Other Antiparticles 1227
44.3 Mesons and the Beginning of Particle
Physics 1229
44.4 Classification of Particles 1231
44.5 Conservation Laws 1233
44.6 Strange Particles and Strangeness 1236
44.7 Finding Patterns in the Particles 1238
44.8 Quarks 1240
44.9 Multicolored Quarks 1242
44.10 The Standard Model 1244
44.11 The Cosmic Connection 1246
44.12 Problems and Perspectives 1251
Appendices
A tables A-1
Table A.1 Conversion Factors A-1
Table A.2 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units of Physical
Quantities A-2
B Mathematics Review A-4
B.1 Scientific Notation A-4
B.2 Algebra A-5
B.3 Geometry A-10
B.4 Trigonometry A-11
B.5 Series Expansions A-13
B.6 Differential Calculus A-13
B.7 Integral Calculus A-16
B.8 Propagation of Uncertainty A-20
C Periodic table of the Elements A-22
D Si Units A-24
D.1 SI Units A-24
D.2 Some Derived SI Units A-24
Answers to Quick Quizzes and odd-numbered
Problems A-25
index i-1
41 Atomic Physics 1105
41.1 Atomic Spectra of Gases 1106
41.2 Early Models of the Atom 1107
41.3 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom 1109
41.4 The Quantum Model of the Hydrogen
Atom 1114
41.5 The Wave Functions for Hydrogen 1117
41.6 Physical Interpretation of the Quantum
Numbers 1120
41.7 The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic
Table 1126
41.8 More on Atomic Spectra: Visible and X-Ray 1130
41.9 Spontaneous and Stimulated Transitions 1133
41.10 Lasers 1135
42 Molecules and Solids 1144
42.1 Molecular Bonds 1145
42.2 Energy States and Spectra of Molecules 1148
42.3 Bonding in Solids 1156
42.4 Free-Electron Theory of Metals 1158
42.5 Band Theory of Solids 1160
42.6 Electrical Conduction in Metals, Insulators,
and Semiconductors 1162
42.7 Semiconductor Devices 1165
43 nuclear Physics 1177
43.1 Some Properties of Nuclei 1178
43.2 Nuclear Binding Energy 1182
43.3 Nuclear Models 1184
43.4 Radioactivity 1187
43.5 The Decay Processes 1190
43.6 Natural Radioactivity 1200
43.7 Nuclear Reactions 1200
43.8 Nuclear Fission 1202
43.9 Nuclear Reactors 1204
43.10 Nuclear Fusion 1207
43.11 Biological Radiation Damage 1211
43.12 Uses of Radiation from the Nucleus 1213
43.13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic
Resonance Imaging 1215
44 Particle Physics and Cosmology 1225
44.1 Field Particles for the Fundamental
Forces in Nature 1226
Contents ix
Locator note: boldface indicates a definition;
italics indicates a figure; t indicates a table; n
indicates a footnote
Absolute pressure, 365
Absolute temperature scales, 485, 485–487,
486, 486, 487
Absolute uncertainty, A-20
Absorption spectroscopy, 1106
Absorptivity of radiation, 523
Academy of Natural Science, 825
Accelerated frames, circular motion in,
135–138, 136, 137
Acceleration (Sa)
angular (Sa), 250–252
average angular, 251
centripetal, 82–84, 128, 128
constant, with motion in two dimensions,
71–74
dimensions and units of, 10t
free-fall, 41–44, 43, 335–336, 335t
instantaneous angular, 251
in Newton’s first law of motion, 98
nonconstant, 388
overview, 32–36
particle under constant, 37–41, 38
radial, 84, 84–85
relative, 85–88
rigid object under constant angular,
252–254, 253
of simple harmonic oscillator, 390n, 391,
391–392
tangential, 84, 84–85
tangential and angular relationship, 255
of two connected objects with friction,
118, 118–119
vectors for, 70
Acceleration-time graph, 35
Accelerator, particle beam in, 773. See also
Particle physics and cosmology
Accommodation, in eye focusing, 949
Action force, 103
Activity of radioactive material (decay rate),
1188–1190
Adaptive optics, 992
Addition
associative law of, 56, 56
commutative law of, 56, 56
of vectors, 55–56, 61, 70
Adiabatic process
free expansion of gas, 562, 562–563, 574,
577–578
for ideal gas, 545–547, 546
overview, 516–517, 524
Agua Caliente Solar Project (AZ), 1167
Ahlborn, B., 565n
Air bags, in collision tests, 218, 218
Air columns, standing waves in, 466–469,
467, 469
Air conditioners, 55962
Air-standard diesel cycle, 583, 583
Air-water boundary, critical angle (of
incidence) for, 915–916, 916
A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE
project), 1242
Algebra, A-5–A-10
Algebraic symbols for quantities, 10n, 15
Alkali metal elements, 1129–1130
Allowed transitions, selection rules for, 1131
Alpha decay, in radioactivity, 1095, 1095,
1191, 1191–1195, 1192t–1193t,
1195, 1200t
Alternating-current (AC) circuits, 847–872.
See also Current and resistance
AC sources, 848, 848
capacitors in, 854, 854–856, 855
inductors in, 851, 851–853, 852, 853
phasors, 849, 849–850, 852, 852, 854, 854
power in, 859–861
resistors in, 848, 848–851, 849, 850
RLC series circuits
overview, 856, 856–859, 857, 858
resonance in, 861–863, 862
storyline on, 847–848
transformers and power transmission,
863–866, 864, 864, 865
Alternating-current (AC) generators, 811,
811–813, 812
Alternative representations in problem
solving, 8–9
Alzheimer’s disease, PET scans for,
1229, 1229
American Wire Gauge (AWG) system, 708
Amorphous solids, 1144
Ampere (A, SI base unit of current), 692,
694–695
Ampère, Andre-Marie, 779, 779
Ampère-Maxwell law, 875
Ampère’s law
general form of, 874, 874–875, 875
magnetic field of ideal solenoid from, 783
overview, 779, 779–782, 779n, 780, 781
Amplitude of motion, 389, 389, 406, 406
Amplitude (A) of waves, 420, 423, 457
Analysis models
analysis step in, 31
boundary effects, 461, 461–465,
463, 464
definition of, 7
isolated system (angular momentum),
295–300, 296, 298, 299
isolated system (energy), 185–191
free fall, 187, 187–188, 188
overview, 185–187, 186
pulleys, 188–190, 189, 190
spring-loaded popgun, 190, 190–191
isolated system (momentum), 213–215,
214
nonisolated system (angular momentum),
288–293, 290, 292
nonisolated system (energy), 182,
182–185, 184
nonisolated system (momentum),
215–219, 217, 217, 218, 219
particle in a field (electric), 598, 598–603,
599, 601, 602, 603
particle in a field (gravitational),
336–339, 338
particle in a field (magnetic), 743,
743–748, 744, 746, 747t, 748
particle in equilibrium, 105–107
particle in simple harmonic motion,
388–394, 389, 391, 392
particle in uniform circular motion, 83
particle under constant acceleration,
37–41
particle under constant velocity, 27–30
particle under net force, 106–114, 749
problem solving, 30–32
quantum particle under boundary
conditions, 1084, 1084–1089,
1085, 1089
rigid object in equilibrium, 311, 311–312,
312
rigid object under constant angular
acceleration, 252–254, 253
rigid object under net torque, 259,
259–263, 261, 262, 263
traveling wave, 419, 419–423, 420, 422, 423
waves in interference, 452–456, 453, 454,
455, 965, 965–968, 966, 966
wave under reflection, 902, 902–905, 903,
904, 905
wave under refraction
angle of refraction for glass, 908–909
index of refraction, 906–908, 907, 907t
light through prism, 910, 910
light through slab, 909–910, 910
overview, 905, 905–907, 906, 908, 908
Anderson, Carl, 1228, 1230
Angle of deviation (d), 910, 910, 913
Angle of divergence, 1135
Angle of incidence, 902, 914, 915
Angle of reflection, 902
Angle of refraction, 905, 908–909
Angular acceleration (Sa)
average, 251
instantaneous, 251
overview, 250–252
rigid object under constant, 252–254, 253
tangential acceleration and, 255
Angular and translational quantities in
rotational motion, 254–257, 255,
256
Angular frequency (v), 389, 392, 401,
421, 423
Angular magnification, 951
Angular momentum (L
S
), 285–309
ground-state, of atom, 1112
gyroscopes and tops, motion of, 301, 301
isolated system (angular momentum),
analysis model of, 295–300, 296,
298, 299
Index
I-1nonisolated system (angular momentum),
analysis model of, 288–293,
290, 292
quantized orbital, 786, 786
of rotating rigid object, 293, 293–295, 294
in rotational motion, 212n
spin, 1125, 1125n
storyline on, 285–286
vector product and torque, 286, 286–288
Angular position (u), 250, 250–252
Angular speed (v)
average, 251
constant, 399–400
instantaneous, 251
translational speed and, 82–83
Angular velocity (Sv), 250–252
Angular wave number (k), 421
Anomalous trichromats, in color blindness,
950
Antenna, for electromagnetic wave
production, 886–887, 887
Antiderivatives, in calculus, 44
Antilogarithms, A-9
Antinodes, 457–458
Antiparticles
antineutrino, 1196, 1230, 1230n
antineutron, 1228
antiproton, 1228
antiquarks, 1240, 1240t
of electrons, positrons as, 1187
overview, 1227, 1227–1229, 1228, 1229
Apex angle of prism (F), 910, 910
Apollo 11 moon landing, 904, 904, 918
Apollo astronauts, 1137
Arago, Dominique-François-Jean, 984
Archimedes’s principle, 365, 365–368
Area (A)
dimensions and units of, 10t
of geometric shapes, A-10, A-10t
integration to determine, 45
Arfeuille, Walter, 176
Aristarchus of Samos, 339n
Aristotle, 41, 208
Arithmetic, for vectors, 55–58
Art forgeries, neutron activation analysis to
identify, 1214
Artificial kidney machines, 768
Artificial radioactivity, 1200
Ashpole, Ian, 380
Associative law of addition, 56, 56
Asymmetrical nature of potential energy
curve, 488n
ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus), 1245
Atmosphere, of Earth
atmospheric blurring for telescopes and,
991–992, 992
carbon dioxide levels in, 1155, 1155
temperature of, 523
Atmospheres, law of, 554
Atomic emissions, 1072–1073
Atomic mass unit, 1179
Atomic number (Z), 1112, 1178, 1182
Atomic orbitals, 1127, 1127t
Atomic physics, 1105–1143
atom, models of, 1107, 1107–1108, 1108
Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom, 1109,
1109–1114, 1110, 1111
exclusion principle and periodic table,
1126, 1126–1130, 1127t, 1128, 1128,
1129, 1130
gases, atomic spectra of, 1106, 1106–1107,
1107
lasers, 1135–1137, 1136
quantum model of hydrogen atom, 1114,
1114–1117, 1115, 1116t
quantum numbers
orbital (,), 1120
orbital magnetic (m,), 1120–1123,
1121, 1122
principal (n), 1115
spin magnetic (ms), 1123, 1123–1126,
1124, 1125, 1126t
spontaneous and stimulated transitions,
1133–1134, 1134
storyline on, 1105
visible and x-ray spectra, 1130, 1130–1133,
1131, 1132, 1133
wave functions for hydrogen, 1117,
1117–1120, 1118, 1119
Atomic shells, 1116, 1116t
Atomic spectroscopy, 994–995
Atomic subshells, 1116, 1116t
Atoms. See also Atomic physics; Hydrogen
magnetic moments of, 786, 786–787,
787
models of, 1107, 1107–1108, 1108
Attractive force, 589, 589, 590
Atwood machine, 112, 112–113, 271–272,
272
AU (astronomical unit), 342
Audible sound waves, 429
Automobiles, fuel-cell-powered, 1
Average acceleration (ax,avg), 32, 35–36, 70
Average angular acceleration (a), 251
Average angular speed (v
avg
), 251
Average coefficient of linear expansion (a),
488, 488–489, 489, 489t
Average coefficient of volume expansion (b),
489, 489t
Average current (I
avg
), 692
Average force, 535n
Average kinetic energy per molecule, 537
Average power (P
avg
), 201, 860–862
Average speed (v
avg
), 22–23
Average velocity (vx,avg), 22–23, 69, 70
Avogadro’s number (NA), 492–493
AWG (American Wire Gauge) system,
708, 708t
Axis of rotation. See Rotational motion
Back emf, 825
Background radiation, 1212
Bainbridge mass spectrometer, 753
Balboa State Park (San Diego), 468
Balmer, Johann Jacob, 1107
Balmer series (emission spectrum of
hydrogen), 1106, 1107, 1107,
1111, 1111
Band theory of solids, 1160–1162, 1161, 1161
Banked roadways, 131, 131–132
Bar charts for energy, 168, 169, 200
Bardeen, John, 703, 1168
Barrier height, 1093
Barrier penetration, 1093
Baryon number, 1233–1234
Baryon particles, 1233, 1238, 1238–1239,
1239, 1242, 1242t
Basal metabolic rate (BMR), 530
Base number of logarithms, A-9
Batteries, 714–716
Battery charger, wireless, 833, 833
Bay of Fundy (Nova Scotia, Canada), 477
BCS theory of superconductivity, 703
Beat frequency, 471, 471
Beats: interference in time, 469–471,
470, 471
Becquerel, Antoine-Henri, 1177, 1187
Bednorz, J. Georg, 703
Bell, Alexander Graham, 436n
Bell Laboratories, 1247
Bernard, W. H., 191n
Bernoulli, Daniel, 371, 371
Bernoulli’s principle, 371–375, 373, 377
Beta decay, in radioactivity, 1195–1198,
1196, 1197, 1200t
Betatron, 823
Betelgeuse (star), 1050
Bethe, Hans, 1222
Big Bang theory of Universe creation, 1246
Big Ben (London, UK), 281, 281, 283, 304
Binding energy, 1145, 1182, 1182–1184,
1183
Biological radiation damage, 1211–1213,
1212t
Biot, Jean-Baptiste, 772
Biot-Savart law, 772, 772–776, 773, 774,
775, 776
Blackbody radiation, 523, 1049, 1049–1055,
1050, 1051, 1052, 1053
Black holes, 350, 350
Blueshift, in wavelength, 1029
Blu-ray Discs, 981
BMR (basal metabolic rate), 530
Bohr, Niels, 791, 1109, 1109, 1184
Bohr model of hydrogen atom
correspondence principle in, 1112–1113
description of, 1109, 1109–1112,
1110, 1111
electronic transitions in, 1113–1114
electron in circular path in, 144
quantum model of hydrogen atom versus,
1117–1118
Bohr radius (a0), 1110, 1117
Boltzmann, Ludwig, 548
Boltzmann distribution law, 547, 1052
Boltzmann’s constant (kB), 493, 712, 1050
Bonaparte, Napoleon, arsenic poisoning
of, 1214
Bonds
bond energy, 502
covalent molecular, 1146–1147, 1147
in covalent solids, 1157, 1157
in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
molecules, 1148, 1148
hydrogen molecular, 1147–1148, 1148
ionic molecular, 1145–1146, 1146
in ionic solids, 1156, 1156
in metallic solids, 1157–1158, 1158
in metals, 1157–1158, 1158
overview, 1145, 1145
potential energy in molecular, 1145
van der Waals, 1147, 1243
Bose-Einstein condensates, 1144
Angular momentum (continued)
I-2 IndexBosons. See also Particle physics and cosmology
gauge, 1226
Higgs, 1245
integral spin of, 1226n
weak force mediated by W and Z, 1227
Bottom type of quark (b), 1241
Boundary effects, 459, 459–460, 460, 461,
463, 464
Boyle, Willard S., 1060
Brachytherapy (radiation “seeds” implanted
in cancerous tissue), 1214
Brackett series, in hydrogen spectra, 1107
Bragg, W. L., 997
Bragg’s law, 997
Brahe, Tycho, 339
Braking radiation (bremsstrahlung), 1131
Braking systems, eddy currents and, 815
Brattain, Walter, 1168
Bremsstrahlung (x-rays from slowing down
of electrons; braking radiation),
1131, 1131
Brewster, David, 1000
Brewster’s angle, 1000
Brewster’s law, 1000
Bright fringes, in wave optics, 986
British thermal unit (Btu), 503
Broglie, Louis de, 1064–1065, 1071
Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1239,
1241, 1242
Buckminsterfullerene, 1157
Bulk modulus, 320, 320t, 321–322
Bumpers, in collision tests, 219
Bunsen, Robert, 724
Buoyant forces, 365–368, 366
Calculus
differential, A-13–A-16
instantaneous velocity derived from, 25
integral, A-16–A-19
kinematic equations from, 44–45
Calories, as heat unit, 503
Calorimetry, 504–508, 505t, 507, 507
Cameras, 947, 947–948, 1059
Cancer, detection of and therapies for, 1214,
1215, 1225
Candela (cd, unit of luminous density), 3
Capacitance (C), 663–690
calculating, 665–668, 666, 667, 668
capacitors in alternating-current circuits,
854, 854–856, 855
capacitors with dielectrics, 676–678, 677,
677t
combinations of capacitors, 668, 668–672,
669, 670, 671
definition of, 664, 664–665, 665
dielectrics, atomic description of, 681,
681–683, 682, 683
displacement current in capacitors, 875,
875
electric dipole in electric field, 678,
678–680, 679, 680
energy stored in charged capacitors,
672–676, 673, 674
storyline on, 663–664
Capacitor(s), 664
Carbon dating by radioactivity decay,
1198–1199
Carbon dioxide lasers, 1136–1137
Carbon monoxide (CO) molecule,
1150–1153
Carnot, Sadi, 563
Carnot cycle in Carnot engine
description of, 563, 563–567, 564, 565
entropy change in, 575–576
Carnot’s theorem, 563
Cartesian coordinate system, 53, 53, 54, 71
Categorization, in analysis models, 31
Cavendish, Sir Henry, 333
Cavendish balance, 353
Cavendish Laboratory, University of
Cambridge, 753
Cavity within conductor, 654, 654–655
CCD (charge-coupled device), 948, 1060
Cell separator, lasers used with, 1137
Celsius temperature scale, 484–485,
485, 487
Center of gravity, 312–313, 313
Center of mass, 230–234, 231, 232, 233
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC), 1215
Central maximum, in diffraction
patterns, 984
Centrifugal force, 137
Centripetal acceleration, 82–84, 128, 128
Cerenkov effect, 448
Cerenkov radiation, 1047
CERN (Conseil Européen pour la
Recherche Nucléaire, changed to
European Laboratory for Particle
Physics), 1011, 1022, 1227n,
1242, 1245
Cesium-133 atom, in time standard, 5
Cesium fountain atomic clock, 4
Chadwick, James, 1223
Chain rule of differential calculus, A-14
Challenger space shuttle tragedy of 1986,
1230
Chamberlain, Owen, 1228
Change of phase from reflection, 969,
969–970, 970
Characteristic x-rays, 1131–1132
Charanka Solar Park (India), 1167
Charge, electric. See Electric fields
Charge, of nucleus, 1179
Charge-coupled device (CCD), 948, 1060
Charge density, 616–617, 681–682
Charge on spheres, as example of
Coulomb’s law, 597, 597–598
Charmed type of quark (c), 1241
Charon (moon of Pluto), 992, 992
Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident
(Ukraine, 1986), 1206
Chip (integrated circuit), 1170
Choice, entropy and, 570–571
Chromatic aberrations in lenses, 947, 947
Chu, Steven, 1143
Circuit diagrams, 668
Circuit symbols, 668
Circular aperture and single-slit resolution,
988–992, 989, 990, 992
Circular current loop, magnetic field on
axis of, 775, 775–776, 776
Circular motion, 127–149
in accelerated frames, 135–138
with constant angular speed, 399–400
nonuniform, 133–135
particle in uniform, 81, 81–83
particle in uniform (extended model),
128–133
with resistive forces present, 138–143
storyline on, 127–128
uniform, 81, 81–83, 398, 398–400, 399
Classical mechanics, 1
Clausius, Rudolf, 560n
Clausius statement of the second law of
thermodynamics, 560, 579
Climate change, 1155
Closed surface, electric flux through, 622,
622, 622–623
Closed Universe, 1249
CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid), 1011,
1245
Coaxial cable, 698–699, 832, 832
COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer)
satellite, 1248
Coefficient of kinetic friction (mk), 115, 117,
117–118
Coefficient of performance (COP), for heat
pumps, 560–561, 566
Coefficient of static friction (ms), 114,
115, 116t
Coefficients, 26n
Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude, 1143
Coherent light sources, 964, 995, 1135
Collective model of nucleus, 1187
Colliders (colliding-beam accelerators),
1245
Collisions. See also Linear momentum
disk and stick, 299, 299–300, 300t
in one dimension, 219–227
ballistic pendulum, 224–225, 225
elastic, 220–222
inelastic, 220
overview, 219–220, 220
perfectly inelastic, 220
stress reliever device, 223, 223–224
two-body, with spring, 226, 226–227
in two dimensions, 227–230
Color, wavelengths of visible light
corresponding to, 888, 888t
Color blindness, 950
Color charge, quark property of, 1242–1243
Color force, between quarks, 1243
Colors, angles of deviation of, 913
Columbia University, 1229
Coma Cluster of galaxies, 1250
Comet Halley, 341
Commutative law, 56, 56, 154n
Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Detector
(CERN), 1011, 1245
Compass needles, 743, 743, 745
Complementarity, principle of, 1064
Complex numbers, 1081n
Composition resistor, 695
Compound microscope, 952, 952
Compression ratio, for gasoline engines,
569
Compton, Arthur Holly, 146, 1061, 1061
Compton effect in quantum physics, 1061,
1061–1063, 1063
Compton shift equation, 1062
Compton wavelength of electrons, 1062
Concave spherical mirrors, 928, 928–930,
929, 930, 933–934
Index I-3Conceptualization, in analysis models,
30–31
Condensation, latent heat of, 509n
Condensed matter physics, 1144
Condition for pure rolling motion, 271, 271
Condon, E. U., 1195
Conduction
electrical, 699–701
thermal, 519, 519–521, 520, 577–578, 692
Conduction band, 1163
Conduction current, 874, 874
Conductivity (s), 695, 700
Conductors
current-carrying, in magnetic fields, 755,
755–757, 756
in electrostatic equilibrium, 651, 651–655,
652, 653, 654
magnetic field between two parallel, 777,
777–778, 778
magnetic field surrounding thin, straight,
773–774, 774
overview, 591
Cones and rods, in eyes, 949
Conical pendulum, 129, 129
Conservation laws for particle physics,
1233–1236, 1234
Conservation of angular momentum, 295n.
See also Angular momentum
Conservation of baryon number, 1233
Conservation of electric charge, 590–591
Conservation of electron lepton number,
1235
Conservation of energy equation, 184. See
also Energy, conservation of
Conservation of momentum, 217. See also
Linear momentum
Conservation of muon lepton number, 1236
Conservation of strangeness, 1237
Conservation of tau lepton number, 1236
Conservative field, 642
Conservative forces
nonconservative forces and, 169–171, 170,
170, 171, 171
overview, 637
potential energy and, 171–173
Constant acceleration model
with motion in two dimensions, 71–74
particle under, 37–41
Constant angular speed, 399–400
Constant positive velocity, 36, 37
Constant velocity, particle under, 27–30
Constructive interference, 452, 453, 964,
964–966, 965, 1067
Contact force, 96, 96, 338
Continuity for fluids, equation of, 370
Continuous charge distributions, 615–635.
See also Electric fields
electric field of, 616, 616–620, 618,
619, 620
electric flux (FE) and, 620–623, 621, 621,
622, 623
electric potential due to, 646, 646–651,
648, 649, 650
Gauss’s law
application of, 625–629, 626, 627,
628, 629
overview, 623, 623–625, 624
storyline on, 615–616
Convection, as energy transfer mechanism,
522–523
Converging thin lenses, 943, 943–944
Conversion factors, A-1–A-2
Conversion of units, 12
Convex spherical mirrors, 930–931, 931,
935, 935
Cooper, Gordon, 1043
Cooper, L. N., 703
Coordinate systems, 53–54
COP (coefficient of performance), for heat
pumps, 560–561, 566
Copernicus, Nicolaus, 41, 339
Copper, Hall effect for, 762
Coriolis force, 136
Cornu, Marie, 870
Correspondence principle, of Bohr,
1112–1113
Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)
satellite, 1248
Cosmic rays, 752
Cosmology. See Particle physics and
cosmology
Coulomb (C, unit of electric charge), 593
Coulomb, Charles, 593
Coulomb constant (ke), 593
Coulomb repulsive force
between alpha particle and nucleus, 1095
fusion reactions hindered by, 1208
in liquid-drop model, 1184
nuclear stability and, 1182, 1182–1183,
1183
size and structure of nuclei determined
by, 1179–1181, 1180
Coulomb’s law, 593–598
in capacitance determination, 664n
charge on spheres example, 597, 597–598
conservative force between charges in,
637
hydrogen atom example, 594–595, 595
overview, 592, 592–594, 594t
resultant force example, 595, 595–596
zero, as net force value, 596, 596–597
Covalent molecular bonds, 1146–1147, 1147
Covalent solids, 1157, 1157
Crest, of waves, 417
Critical angle (of incidence), 915–916
Critical density, universe fate and, 1249,
1249–1250
Critically damped motion, 839
Critical systems, 405
Cross product, 286, 286
CT scans, for medical diagnosis, 1177, 1213,
1225
Cubic zirconia versus diamond, 915
Curie, Marie, 1187
Curie, Pierre, 1187
Curie temperatures for ferromagnetic
substances, 788, 788t
Current (I)
conduction, 874, 874
displacement, 874, 874–875, 875
in inductor in AC circuit, 852
in phase with voltage, 849
Current and resistance, 691–712. See also
Alternating-current circuits;
Direct-current circuits; Faraday’s
law of induction
current, overview of, 692, 692–694, 693
electrical conduction model, 699–701
electrical power, 703, 703–706, 705
resistance, overview of, 694–699, 695,
695, 696, 696t, 697, 697t, 698
storyline on, 691–692
superconductors, 702, 702–703, 702t
temperature and, 701, 701–702
Current-carrying wire, magnetic field
created by, 780, 780–781
Current density (J), 694, 700
Curvature of spacetime, 1040–1041
Curved wire, magnetic field due to,
774–775, 775
Curzon, F. L., 565n
Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency of engines, 565n
Cutoff frequency (fc), in photoelectric
effect, 1056
Cutoff wavelength, in photoelectric effect,
1059
Cyclic process, on PV diagram, 515, 515
Cyclotron, 750, 754, 754–755
Cylinder
as symmetry for capacitor, 667, 667
as symmetry for charge distribution,
627–628, 628
Daedalus and Icarus, myth of, 529
Damped oscillations, 404, 404–405, 405,
838, 838t
Dark energy, 1251, 1251n
Dark fringes, in wave optics, 986–987
Dark matter, 350, 350–351, 351, 1250–1251
Daughter nucleus, in radioactive decay, 1191
Davisson, C. J., 1065
Davisson-Germer experiment, 1064–1065,
1070
Dead Sea Scrolls, carbon dating of, 1198
Death Valley (CA), 496
de Broglie, Louis, 1064
de Broglie wavelength, 1064, 1084
Debye, Peter, 1061
Decay constant, 1187
Decay rate, 1188
Deceleration, 34
Decibels (dB), 436–437
Decimal places, 14
Defibrillator, 663, 663, 676
Definite integral, in calculus, 44, A-16, A-17,
A-19t
Deformable systems, 152, 237–239, 238
Delta (D) symbol, 22
Density (r)
of common substances, 361t
definition of, 6
of nucleus, 1180–1181
Depletion region, in junction diodes,
1165–1166
Depth, pressure variation with, 360–364
Derivative
in calculus, A-14
instantaneous velocity as, 25
second, acceleration as, 34
Derived quantities, 6, 10t
Destructive interference, 452, 453, 455, 964,
964–966, 965, 986
Deuterium (heavy water) fuel, for fusion
reactions, 1207
I-4 IndexDewar flask, 525, 525
Diamagnetism, 788–789, 789, 845
Diamond, cubic zirconia versus, 915
Diatomic molecules, 1146
Dielectric constant (k), 676–677, 677t
Dielectrics
atomic description of, 681, 681–683,
682, 683
capacitors with, 676–678, 677, 677t
Dielectric strength, 677, 677t
Diesel and gasoline engines, 567–569, 568
Differential calculus, A-13–A-16
Diffraction, intensity distribution from, 969
Diffraction patterns, 983–1010. See also Wave
optics
diffraction grating and, 992–996, 993,
994, 995, 1065
from narrow slits, 985, 985–988, 987, 988
overview, 984, 984
single-slit and circular aperture
resolution, 988–992, 989, 990, 992
storyline on, 983
in wave nature of particles, 1065
Diffraction of x-rays by crystals, 996,
996–997, 997
Diffuse reflection, 902
Digital micromirror device, in projection
equipment, 904, 904–905
Dimensional analysis, 10–11
Dimensions, A-2–A-3
Diodes
junction, 1165, 1165–1166, 1166
light-emitting and light-absorbing,
1166–1168, 1167
Diopters, in lens prescriptions, 950
Dipole, electric potential due to, 648, 648
Dipole antenna, 886–887
Dipole-dipole force, 1147
Dipole-induced dipole force, 1147
Dirac, Paul, 1125, 1227
Dirac sea (electrons in negative energy
states), 1227
Direct-current (DC) circuits, 713–741, 714.
See also Current and resistance
electrical safety, 733, 733–734, 734
electromotive force (emf, «), 714,
714–716, 716
household wiring, 732, 732–733, 733
Kirchhoff’s rules, 723, 723–726, 724, 725
RC circuits, 725–732
charging capacitors, 725–728, 727, 728,
729–730
discharging capacitors, 728–729, 729,
730–731
energy delivered to resistor in, 731–732
intermittent windshield wipers
example, 729
time constant, 728
resistors, 716–722
equivalent resistance, calculating, 721,
721
landscape lights example, 720, 720
in parallel, 718, 718–720, 720
in series, 716–718, 717, 718
three, in parallel, 722, 722
storyline on, 713–714
Direct-current (DC) generators, 810–811,
811
Disneyland, 127, 127
Disney World, 93
Disorder, entropy and, 571
Dispersion, 416n
Dispersion force, 1147
Dispersion of light, 912–914, 913, 914
Displacement (Dx). See also Superposition
and standing waves
approaching zero, 25n
as change in position, 21–22, 22, 25n
in definition of work, 152, 152–153, 153,
156–157, 157
potential energy function (U) and, 172n
unit-vector notation for, 61
as vector quantity, 54, 54–55
Displacement amplitude of waves, 430
Displacement antinode, 466
Displacement current, 874, 874–875, 875
Displacement node, 466
Displacement vector, 69, 69
Dissociation energy, 1146, 1146n
Distance, 22, 22
Distribution function, 547
Distributive law of multiplication, 155
Disturbance, propagation of, 416, 416–419,
417, 418
Divergence, angle of, 1135
Diverging mirror, 931
Diverging thin lenses, 944, 944–945
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules,
hydrogen bonding in, 1148, 1148
Domains, in ferromagnetic materials,
787, 788
Donor atoms, in doped semiconductors,
1165
Doped semiconductors, 1164–1165, 1165
Doppler, Christian Johann, 438n
Doppler effect, 438, 438–443, 439, 440, 442,
443, 1029
Doppler shifts, 1248
Dot product, 154, 154n
Double rainbows, 913, 914
Double-reflected light ray, 903, 903
Double refraction, polarization of light
waves by, 1001, 1001–1002, 1002t
Double-slit experiment, 1070, 1070–1071
Double-slit interference pattern, intensity
distribution of, 968–969, 969
Down type of quark (d), 1240
Drag coefficient, 141
Drag force, 377
Drift velocity, 693–694, 700, 701n, 761
Drude, Paul, 699
Drude model of electrical conduction, 699–701
Dulong-Petit law, 1172
DVDs, as diffraction gratings, 993–994, 994
Earth
atmosphere carbon dioxide levels, 1155, 1155
atmospheric blurring for telescopes,
991–992, 992
centripetal acceleration of, 83
density of, 336
escape speed of, 350t, 549
as inertial frame, 98
kinetic energy of, 162t
magnetic field of, 743–745, 744
mass of, 5t
orbit of, 340, 350
ozone layer, 889
planetary data, 343t
Ear thermometer, 1053, 1053
Earthquake (Japan)-caused nuclear power
disaster (2011), 1206
Earthquakes, seismic waves from, 417
Eaton, Ashton, 77
Eccentricities, in planetary motion, 340,
340–341
Eddy currents, 814, 814–815, 865
Edison, Thomas, 865
EER (energy efficiency ratio) for air
conditioners, 584
Eightfold way (patterns in baryon particles),
1239
Einstein, Albert
energy equation of, 1231
general theory of relativity of, 1039–1041
gravitational waves predicted by, 975, 975
Michelson-Morley experiment and,
1016–1017
photoelectric effect model of, 1057–1058
Planck results rederived by, 1053
relativity principle of, 1018, 1018–1019,
1018n
special theory of relativity of, 1011
Elastic collisions, 220–222, 221
Elastic limit, 321
Elastic modulus, 320
Elastic potential energy, 167
Elastic properties of solids, 319–323
bulk modulus (B), 320, 320t, 321–322
prestressed concrete example, 322,
322–323
shear modulus (S), 320, 320t, 321
Young’s modulus (Y), 320–321, 320t
Electrical conduction
in insulators, 1162–1163
in metals, 1162, 1162
model of, 699–701
in semiconductors, 1163, 1163–1165,
1163t, 1164, 1165
Electrical power, 691, 691, 703, 703–706, 705
Electrical safety, 733, 733–734, 734, 800
Electrical transmission (TET), 183
Electric charges, magnetic fields from
moving, 772
Electric dipole moment, 678
Electric fields (E
S
), 588–615. See also
Continuous charge distributions;
Current and resistance
Coulomb’s law, 592, 592–598, 594t
charge on spheres example, 597,
597–598
hydrogen atom example, 594–595, 595
overview, 592–594
resultant force example, 595, 595–596
zero, as net force value, 596, 596–597
electric charge (q)
electric force and, 593–598
of electron, proton, and neutron, 594t
in particle in a field (electric) model,
598–603
properties, 589, 589–591, 590
smallest unit (e) of free, 593
electric dipole in, 678, 678–680, 679, 680
electric field lines, 603, 603–605, 604, 605
Index I-5electric potential for value of, 645–646,
646
induction to charge objects, 591–592, 592
motion of charged particles in uniform,
605–607, 606, 607
particle in electric field, analysis model
of, 598, 598–603, 599, 601, 602, 603
sinusoidal, 880–881, 881
storyline on, 588–589
Electric flux (FE). See also Gauss’s law
description of, 620–623, 621, 621,
622, 623
displacement current and, 875, 875–876
magnetic field differences from, 785, 785
Electric force, 590, 590
Electric guitar, 800, 800
Electric potential (UE), 636–662
conductors in electrostatic equilibrium,
651, 651–655, 652, 653, 654
continuous charge distributions as source
of, 646, 646–651, 648, 649, 650
electric field value from, 645–646, 646
of live wires, 732n
point charges as source of, 642, 642–645,
643
potential difference and
overview, 637–639, 638
in uniform electric field, 639–642,
640, 641
storyline on, 636–637
voltage drop as decrease in, 717n
Electric shock, 733, 733–734, 800
Electromagnetic blood pumps, 768
Electromagnetic force, 96, 1226–1227, 1227t
Electromagnetic radiation (TER), 183, 183n.
See also Quantum mechanics;
Quantum physics
Electromagnetic waves, 873–896. See
also Faraday’s law of induction;
Magnetic fields
antenna production of, 886–887, 887
definition of, 1
displacement current and general form of
Ampère’s law, 874, 874–875, 875
electronic devices and, 797–798
energy carried by, 882–884, 883
Maxwell’s equations and Hertz’s
discoveries, 876–878, 877, 878
momentum and radiation pressure,
884–886
phase change from reflection, 970
plane, 878, 878–882, 879, 881
in quantum physics, 1063–1064
spectrum of, 887–889, 888, 888, 889, 889
storyline on, 873–874
Electromotive force (emf, «)
inducing, 800, 800–801, 812
motional, 801, 801–805, 802, 803, 805
overview, 714, 714–716, 716
self-induced («L), 825
Electron affinity, 1146
Electron capture, 1197, 1200t
Electron cloud, 1118
Electron-hole pairs, in intrinsic
semiconductors, 1163
Electron microscope, 90, 1066, 1066
Electron-positron annihilation, 1229
Electrons
bending beam of, 751, 751
charge and mass of, 594t
in early atomic models, 1107–1109
as leptons, 1233
linear momentum of, 1035
in magnetic fields, 748, 748
muon decay to, 1230
in photoelectric effect, 1055–1056
as photoelectrons, 1055n
positrons as antiparticles of, 1187
spin angular momentum for, 1125, 1125n
spin property of, 786–787, 787
transmission coefficient of, 1094
uncertainty principle and location of,
1072
wave nature of, 1064–1066
Electron spin resonance, 1216
Electron volt (eV, unit of energy), 638
Electrostatic equilibrium, 651, 651–655, 652,
653, 654
Electroweak theory, 1244
ELF (extremely low-frequency) waves, 893
Ellipses, 340, A-11
Emission spectroscopy, 1106, 1106
Emissivity of surface, 523
Endoscopes, lasers used with, 1137
Endothermic nuclear reactions, 1201
Energetically favorable conditions, for
molecules to form, 1146
Energy (E), 150–180. See also Atomic physics;
Energy transfer mechanisms;
Kinetic energy; Potential energy;
Thermodynamics, first law of
in AC circuit analysis, 859–861
binding, of molecules, 1145
conservative and nonconservative forces,
169–171, 170, 170, 171, 171
conservative forces and potential, 171–173
conversion factors for, A-2
dark, 1251
delivered to resistor, 731–732
dissociation, 1146
in electric fields, 672–674, 673
electromagnetic waves to carry, 882–884,
883
as electron affinity of atoms, 1146
energy diagrams and system equilibrium,
173, 173–174, 174
equipartition of, 538, 542–545, 543, 544,
545
Fermi, 1158–1160, 1160t, 1163n
fission, release of, 1203–1204
frequency, relation to, 1053
in inductors, 831
internal, 170, 502
ionization, 1111, 1130
kinetic, 161, 161–164, 162t, 163, 164
in magnetic fields, 830–832, 832
mass as form of, 1036
mysterious, of universe, 1251
nuclear binding, 1182, 1182–1184, 1183
photovoltaic solar cells for, 1167
in planetary and satellite motion, 347,
347–351, 348, 350, 350t, 351
potential, 165, 165–169, 168, 169
for power plants, 812–813
quantized, 1051
radiated by accelerated electric
charge, 878
radium decay and liberation of,
1194–1195
reaction (Q), 1201
relativistic, 1035–1039, 1036
rest (ER), 1036
equivalent for atomic mass unit, 1179
of proton, 1038–1039
for quarks and leptons, 1242t
of selected particles, 1179t
and total energy, 1037
in rotational motion, 269, 269–272, 270t,
271, 272
of simple harmonic oscillator, 394–397,
395, 396
sinusoidal waves on strings, transfer of,
426, 426–428
states of, in molecules
overview, 1148
rotational motion of molecules,
1148–1151, 1149
spectra of, 1153, 1153–1156, 1154, 1155
vibrational motion of molecules, 1151,
1151–1153, 1152
stored in charged capacitors, 672–676,
673, 674
storyline on, 150–151
system model of, 151
for work done
by constant force, 151–154, 152, 153,
154
by varying force, 156–161, 157, 158,
159, 160
of x-rays, 1133
Energy, conservation of, 181–209
isolated system (energy), analysis model
of, 185–191
free fall, 187, 187–188, 188
overview, 185–187, 186
pulleys, 188, 188–190, 189, 190
spring-loaded popgun, 190–191, 191
kinetic friction, 191–196, 192, 194
mechanical energy changes for
nonconservative forces, 196–200,
197, 198, 199, 200
nonisolated system (energy), analysis
model of, 182, 182–185, 184
power, 200–202, 201, 202
principle of, 163, 170
storyline on, 181–182
Energy efficiency ratio (EER) for air
conditioners, 584
Energy gap (E
g
) of material (energy
separation between valence and
conduction bands), 1163, 1163t
Energy-level diagrams, 545, 545, 548, 1051,
1051, 1051n
Energy quantization, 544–545, 545
Energy spreading, entropy change
and, 574
Energy transfer mechanisms
convection, 522–523
electrical transmission (TET), 183,
703–706
electromagnetic radiation (TER), 183,
523–524, 878–884
heat (Q), 182–183, 502–505
Electric fields (continued)
I-6 Indexhome insulation, 521–522, 521t, 522
matter transfer (TMT), 183, 522
mechanical waves (TMW), 182, 426–428,
433–438
overview, 182–185, 518–519
thermal conduction, 519, 519–521, 520
work (W), 151–161, 152, 182
Enlargement, magnification versus, 929
Entropy (S)
overview, 570, 570–572, 571, 571
in quantum systems, 1127
second law of thermodynamics and,
578–580, 579
in thermodynamic systems, 572–578,
575, 576
Environment, as surrounding system, 151
Equations
Bernoulli’s, 371–375
Brewster’s law, 1000
Compton shift, 1062
conservation of energy, 184
continuity for fluids, 370
Galilean transformation, 86, 1014,
1015–1016
Hagen-Poiseuille, 377
kinematic, 39, 44–45
lens-makers’, 940–941
linear wave, 428, 428–429
Lorentz transformation, 1030, 1030–1034,
1033
Malus’s law, 999
Maxwell’s, 876–878
mirror, 930
photoelectric effect, 1058
Raleigh-Jeans law, 1050
range, 76
rotational motion, 270t
Schrödinger, 1092
of state for ideal gas, 492–493
Stefan’s law, 1049
thin lens, 941
translational motion, 253t, 270t
Wien’s displacement law, 1050
Equilibrium, 310–331
center of gravity, 312–313, 313
electrostatic, 651, 651–655, 652, 653, 654
particle in (analysis model), 105–107,
117, 117
rigid object in (analysis model), 311,
311–312, 312
rigid objects in static, 313–319
horizontal beam, 315–317, 316
leaning ladder, 317, 317
seesaw, 314, 314–315
wheelchair on curb, 318, 318–319
storyline on, 310–311
of system, 173, 173–174
neutral, 173
stable, 173
unstable, 173
thermal, 513
Equilibrium position of system, 387, 387
Equipartition of energy, 538, 542–545, 543,
544, 545
Equipotential surface, 640
Equivalent capacitance, 671–672
Equivalent resistance, 717, 719, 721, 721, 864
Ergonomics, 593
Escape speed, 348, 348–350, 350t
Estimates, 12–13
Euler’s number (e, base of natural
logarithm), 140, 712
European Laboratory for Particle Physics.
See CERN
European Space Agency, 1248
Evaporation, 550
Event horizon, of black holes, 350
Exchange particles, 1226. See also Particle
physics and cosmology
Excimer lasers, 1136
Exclusion principle, 1126–1130, 1127t, 1128
for electrons in Dirac sea, 1227
for fermions, 1242–1243
periodic table and, 1128, 1128–1130,
1129, 1130
Exoplanets, 890–891, 891t
Exothermic nuclear reactions, 1201
Expanding universe, evidence for,
1248–1249
Expectation values, 1081–1082, 1082n,
1087–1088
Explorer VIII satellite, 354
Exponents, 26n, A-4, A-6–A-7
Extraterrestrial magnetic fields, Zeeman
effect to measure, 1122
Extremely low-frequency (ELF) waves, 893
Extrinsic semiconductors, 1165
Eyes, 948, 948–950, 949, 950, 990, 990–991
Factoring equations, A-7
Fahrenheit, Daniel, 496
Fahrenheit temperature scale, 487
Fairchild Camera and Instrument, Inc., 1170
Falling objects, motion of, 41–44, 43
Farad (F, unit of capacitance), 664
Faraday, Michael, 587, 664, 772, 797, 798
Faraday cage, 654
Faraday disk, 818
Faraday’s law of induction, 797–823. See also
Inductance
Ampère-Maxwell law and, 876
eddy currents, 814, 814–815
general form of, 808, 808–810, 809
generators and motors, 810–814, 811,
811, 812
Lenz’s law, 805–808, 806, 807, 808, 813
motional emf, 801, 801–805, 802, 803, 805
overview, 798, 798–801, 799, 799, 800
plane electromagnetic waves predicted by,
878–879
storyline on, 797–798
Far point, in eye focusing, 949
Farsightedness (hyperopia), 949–950
Fermat, Pierre de, 924
Fermat’s principle, 924
Fermi, Enrico, 18, 1196, 1202, 1205
Fermi-Dirac distribution function,
1158, 1158
Fermi energy (EF), 1158–1160, 1160t,
1162–1163, 1163n
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
(Fermilab), 1045, 1233, 1241, 1245
Fermion particles, 1242
Ferris wheel, circular motion of, 132,
132–133
Ferromagnetism, 787–788, 788, 788t
Feynman, Richard P., 609, 1230
Feynman diagrams, 1230, 1231, 1243
Fictitious force, 135–136, 136
Field-effect transistor, 1168
Field forces, 96, 96, 183n, 338
Field particles, 1226. See also Particle physics
and cosmology
Finalization, in analysis models, 31–32
Fission fragments, 1203
Fixed axis. See Rotational motion
Fizeau, Armand H. L., 900, 900–901, 918
Flat mirrors, 926, 926–928, 927, 928
Flat refracting surfaces, 937, 937
Flat Universe, 1249, 1251
Flavors of quarks, 1240
Floating objects, buoyant force on, 367, 367
Flow calorimeter, 530
Fluid, 358
Fluid mechanics, 358–384
Bernoulli’s equation, 371–375
buoyant forces and Archimedes’s
principle, 365–368
fluid dynamics, 368–371, 377–378
pressure
measurement of, 359, 359, 364–365
overview, 359–360
variation with depth, 360–364
storyline on, 358
viscous fluids flowing in pipes, 375–377,
376, 376, 376t
Fluorodeoxyglucose, 1177
Focal length (f), 930, 930, 940–941, 941
Focal point, 930, 930–931, 941
Focus, of ellipse, 340
Focus point, focal point versus, 931
Food preservation, radiation for, 1215, 1215
Forbidden transitions, 1130
Force ( F
S
). See also Torque
acceleration proportional to, 34
attractive, 589, 589, 590
buoyant, 139n, 365–368, 366, 366
centrifugal, 137
centripetal acceleration from, 128
color, between quarks, 1243
concept of, 96–97
conservative
between charges described by
Coulomb’s law, 637
nonconservative and, 169–171, 170, 170,
171, 171
potential energy and, 171–173
contact, 338
conversion factors for, A-1
Coriolis, 136
on dam, 363–364, 364
dipole-dipole, 1147
dipole-induced dipole, 1147
dispersion, 1147
drag, 377
electric, 590, 590
electromagnetic, 1226–1227, 1227t
fictitious, 135–137, 136, 137
field, 338
friction, 114–119
fundamental, particle physics in,
1226–1227, 1227t
gravitational, 42, 96, 102–103, 102–103,
335–336, 1226–1227, 1227t
Index I-7impulse of net, 216, 217
kinetic friction, 115–118, 116, 116
lift, 377
Lorentz, 752, 876
magnetic, 745–746, 746
in molecular model of ideal gas, 535
newton (N), as SI unit of, 100
nuclear, 1181, 1226–1227, 1227t, 1231
particle under net force model, 106, 106
pressure versus, 359
radial, 134, 134
repulsive, 589, 589, 590, 790
repulsive magnetic, 790
resistive, 138–143, 139, 139–141
restoring, 387
resultant, in Coulomb’s law, 595, 595–596
retarding, 404–405
strong, 1231, 1242
tangential, 134, 134
vectors and, 97, 97
weak, 96, 1226–1227, 1227t
work done by constant, 151–154, 152,
153, 154
work done by varying, 156–161, 157, 158,
159, 160
zero as net value of, 596, 596–597
Force constant, 158, 160
Forced convection, 522
Forced oscillations, 405–407, 406, 407
Ford, W. K., 351n
Fourier, Jean Baptiste Joseph, 472n
Fourier series, 472
Fourier’s theorem, 472–473
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)
spectroscopy, 974–975
Fractional uncertainty, A-20
Frames of reference, 86, 86, 98
Franklin, Benjamin, 590
Fraunhofer diffraction pattern, 985, 985
Free-body diagrams, 104, 107, 109, 112, 113
Free-electron theory of metals, 591n, 1158,
1158–1160, 1159, 1160t
Free expansion, entropy change in, 576–577
Free-fall acceleration (g), 42, 335–336, 335t
Free space, permeability of (m0), 772
Free space, permittivity of (e0), 593
French Academy of Science, 984
Frequency (f)
angular (v), 389
beat, 470, 471
cutoff, in photoelectric effect, 1056
energy relation to, 1053
fundamental, 462
natural, 467–468
of particles, 1064
pitch versus, 472
resonance (v0), 406, 465–466, 861–862
of simple harmonic oscillator, 390, 392
of sound, 436–437, 437
of tuning fork, 469
of waves, 420, 423
Fresnel, Augustin, 984
Fresnel diffraction pattern, 985n
Fresnel lens, 943, 943
Friction
forces of, 114–119, 115
kinetic, 115, 115, 191–196, 192, 194
rolling, 273
static, 114, 115
Fringes
in wave optics, 986–987
in Young double-slit experiment,
963, 963
Frisch, Otto, 1202
FTIR (Fourier transform infrared)
spectroscopy, 974–975
Fuel cells, automobiles powered by, 1
Fuel elements, of uranium, 1205
Fukushima I nuclear power plant
(Japan), 1206
Fulcrum, 314
Fuller, R. Buckminster, 1157
Functions, in calculus, A-14
Fundamental forces, 96, 1226–1227, 1227t
Fundamental frequency, 462
Fundamental quantities, 6
Furnace Creek Ranch, Death Valley (CA),
496
Fusion, latent heat of (L
f), 509, 510t
Fusion, nuclear, 1207–1211, 1208, 1209, 1210
Gabor, Dennis, 995
Galaxy clusters, 351
Galilean relativity, 1013, 1013–1016,
1014, 1015
Galilean transformation equations
overview, 86
space-time, 1014
velocity, 1015–1016
Galilei, Galileo, 20, 41, 41–42, 147, 899
Gamma decay, in radioactivity, 1199,
1199–1200, 1200t
Gamma rays, 889
Gases
atomic spectra of, 1106, 1106–1107, 1107
inert, 1128, 1147
noble, 1128, 1147
Gases, kinetic theory of, 533–555
equipartition of energy, 542–545, 543,
544, 545
ideal gas
adiabatic processes for, 545–547, 546
equation of state for, 492
molar specific heat of, 539, 539–542,
540, 541t
molecular model of, 534, 534–539,
535, 538t
molecular speeds, distribution of,
547–551, 548, 549
storyline on, 533–534
Gasoline and diesel engines, 567–569, 568
Gasoline gauge for small engines, 921
Gauge bosons, 1226. See also Particle physics
and cosmology
Gauge pressure, 365
Gauge theory, 1226n
Gauss, Karl Friedrich, 624
Gauss’s law of magnetism, 784, 784–786, 785
Gauss’s probability integral, A-19t
Gauss’s law. See also Electric flux (FE)
application of, 625–629, 626, 627, 628,
629
on conductors in electrostatic
equilibrium, 652
Maxwell’s equations and, 876
overview, 623, 623–625, 624
x-ray energies and wavelengths from, 1132
Geiger, Hans, 1107–1108
Geiger-Mueller tube, 661, 688
Geim, Andre, 1157
Gell-Mann, Murray, 1238–1241
General theory of relativity, 1039–1041,
1040, 1040, 1041
Generators and motors, 810–814, 811,
811, 812
Geocentric model of the universe, 339
Geodesic dome, 1157
Geomagnetic poles, 744–745
Geometric models, 7, 7
Geometry, A-10–A-11
Geosynchronous satellites, 344, 344
Gerlach, Walter, 1124, 1124–1126
German Magnetic Union, 624
Germer, L. H., 1065
GFCIs (ground-fault circuit interrupters),
734, 800, 800
Glashow, Sheldon, 1244
Glaucoma, laser treatment for, 1137
Global warming, 308, 1155
Gluino superpartner particle, 1253
Gluons, 1227, 1243–1244
Goeppert-Mayer, Maria, 1186
Gold, Fermi energy of, 1160
Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco (CA),
497
Golmud Solar Park (China), 1167
Goudsmit, Samuel, 1123–1124
Grand Coulee Dam, 381
Gran Telescopio Canarias (Canary Islands,
Spain), 954
Graphene, 1157
Graphical representations, 9, 9, 22, 23
Gravitation, 332–357
Einstein’s theory of, 1039
energy in planetary and satellite motion,
347, 347–351, 348, 350, 350t, 351
free-fall acceleration and force of,
335–336
Kepler’s laws and planetary motion,
339–344, 340, 341, 342, 343t, 344
Newton’s law of universal, 333, 333–335,
334
particle in a field (gravitational), analysis
model of, 336–339, 338
potential energy of, 345, 345–346, 346
storyline of, 332–333
Gravitational force ( F
S g
)
acceleration due to (g), 42
as field force, 96
as fundamental in nature, 1226–1227,
1227t
weight and, 102–103
Gravitational mass, 102, 1039
Gravitational potential energy (U
g
),
166–167, 166n, 643n
Gravitational waves, 1042
Gravitons, gravitational force mediated by,
1227
Gravity, center of, 312–313, 313
Greenhouse effect, 527, 1155, 1155
Ground, wire connected to, 592
Ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs),
734, 800, 800
Force (continued)
I-8 IndexGround state, 545
Guinness Book of Records, 1105
Gujarat Solar Park (India), 1167
Gurney, R. W., 1195
Gyroscopes and tops, motion of, 301, 301
Hadron particles, 1231–1233, 1232, 1232t
Hagen, Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig, 377n
Hagen-Poiseuille equation, 377
Hahn, Otto, 1202
Hale Telescope (Palomar Mountain, CA),
1005
Half-life of radioactive material, 1188–1189
Half-wave antenna, 886–887, 887
Hall, Edwin, 761
Hall effect, 761, 761–762
Hall voltage (DVH), 761
Halogen elements, 1129
Harmonic motion, simple
analysis model of, 388–394, 389, 391, 392
description of, 387, 387
energy of, 394–397, 395, 396
uniform circular motion versus, 398,
398–400, 399
Harmonics, 462, 473
Harmonic series, 462
Hearing, limits of, 435
Heart-lung machines, 768
Heat (Q)
internal energy and, 502–505, 504
latent, 509–512, 510, 510t
overview, 183
specific, 504–508, 505t, 506, 506
Heat capacity (C), 505
Heat engines, 556–586
Carnot engine, 563, 563–567, 564, 565
entropy
overview, 570, 570–572, 571, 571
second law of thermodynamics and,
578–580, 579
in thermodynamic systems, 572–578,
575, 576
gasoline and diesel engines, 567–569, 568
heat pumps and refrigerators, 559, 559–
562, 560
reversible and irreversible processes, 562,
562–563
second law of thermodynamics and, 557,
557–559, 558, 558
storyline on, 556–557
Heat pumps and refrigerators, 559,
559–562, 560
Heat sinks, 704
Heiligenschein (retroreflection), 914
Heinonen, Sami, 176
Heisenberg, Werner, 1071, 1071
Heisenberg uncertainty principle, 1071
Helically Symmetric Experiment, in nuclear
fusion (US), 1210
Heliocentric model of the universe, 339
Helium, 1106
Helium-neon gas lasers, 1135–1136, 1136
Henry (H, unit of inductance), 825
Henry, Joseph, 587, 772, 797, 825, 825
Hertz (Hz, unit of frequency), 420
Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf, 878, 878, 899
Hertz’s discoveries, 876–878, 877, 878
Higgs boson, 1245
Higher-phase material, 509
High-temperature copper-oxide based
superconductors, 703
Hofstader, Robert, 1076
Hole, in valence band, 1163, 1227
Holography, 995, 995–996
Home insulation, 521–522, 521t, 522
Homopolar generator, 818
Hooke’s law, 177, 179, 209, 387, 619
Horizontal range of projectiles, 75, 75–77,
76
Horsepower units, 201
Household wiring, 732, 732–733, 733
Hubble, Edwin P., 1029, 1248, 1256
Hubble constant, 1248
Hubble’s law, 1248
Hubble Space Telescope, 332, 992, 992
Humanson, Milton, 1248
Hund’s rule, 1128, 1128
Huygens, Christiaan, 401t, 899, 899–900
Huygens’s principle, 911, 911–912, 912, 985
Hydraulic lift, Pascal’s law and, 362,
362–363
Hydrogen
Balmer series (emission spectrum) for,
1106, 1107, 1107
Bohr model of atom of, 144, 534, 1109,
1109–1114, 1110, 1111
Coulomb’s law and, 594–595, 595
electronic transitions in, 1113–1114
Lyman, Paschen, and Brackett series, in
spectra of, 1107
molar specific heat of, 1097–1098
quantum model of atom of, 534, 1114,
1114–1117, 1115, 1116t
Rutherford’s nuclear model, 1108
space quantization for, 1122–1123
Thomson (J.J.) incorrect model of atom
of, 630
wave functions for, 1117, 1117–1120,
1118, 1119
Hydrogen molecular bonds, 1147–1148, 1148
Hydrometer, 380, 380
Hyperbola, equation for, A-11
Hyperopia (farsightedness), 949–950
IBM Zurich Research Laboratory
(Switzerland), 703
Ideal absorber, 523
Ideal fluid flow, 369
Ideal gas
adiabatic process for, 545–547, 546
description of, 492, 492–494, 493, 493
equation of state for, 492
molar specific heat of, 539, 539–542, 540,
541t
molecular model of, 534, 534–539, 535,
538t
IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft
Accelerated by Radiation of the
Sun, JAXA), 885
Image distance (q), 926
Image formation, 925–961
by flat mirrors, 926, 926–928, 927, 928
lens aberrations and, 947, 947
optical instruments for
camera, 947, 947–948
compound microscope, 952, 952
eyes, 948, 948–950, 949, 950
magnifying glass, 951, 951
telescope, 953, 953–954, 954
by refracting surfaces, 935–939
by spherical mirrors
concave, 928, 928–930, 929, 930,
933–934
convex, 930–931, 931, 935, 935
ray diagrams for, 931, 931–933, 931t,
932, 933
storyline on, 925–926
by thin lenses, 939–946
combinations of, 945, 945–946
converging, 943, 943–944
diverging, 944, 944–945
magnification of, 941–943, 941t,
942, 943
overview, 939–941, 940, 941
Impedance (Z), 857
Impending motion, 115
Impulse ( I
S
), 215–219, 216, 217
Impulse approximation, 218
Impulse-momentum theorem, 218, 235, 535
Incoherent light sources, 964
Incompressible fluid, 369
Indefinite integral, in calculus, A-16,
A-18t–A-19t
Independent-particle model of the nucleus,
1186
Index of refraction (n), 906–908, 907, 907t,
914, 970
Individual waves, amplitude of, 457
Induced polarization, 680
Inductance (L), 824–846. See also Faraday’s
law of induction
energy in magnetic fields, 830–832, 832
mutual, 832, 832–833, 833
oscillations in LC circuits, 834, 834–837,
836
RLC circuits, 837–839, 838, 838t, 839
RL circuits, 827, 827–830, 828, 829, 830
self-induction and, 825, 825–826
storyline on, 824
Induction furnace, 823
Induction to charge objects, 591–592, 592
Inductors, 827
in alternating-current circuits, 851,
851–853, 852, 853
Inelastic collisions, 220
Inert gases, 1128, 1147
Inertia, moment of, 260, 261, 263–267, 264,
265, 266, 403
Inertial confinement of fusion reactions,
1210, 1210–1211
Inertial frame of reference, 97–99,
1013–1014, 1014
Inertial mass, 102, 1039
Infrared radiation, intensity of, 1053,
1053
Infrared (IR) waves, 888
Infrasonic sound waves, 429
In phase, current and voltage, 849
Instantaneous acceleration, 33, 33, 35–36
Instantaneous angular acceleration, 251
Instantaneous angular momentum, 289
Instantaneous angular speed, 251
Instantaneous centripetal acceleration, 84
Instantaneous current, 692
Index I-9Instantaneous energy density, 883
Instantaneous power, 201
Instantaneous speed, 24–27
Instantaneous velocity, 24–27, 69–70, 70
Instantaneous voltage, 849
Institute for Advanced Studies
(Copenhagen, Denmark), 1109
Insulators, electrical, 591, 1162–1163
Integral calculus, A-16–A-19
Integrated circuits, 1144, 1170, 1170–1171
Integration, in calculus, 44
Intel, Inc., 1170
Intensity (I)
distribution of, in double-slit interference
pattern, 968–969, 969
of electromagnetic waves, 882–884
of infrared radiation from eardrum,
1053, 1053
of single-slit diffraction patterns, 987,
987–988, 988
of sound waves, 433–438, 434, 436t, 438
of two-slit diffraction patterns, 988
Interference
analysis model of waves in, 452–456, 453,
454, 455, 965, 965–968, 966
intensity distribution of double-slit
pattern of, 968–969, 969
in thin films, 970, 970–973, 971, 973
in time, 469–471, 471
Young’s double-slit experiment on, 963,
963–964, 964
Interference grating, 992
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC), 1155
Internal energy (Eint)
change in, 193
in first law of thermodynamics, 514–515
heat and, 502–505, 504
of ideal gas, 540
symbol for, 514n
and temperature, 538
Internal resistance (r), 714
International Astronomical Union, 343n
International Bureau of Weights and
Measures (Sèvres, France), 4
International Prototype of Kilogram, 4
International Space Station, 339, 630, 891
International Thermonuclear Experimental
Reactor (ITER, in France), 1210
Internet, Wi-Fi to connect to, 873
Intersections, collisions at, 229, 229
Intrinsic semiconductors, 1163
Invariant mass, 1037
Inverse-square law, 333
Ionic molecular bonds, 1145–1146, 1146
Ionic solids, 1156, 1156
Ionization energy, 1111, 1130
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change), 1155
Iridescence, 972
Irradiance (power per unit area), 882
Irreversible and reversible processes in heat
engines, 562, 562–563
Irrotational fluid, 369
Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven experiment,
1234, 1258
Isobaric process, 516, 516
Isobars, 1219–1220
Isochoric process, 516
Isolated system (angular momentum),
analysis model of, 295–300, 296,
298, 299
Isolated system (energy), analysis model of,
185–191
free fall, 187, 187–188, 188
overview, 185–187, 186
pulleys, 188–190, 189, 190
spring-loaded popgun, 190–191, 191
Isolated system (momentum), analysis
model of, 213–215, 214
Isothermal process, 515, 515–518
Isotones, 1186
Isotopes, 1178, 1190
Isovolumetric process, 516, 516
ITER (International Thermonuclear
Experimental Reactor, in France),
1210
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
(JAXA), 885
Jensen, Hans, 1186
Jewett, Frank Baldwin, 753
Jewett, John W., Jr., 753
Joule (J, unit of energy), 153
Joule, James Prescott, 502, 503, 503–504
Joule heating, 704n
J/C particle, 1241
Junction diode, 1165, 1165–1166, 1166
Junction rule (Kirchhoff rules), 723
Junction transistor, 1168
Kamerlingh-Onnes, Heike, 702
Kamiokande II experiment, 1258
Kao, Charles K., 916
Kaon (K) particle, 1236–1237, 1239
Keck Observatory (Mauna Kea, HI), 954,
954, 991–992, 1005
Kelvin (K, SI base unit of absolute
temperature), 486
Kelvin, Lord (Thomson, William), 557
Kelvin-Planck form of the second law
of thermodynamics, 558, 560,
562, 579
Kelvin temperature scale, 486–487
Kepler, Johannes, 339, 340
Kepler’s laws, 339–344, 340, 341, 342,
343t, 344
Kilby, Jack, 1170
Kilogram, (kg, SI base unit of mass), 2–4, 4
International Prototype of, 4
Kilowatt-hour (kWh), 201
Kinematic equations, 39, 44–45
Kinetic energy (K). See also Energy; Energy,
conservation of; Work-kinetic
energy theorem
of charged particle in magnetic field, 747
of earth, 215
relativistic, 1035–1036, 1036
rotational, 267, 267–268, 268
of simple harmonic oscillator, 394,
395, 396
Kinetic friction, 191–196, 192, 194
Kinetic friction forces, 115–118, 116, 116
Kinetic theory of gases. See Gases, kinetic
theory of
Kirchhoff, Gustav, 724, 724
Kirchhoff’s rules, 723, 723–726, 724,
725, 844
Kuiper belt, 342–343
Lagrange, Joseph Louis, 357
Laguerre polynomials, 1160n
Lambda (L) particle, 1236–1237
Laminar flow, 368–369, 369, 372
Land, E. H., 999
Large Electron-Positron (LEP)
Collider, 1245
Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN,
1200, 1242, 1245
Large Helical Device, for nuclear fusion
(Japan), 1210
Laser diodes, 1136
Laser interferometer gravitational-wave
observatory (LIGO), 975, 975
Laser pointer, radiation pressure of, 886
Lasers, 1134–1136, 1135
Lasik eye surgery, 1136–1137
Latent heat 509–512, 510, 510t
of condensation, 509n
of fusion (L
f), 509, 510t
of solidification, 509n
of vaporization (Lv), 509, 510t
Lateral magnification, 927
Laue, Max von, 996
Laue pattern, 996, 996–997, 997
Law of atmospheres, 554
Law of conservation of baryon number,
1233
Law of conservation of electron lepton
number, 1235
Law of conservation of muon lepton
number, 1236
Law of conservation of strangeness, 1237
Law of conservation of tau lepton number,
1236
Law of inertia, 97–99
Law of reflection, 902
Law of refraction, 908
Law of successive radioactive decays, 1220
Law of thermal conduction, 519
Lawrence, E. O., 754
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
(CA), 1210
Laws of motion. See Motion
LC circuits, 834, 834–837, 836, 877
Leaning Tower of Pisa, 41
LEDs (light-emitting diodes)
and light-absorbing diodes,
1166–1168, 1167
Length
contraction of, 1025–1026, 1026
conversion factors for, A-1
example values of, 4t
standards of, 3–4, 6
time connection to, 402
Lennard-Jones potential energy function,
174, 396
Lenses
aberrations of, 947, 947
derivation of, 950n
thin, 939–946
combinations of, 945, 945–946
converging, 943, 943–944
diverging, 944, 944–945
I-10 Indexmagnification by, 941–943, 941t, 942,
943
overview, 939–941, 940, 941
Lens-makers’ equation, 940–941
Lenz, Heinrich, 805n
Lenz’s law, 805–808, 806, 807, 808
LEP (Large Electron-Positron) Collider,
1245
Lepton number, 1235–1236
Lepton particles, 1231, 1232t, 1233, 1242t
LHC (Large Hadron Collider), CERN, 1200,
1242, 1245
Lift force, 377
Light, speed of, 4, 1015, 1015–1016
Light and ray optics, 897–924. See also
Quantum physics
color corresponding to wavelengths of,
888t
dispersion, 912–914, 913, 914
as electromagnetic radiation, 877
Huygens’s principle, 911, 911–912, 912
nature of light, 899–901
polarization of light waves, 998, 998–1003,
999, 1000, 1001, 1002, 1002t
ray approximation in, 901, 901
speed of, 4, 1015, 1015–1016, 1018
storyline on, 898–899
total internal reflection, 914, 914–917,
915, 916, 917
wave under reflection, analysis model of,
902, 902–905, 903, 904, 905
wave under refraction, analysis model of,
905–910
angle of refraction for glass, 908–909
index of refraction, 906–908, 907, 907t
light through prism, 910, 910
light through slab, 909–910, 910
overview, 905, 905–906, 906, 907,
908, 908
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lightabsorbing diodes, 1166–1168, 1167
Lightning, 615, 615, 636, 636, 713
Light-year, 4
LIGO (laser interferometer gravitationalwave observatory), 975
Limiting values of Dx over Dt, 25
Linear charge density, 617, 650
Linear equations, A-7, A-7–A-9, A-8, A-9
Linearly polarized waves, 881
Linear momentum (Sp), 210–248
center of mass, 230–234, 231, 232, 233
collisions in one dimension
ballistic pendulum, 224–225, 225
elastic, 221, 221–222
overview, 219–220, 220
perfectly inelastic, 220
stress reliever device, 223, 223–224
two-body, with spring, 226, 226–227
collisions in two dimensions, 227–230,
228, 229
deformable systems, 237–239, 238
isolated system (momentum), analysis
model of, 213–215, 214
nonisolated system (momentum), analysis
model of, 215–219, 217, 218, 219
overview, 211, 211–213, 212
relativistic, 1034–1035
rocket propulsion, 239, 239–241
storyline on, 210
systems of many particles, 234–237
Linear polarization, 998
Linear wave equation, 428, 428, 428–429
Line of charge, finite, 650, 650–651
Line spectrum, 1106
Liquid crystals, 1144
Liquid-drop model (Bohr), in nuclear
physics, 1184–1185, 1185
Live wires, 732n, 733, 733
Livingston, M. S., 754
Lloyd, Humphrey, 969n
Lloyd’s mirror, 969
Load resistance, 714, 716, 716, 864
Logarithms, A-9–A-10
Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 (CA), 446
London Millennium Bridge (UK), 404
Longitudinal waves, 416, 417, 417, 466–467,
467
Long jump example of projectile motion,
77, 77
Loop rule (Kirchhoff’s rules), 723, 844
Lorentz, H., 1018n
Lorentz force, 752, 876
Lorentz transformation equations, 1030,
1030–1031
Lorentz velocity transformation equations,
1031–1034, 1033
Loudness of sound, 436–437, 437
Lunar and Planetary Institute, 527t
Lyman series, in hydrogen spectra, 1107
Macrostate of systems, 570
Madelung constant, 1156
Maglev trains, 587, 587
Magnetic bottles, 752, 752
Magnetic confinement of fusion reactions,
1209, 1209–1210
Magnetic declination, 745
Magnetic dipole moment, 759
Magnetic fields (B
S
), 742–770. See also
Electromagnetic waves
current-carrying conductor in, 755,
755–757, 756
extraterrestrial, 1122
Hall effect, 761, 761–762
motion of charged particle in a uniform
magnetic field
applications of, 752, 752–755, 753, 754
overview, 748–752, 749, 750, 751, 752
particle in a field (magnetic), analysis
model of, 743, 743–748, 744, 746,
747t, 748
sinusoidal, 880–881, 881
storyline on, 742–743
torque on current loop in uniform, 757,
757–760, 758, 759, 760
Magnetic fields, sources of, 771–796
Ampère’s law, 779, 779–782, 780, 781
Biot-Savart law, 772, 772–776, 773, 774,
775, 776
force between two parallel conductors,
777, 777–778, 778
Gauss’s law of magnetism, 784, 784–786,
785
in matter, 786, 786–789, 787, 788, 789
of solenoids, 782, 782–783, 783
storyline on, 771–772
Magnetic flux (FB), 784, 784–786, 785, 799,
799–800, 800, 832
Magnetic force, 745–746, 746
Magnetic moments of atoms, 786, 786–787,
787
Magnetic poles, 744–745
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 771,
771, 790, 1215–1217, 1216, 1216,
1217
Magnification
enlargement versus, 929
lateral, 927
magnifying glass for, 951, 951
by thin lenses, 941–943, 941t, 942, 943
Major axis, of ellipse, 340
Malus, E. L., 999n
Malus’s law, 999
Manhattan Project (nuclear weapons),
1230
Marsden, Ernest, 1107
Mass (m)
center of, 230–234, 231, 232, 233
conversion factors for, A-1
of electrons, protons, and neutrons, 594t
as energy form, 1036
example values of, 5t
gravitational, 102
inertial, 102
International Prototype of Kilogram, 4
invariant, 1037
moments of inertia versus, 260
motion and, 99
of nucleus of atoms, 1179
of planets, 343t
radioactive decay changes in, 1194
reduced, of molecules, 1149
of selected particles, 1179t
standards of, 4–6
of Sun, 343
Mass dampers, 404
Mass defect, in nuclear fission, 1202
Mass number (A), 1178
Mass spectrometer, 753, 753
Materials analysis, radioactivity in, 1214
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
(Newton), 333
Mathematical representations, 9
Mathematics review
algebra, A-5–A-10
differential calculus, A-13–A-16
geometry, A-10–A-11
integral calculus, A-16–A-19
propagation of uncertainty, A-20–A-21
scientific notation, A-4–A-5
series expansion, A-13
trigonometry, A-11–A-13
Matrix mechanics (Heisenberg), 1071
Matter, magnetic fields in, 786, 786–789,
787, 788, 789
Matter transfer (TMT), 183
Mauna Loa Observatory (HI), 1155
Maximum heights of projectiles, 75–77
Maxwell, James Clerk, 548, 587, 772, 874,
874, 899, 1015, 1108
Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution
function, 548
Maxwell’s equations, 876–878, 877, 878
Mean solar day, as time standard, 5
Index I-11Measurement, 2–19
conversion of units, 12
dimensional analysis for, 10–11
estimates and order-of-magnitude
calculations, 12–13
length, standards of, 3–4, 6
mass, standards of, 4–6
modeling and alternative representations,
6–9
of pressure, 359, 359, 364, 364–365
significant figures, 13–15, 14
storyline on, 2–3
time, standards of, 5–6
Mechanical energy
changes in, for nonconservative forces,
196–200, 197, 198, 199, 200
as kinetic and potential energy sum, 171
Mechanical equivalent of heat, 503–505,
504, 504
Mechanical waves (TMW), 182. See also
Oscillatory motion
Mechanics, classical, 1
Meissner effect, 789–790, 790
Meitner, Lise, 1202
Melting, as entropy change, 575
Mendeleev, Dmitri, 1128
Mental representations, 9
Mercury contamination, atomic absorption
spectroscopy of, 1106
Meson particles, 1229–1231, 1230, 1230,
1231, 1232, 1232t, 1242t
Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect
transistor (MOSFET), 1168,
1168–1169
Metals
bonding in, 1157–1158, 1158
electrical conduction in, 1162, 1162
free electrons in, 591n
free-electron theory of, 1158, 1158–1160,
1159, 1160t
work functions of, 1057–1058, 1058t
Meter (m, SI base unit of length), 3–4
Michelson, A. A., 973, 1016
Michelson interferometer, 973–975, 974, 975
Michelson-Morley experiment, 1016,
1016–1018
Microscope, compound, 952, 952
Microscopes, scanning tunneling, 1095
Microstate of systems, 570–571
Microwaves, 888
Milky Way galaxy, 19
Millikan, Robert A., 591, 656–657, 1074,
1077
Millikan oil drop experiment, 656–657
Minima, in diffraction patterns, 984
Minkowski, H., 1018n
Minor axis, of ellipse, 340
Mirages, 914
Mirai, Toyota Motor Company, 1
Miranda (satellite of Uranus), 353, 353
Mirror equation, 930
Mirrors
flat, 926, 926–928, 927, 928
Lloyd’s mirror, 969
multiple images formed by two, 927, 927
spherical
concave, 928, 928–930, 929, 930,
933–934
convex, 930–931, 931, 935, 935
ray diagrams for, 931, 931–933, 931t,
932, 933
tilting rearview, 928, 928
“Missing information,” macrostates
described as, 571n
Models. See also Analysis models
constant acceleration
with motion in two dimensions, 71–74
particle under, 37–41
definition of, 7
electrical conduction, 699–701
geometric, 7, 7
heat engines as basis for, 557n
mathematical representation from, 28
measurement and, 6–9
molecular model of ideal gas, 534,
534–539, 535, 538t
for motion in one dimension, 30–32
for motion in two dimensions, 71, 71
for Newton’s second law
net force, particle under, 106–114
particle in equilibrium, 105–107,
117, 117
particle, 7
for particles under constant velocity,
27–30
for particle under constant acceleration,
37–41
rigid object, 250
simplification, 8
structural, 7, 534
for uniform circular motion, 83
Moderators, elastic collisions of, 1201
Molar specific heat of hydrogen, 1097–1098
Molar specific heat of ideal gas, 539,
539–542, 540, 541t, 544
Mole (mol, SI base unit of amount of
substance), 3, 492
Molecular model of ideal gas, 534, 534–539,
535, 538t
Molecular speeds, distribution of, 547–551,
548, 549
Molecules and solids, 1144–1176
average kinetic energy of, 537
band theory of solids, 1160–1162,
1161, 1161
electrical conduction and
in insulators, 1162–1163
in metals, 1162, 1162
in semiconductors, 1163, 1163–1165,
1163t, 1164, 1165
energy states and spectra of
molecular spectra, 1153, 1153–1156,
1154, 1155
overview, 1148
rotational motion of molecules,
1148–1151, 1149
vibrational motion of molecules, 1151,
1151–1153, 1152
free-electron theory of metals, 1158,
1158–1160, 1159, 1160t
molecular bonds
covalent, 1146–1147, 1147
hydrogen, 1147–1148, 1148
ionic, 1145–1146, 1146
overview, 1145, 1145
van der Waals, 1147
root-mean-square (rms) speed of, 538, 538t
semiconductor devices
integrated circuits, 1170, 1170–1171
junction diode, 1165, 1165–1166, 1166
light-emitting and light-absorbing
diodes, 1166–1168, 1167
transistors, 1168–1170
junction, 1168
MOSFET (metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect
transistor), 1168, 1168–1169
resonant tunneling, 1169–1170, 1170
solids, bonding in
covalent solids, 1157, 1157
ionic solids, 1156, 1156
metallic solids, 1157–1158, 1158
storyline on, 1144–1145
Moment of inertia (I), 261, 263–267, 264,
265, 266, 403
Momentum (Sp), 884–886, 1061. See also
Angular momentum; Linear
momentum
Monochromatic light sources, 964, 1135
Moon
distance to, measurement of, 904, 904,
1137
escape speed of, 350t, 549
forces affecting orbit of, 96
kinetic energy of, 162t
mass, 5t
planetary data on, 343t
Morley, Edward W., 1016
Moseley, Henry G. J., 1133, 1133
MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor fieldeffect transistor), 1168, 1168–1169
Motion, 95–126
analysis model related to Newton’s
second law, 105–114
equilibrium, particle in, 105–107
net force, particle under, 106–114
of charged particle in a uniform electric
field, 605–607, 606, 607
of charged particle in a uniform magnetic
field
applications of, 752, 752–755, 753, 754
overview, 748–752, 749, 750, 751, 752
force, 96–97
friction forces in, 114–119
gravitational force and weight in, 102–103
mass and, 99
Newton’s first law of, 97–99
Newton’s second law of, 99–102
Newton’s third law of, 103, 103–105
storyline on, 95
Motional emf, 801, 801–805, 802, 803, 805
Motion in one dimension, 20–51
acceleration
overview, 32–36
particle under constant, 37–41
analysis model approach to, 30–32
constant velocity, particle under, 27–30
falling objects, 41–44
instantaneous velocity and speed, 24–27
kinematic equations from calculus, 44–45
motion diagrams, 36–37
position, velocity, and speed of particle,
21–24
storyline on, 20–21
I-12 IndexNovoselov, Konstantin (graphene
studies), 1157
Penzias, Arno A.(Big Bang theory
evidence), 1248
Perlmutter, Saul (accelerating expansion
of Universe), 1251
Phillips, William (laser light to cool and
trap atoms), 1143
Planck, Max (quantized nature of
energy), 1052
Reines, Frederick (neutrino detection),
1196
Richter, Burton (J/C particle detection),
1241
Riess, Adam (accelerating expansion of
Universe), 1251
Rubbia, Carlo (W and Z boson discovery),
1227
Salam, Abdus (electroweak theory), 1244
Schmidt, Brian P. (accelerating expansion
of Universe), 1251
Schrieffer, J. R. (superconductivity
theory), 703
Schwinger, Julian (quantum
electrodynamics), 1230
Shockley, William (transistor), 1168
Smith, George E. (charge-coupled device
[CCD]), 1060
Thomson, J. J. (electron discovery), 1107
Ting, Samuel (J/C particle detection),
1241
Tinibagam Sin Itiro (quantum
electrodynamics), 1230
van der Meer, Simon (W and Z boson
discovery), 1227
Weinberg, Steven (electroweak theory),
1244
Wilson, Robert A. (Big Bang theory
evidence), 1248
Yukawa, Hideki (meson prediction), 1229
Noble gases, 1128, 1147
Nonconservative and conservative forces,
169–171
Nonconservative forces, mechanical energy
changes for, 196–200, 197, 198,
199, 200
Nonconstant acceleration, 388
Noninertial frame of reference, 98
Nonisolated system (angular momentum),
analysis model of, 288–293, 290,
291, 292
Nonisolated system (energy), analysis model
of, 182, 182–185, 184, 184
Nonisolated system (momentum), analysis
model of, 215–219, 217, 217, 218,
219
Nonpolar molecules, 680
Nonsinusoidal waveforms, 472, 472–473,
473
Nonuniform circular motion, 133–135, 134
Normalized wave functions, 1082
Normal modes of oscillation, 461, 461–462
Novoselov, Konstantin, 1157
Noyce, Robert, 1170
NSTX (National Spherical Torus
Experiment), 1209
n-type semiconductors, 1165
Nuclear force, 1181, 1226–1227, 1227t, 1231
Motion in two dimensions, 68–94
constant acceleration with, 71, 71–74
position, velocity, and acceleration vectors
in, 69–71
of projectiles, 74–80
relative velocity and acceleration, 85–88
storyline on, 68
tangential and radial acceleration, 84–85
uniform circular motion, 81–83
Motors and generators, 810–814, 811, 811,
812
Mount Wilson Observatory (CA), 1248
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), 771,
789, 1215–1217
M-theory, 1253
Müller, K. Alex, 703
Multicolored quarks, 1242–1244
Multiplication, distributive law of, 155
Mungan, C. E., 275n
Muon (m) particles, 1022, 1230, 1233
Mutual inductance, 832, 832–833, 833
Myopia (nearsightedness), 950
Napoleon, arsenic poisoning of, 1214
Narrow slits, diffraction patterns from, 985,
985–988, 987, 988
NASA (National Aeronautics and Space
Administration), 497, 890, 895,
1141, 1248
National Ignition Facility, Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory
(CA), 1210
National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST), 4, 4
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA), 444
National Spherical Torus Experiment
(NSTX), 1209
Natural convection, 522
Natural fission reactions, 1205n
Natural frequencies, 467–468
Natural radioactivity, 1200
Nature, fundamental forces in, 1226–1227,
1227t
Near point, in eye focusing, 949
Nearsightedness (myopia), 950
Ne’eman, Yuval, 1239
Negative acceleration, 34, 37
Negative electric charge, 590
Neutral equilibrium, 173
Neutrino (n) particles, 1042, 1196, 1230,
1233
Neutron activation analysis, radioactivity
in, 1214
Neutron capture reactions, 1202
Neutron degeneracy pressure, 350
Neutron number (N), 1178, 1182
Neutrons
as baryon particles, 1233
charge and mass of, 594t
thermal, 1202
Newton (N, unit of force), 100
Newton, Isaac, 96, 96
Newtonian mechanics, 1
Newton’s first law of motion, 97, 97, 97–99
Newton’s law of universal gravitation, 333,
333–335, 334
Newton’s rings, 971, 971–972
Newton’s second law of motion
applied in radial direction, 128, 135
linear momentum and force on particle
in, 212–213
overview, 99–102
quantity of motion in, 212
rotational analog to, 289
Newton’s third law of motion, 103, 103–105,
104, 211, 211
Nichrome wire, resistance of, 697–698
Nimitz Freeway (CA), 446
Niobium metal, 792
NIST (National Institute of Standards and
Technology), 4, 4
NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance),
1215–1217, 1216, 1216, 1217
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration), 444
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Becquerel, Antoine-Henri (radioactivity),
1187
Curie, Marie (radioactivity), 1187
Curie, Pierre (radioactivity), 1187
Nobel Prize in Physics
Anderson, Carl (positron detection),
1228
Bardeen, John (superconductivity theory),
703
Bardeen, John (transistor), 1168
Bethe, Hans (carbon cycle in stars), 1222
Bohr, Niels (atomic structure), 1109
Boyle, Willard S. (charge-coupled device
[CCD]), 1060
Brattain, Walter (transistor), 1168
Chu, Steven (laser light to cool and trap
atoms), 1143
COBE principal investigators, 1248
Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude (laser light to
cool and trap atoms), 1143
Compton, Arthur Holly (Compton effect),
146, 1061
Cooper, L. N. (superconductivity theory),
703
de Broglie, Louis (wave nature of
electrons), 1064
Dirac, Paul (quantum physics), 1227
Einstein, Albert (electromagnetic
radiation), 1057
Fermi, Enrico (nuclear reaction
discoveries), 1205
Feynman, Richard P. (quantum
electrodynamics), 1230
Gabor, Dennis (holography), 995
Geim, Andre (graphene studies), 1157
Gell-Mann, Murray (subatomic particles),
1238
Glashow, Sheldon (electroweak theory),
1244
Goeppert-Mayer, Maria (shell model of
nucleus), 1186–1187
Heisenberg, Werner (nucleus models),
1071
Hofstader, Robert (scattering of
electrons), 1076
Jensen, Hans (shell model of nucleus),
1186
Kao, Charles K. (fiber optics), 916
Kilby, Jack (integrated circuit), 1170
Index I-13Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),
1215–1217, 1216, 1216, 1217
Nuclear magneton, 1216
Nuclear physics, 1177–1224
biological radiation damage, 1211–1213,
1212t
decay process in
alpha, 1191, 1191–1195, 1192t–1193t,
1195
beta, 1195–1198, 1196, 1197
carbon dating by, 1198–1199
gamma, 1199, 1199–1200, 1200t
overview, 1190–1191
liquid-drop model (Bohr) in, 1184–1185,
1185
natural radioactivity, 1200
nuclear binding energy, 1182, 1182–1184,
1183
nuclear fission, 1202–1204, 1203
nuclear fusion, 1095, 1207–1211, 1208,
1209, 1210
nuclear magnetic resonance and
magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI), 1215–1217, 1216, 1216, 1217
nuclear reactions, 1200–1202
nuclear reactors, 1204, 1204–1207,
1205, 1206
nuclei, properties of, 1178–1182, 1179t,
1180, 1182
radiation uses, 1213, 1213–1215, 1215
radioactivity and, 1187–1190, 1188
shell model (Goeppert-Mayer and Jensen)
in, 1185–1187, 1186
storyline on, 1177–1178
Nuclear processes, energy from (MeV), 638
Nuclear spin-orbit effects, 1187
Nuclei, properties of, 1108, 1178–1182,
1179t, 1180, 1182
Nuclides, 1178
Number density, 547
Object distance (p), 926
Oersted, Hans Christian, 587, 743, 743,
772
Ohm (Ω, unit of electrical resistance), 695
Ohm, Georg Simon, 695, 695
Ohm’s law, 695
Omega facility, University of Rochester
(NY), laser fusion laboratory, 1210
Omega minus particle (Ω2), 1239, 1239
Omega minus (Ω2) sss baryon, 1242
One-dimensional wave function (C),
1081–1082
On the Masses of Nebulae and of Clusters of
Nebulae (Zwicky), 351n
Open-circuit voltage, 714
Open Universe, 1249
Optical doublet, 960
Optical fibers, 916, 916–917, 917
Optical instruments
camera, 947, 947–948
compound microscope, 952, 952
eyes, 948, 948–950, 949, 950
magnifying glass, 951, 951
telescope, 953, 953–954, 954
Optics. See Light and ray optics; Wave optics
Optics (Ptolemy), 918
Orbital, 1127
Orbital magnetic quantum number (m,),
1115, 1116t, 1120–1123, 1121, 1122
Orbital quantum number (,), 1115, 1116t,
1120
Order number, in constructive interference,
965–966
Order-of-magnitude calculations, 12–13
Original quark model, 1241
Oscillating Universe, 1249
Oscillatory motion, 385–414. See also
Superposition and standing waves;
Wave motion
damped, 404, 404–405, 405, 838, 838t
energy of simple harmonic oscillator,
394–397, 395, 396
forced, 405–407, 406, 407
in LC circuits, 834, 834–837, 836
of pendulum, 400, 400–404, 401t, 402,
403, 404
quantized, 1054–1055
simple harmonic motion, analysis model
of, 388–394, 389, 391, 392
simple harmonic oscillator, 1096–1098,
1097
spring, motion of object attached to, 387,
387–388
storyline on, 386–387
Otto cycle, for gasoline engines, 567–569,
568
Ötzi the Iceman (remains in Italian Alps,
found in 1991), radioactive dating
of, 1198
Overdamped motion, 839
Overdamped systems, 405
Ozone shield, to block UV radiation, 889
Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (HI), 444
Pair annihilation, 1228
Pair production, as source of positrons,
1228
Parabola, 74, 74–80, 74n, A-11
Parallel-axis theorem, 265–267, 266, 271,
403
Parallel combination of capacitors, 669,
669–670
Parallel combination of resistors, 718,
718–722
Parallel-plate capacitor, 666, 676, 678,
681–682
Paramagnetism, 788
Paraxial rays of mirrors, 929, 929
Parent nucleus, in radioactive decay, 1191
Paris Agreement, on climate change, 1155
Partial integration, in calculus, A-17–A-18
Particle(s). See also Analysis models
boundary conditions on, 1088–1089
center of gravity from, 313, 313
center of mass of, 232, 232–233
charged, in a uniform magnetic field
applications of, 752, 752–755, 753, 754
overview, 748–752, 749, 750, 751, 752
in electric field, 598, 598–603, 599, 601,
602, 603
energy of charged, 878
frequency of, 1064
model of, 7
motion of, in uniform electric fields,
605–607, 606, 607
overview, 7
position, velocity, and speed, 21–24
quantum particle model, 1067,
1067–1069, 1068
systems of many, 234–237
in uniform circular motion, angular
momentum of, 290, 290–291
wave function for, 1082–1083
wave properties of, 1064, 1064–1066, 1066
in well of finite height, 1091, 1091–1093,
1092
WIMP (weakly interacting massive
particle), 351
Particle-in-a-box problem, 1084, 1084–1087,
1085, 1086, 1090–1091
Particle in a field (gravitational), analysis
model of, 336–339, 338
Particle in a field model, 637
Particle in a field (magnetic) model, 743,
743–748, 744, 746, 747t, 748
Particle in damped harmonic motion,
838, 838t
Particle in equilibrium model, 105, 105–107,
117, 117, 129, 129–132, 130, 131,
138
Particle in simple harmonic motion model,
388–394, 389, 391, 392, 619
Particle in uniform circular motion model,
81, 81–83, 130–133, 131, 1110
Particle in uniform circular motion model,
extended, 128–133
Particle model of light (Newton), 899
Particle physics and cosmology, 1225–1258
connection between
critical density and universe fate, 1249,
1249–1250
dark matter and missing mass of
universe, 1250–1251
expanding universe, evidence for,
1248–1249
mysterious energy of universe, 1251
overview, 1246, 1246–1247
radiation from primordial fireball,
1247, 1247–1248, 1248
conservation laws for, 1233–1236, 1234
for fundamental forces in nature,
1226–1227, 1227t
mesons and beginnings of, 1229–1231,
1230, 1230, 1231
particle classification, 1231–1233, 1232t
patterns in, 1238, 1238–1239, 1239
positrons and other antiparticles, 1227,
1227–1229, 1228, 1229
problems and perspectives in, 1251–1253,
1252
quarks, 1240–1244, 1240t, 1242t, 1243,
1244
standard model for, 1244–1245, 1245
storyline on, 1225–1226
strange particles and strangeness,
1236–1238, 1237
Particle, quantum, under boundary
conditions, analysis model of, 1084,
1084–1089, 1085, 1089
Particle under constant acceleration model,
37–41, 38
Particle under constant velocity model,
27–30
I-14 IndexParticle under net force model, 106, 106–114,
134, 134–135, 142–143, 749
Pascal (Pa, unit of pressure), 359
Pascal, Blaise, 361, 380
Pascal’s law, 361–362
Paschen series, in hydrogen spectra, 1107
Path difference (d), wave optics, 965
Pauli, Wolfgang, 1123, 1126, 1126,
1196, 1227
Pendulum, 386, 400, 400–404, 401t, 402,
403, 404, 1023–1024
Penzias, Arno A., 1247, 1247–1248
Percent uncertainty, A-20
Perfect diamagnetism, in superconductors,
845
Perfect differential, in calculus, A-18
Perfectly inelastic collisions, 220, 220, 239n
Period (T)
of particle in simple harmonic motion,
392
of physical pendulum, 403
of revolution, 82–83
of simple harmonic oscillator, 389,
389–390
of simple pendulum, 401
as time interval, 5n
of waves, 420
Periodic Table
example of, A-22–A-23
exclusion principle and, 1126, 1126–1130,
1127t, 1128, 1128, 1129, 1130
missing elements, prediction of, 1239
Periscope, 956
Perlmutter, Saul, 1251
Permeability of free space, constant of
(m0), 772
Permittivity of free space (e0), 593
PET (positron-emission tomography) scans,
for medical diagnosis, 1177, 1213,
1225, 1225, 1229, 1229
Pfund, A. H., 923
Phase change, 509, 969, 969–970, 970
Phase constant (f), 389, 392, 421
Phase speed of waves in wave packets,
1068–1069
Phase transition, 505
Phasor, 849, 849, 850, 857
Phillips, William, 1143
Phipps, T. E., 1124–1126
Photoelectric effect, 1055, 1055–1060,
1058t, 1059
Photoelectric photometry, 1059–1060
Photomultiplier tubes, 1059, 1059, 1234
Photons
electromagnetic force mediated by, 1227
as particle of light, 899
quantized light as, 1057
virtual, 1230–1231
Phototube, photoelectric effect and, 1059
Photovoltaic cells, 883, 1167
Physical pendulum, 402, 402–403, 403
Physical quantities, units of, A-2–A-3
Physics (Aristotle), 208
Pickup coil, in electric guitar, 800
Pictorial representations, 9, 9
Pike’s Peak, 304
Pi meson (p, pion), 1230
Pion (p) particles, 1230–1231
Pitch, frequency versus, 472
Planck, Max, 1011, 1051, 1052
Planck length, 1252–1253
Planck satellite, 1248
Planck’s constant (h), 786, 1051–1052, 1131
Planck’s hypothesis on blackbody radiation,
1049, 1049–1055, 1050, 1051, 1052,
1053
Plane, motion in, 73, 73–74
Plane electromagnetic waves, 878, 878–882,
879, 881
Plane of charge, 628–629, 629
Plane polar coordinates, 53, 53
Planetary motion
data on, 343t
description of, 347, 347–351, 348, 350,
350t, 351
Kepler’s laws and, 339–344, 340, 341, 342,
343t, 344
Planets, surface temperatures of, 527t, 552t
Plasma, 1142
Plateau-Rayleigh instability, 612
Plethysmographs, 710
Pluto (dwarf planet), 992, 992
p-n junction diodes, 1165, 1166
Point charges, 593, 642, 642–645, 643
Point source, of waves, 436
Poiseuille, Jean Leonard Marie, 377n
Poiseuille’s law, 377
Poisson, Simeon, 984
Polar coordinate systems, 53–54, 54, 59
Polarization of light waves, 998–1003
by double refraction, 1001, 1001–1002,
1002t
overview, 998
by reflection, 999–1001, 1000, 1001
by scattering, 1002, 1002–1003
by selective absorption, 998–999, 999
Polar molecules, 680, 681
Polaroid material, 999
Pole-in-the-barn paradox, 1028, 1028–1029
Polytechnic Institute (Paris, France), 870
Population inversion, in lasers, 1135
Position (Sr )
angular (u), 250–252
in constant acceleration model, 38, 72, 72
of particles, 21–24
of simple harmonic oscillator, 391,
391–392
in trajectory of projectiles, 75
vectors of, 69–71
Position-time graph, 21, 22, 23, 26, 35
Positive electric charge, 590
Positron-emission tomography (PET) scans,
for medical diagnosis, 1177, 1213,
1225, 1225, 1229, 1229
Positron particles, 1187, 1227, 1227–1229,
1228, 1229
Potential difference (DV)
across capacitor, 676
across load resistance, 714
for ohmic and nonohmic material, 697
overview, 637–639, 638
in uniform electric field, 639–642, 640,
641
Potential energy (U). See also Electric
potential; Energy; Energy,
conservation of
asymmetrical nature of potential energy
curve, 488n
of capacitor, 672n
conservative forces and, 171–173
of gravitation, 345, 345–346, 346
in ionic solids, 1156
in molecular bonding, 1145
overview, 165, 165–169, 168, 169
rotational configuration associated
with, 679
of simple harmonic oscillator, 395, 395, 396
tunneling through barrier of, 1093,
1093–1094
Potential energy function (U), 171–172
Power (P)
in alternating-current circuits, 859–861
electromagnetic wave intensity and, 882
of emitted radiation, 1049
of lenses in diopters, 950
in output of Carnot engine, 565n
overview, 200–202, 201, 202
sound wave intensity and, 434–435
Power factor (cos f), 860
Power plants, energy sources for, 812–813
Powers, algebraic handling of, A-6–A-7
Powers of ten, prefixes for, 6t
Power tools, eddy currents and, 815
Power transmission, 863–866, 864, 864, 865
Poynting vector ( S
S
), 882, 883, 883, 886
Precessional motion, 301, 301
Presbyopia, 950n
Pressure (P)
absolute temperature scale and, 486
conversion factors for, A-2
definition of, 321
gauge for, 365
measurement of, 359, 359, 364, 364–365
molar specific heat of ideal gas at
constant, 539–540, 540
molecular kinetic energy and, 537
overview, 359–360
variation with depth, 360–364, 361
Pressure amplitude of waves, 430
Pressure antinode, 466
Primer on Work-Energy Relationships for
Introductory Physics, A (Mungan),
275n
Primordial fireball, radiation from, 1247,
1247–1248, 1248
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, 1209
Princeton University, 1061, 1210, 1247
Principal axes, 294n
Principal axis of mirrors, 928, 928, 929
Principal quantum number (n), 1115, 1116t
Principle of complementarity, 1064
Principle of Relativity, The (Lorentz, Einstein,
Minkowski, and Weyl), 1018n
Principle of superposition, 455. See also
Superposition and standing waves
Prism, light through, 910, 910. See also Light
and ray optics
Probabilistic quantum-mechanical theory of
atomic structure, 1109
Probability, entropy and, 570–571
Probability amplitude (wave function), 1080
Projectiles
exploding, 236, 236
motion of, 74–80
Index I-15Projectile-target demonstration, 78, 78
Propagation of a disturbance, 416, 416–419,
417, 418
Propagation of uncertainty, A-20–A-21
Proper length, 1025
Proper time interval, 1022
Prospect Creek Camp (AK), 496
Proton-antiproton collider, 1227
Proton-proton collisions, 229–230
Proton-proton cycle, nuclear fusion in, 1207
Protons
as baryon particles, 1233
charge and mass of, 594t
detecting decay of, 1234, 1234–1235
energy of, 1038–1039
moving perpendicular to uniform
magnetic field, 750
in uniform electric field, 641, 641–642
J/C particle, 1241
Ptolemy, Claudius, 339, 918
p-type semiconductor, 1164
Pulsed ruby laser, 1143
Pulses, of waves, 416, 416–419, 417, 418, 425
Purely capacitive AC circuit, 855–856
Purely inductive AC circuit, 853
Pure rolling motion, condition for, 271, 271
PV diagram, 513–514
P waves, 417
Pythagorean theorem, 53, A-11
Qamdo Bamda Airport (China), 358
QCD (quantum chromodynamics), 1243
QLED televisions, 1093
QUaD, 1248
Quadratic equations, A-7
Quality factor (Q), 863, 863n
Quantization of oscillatory motion, 461
Quantized electric charge, 591
Quantized energy, 1051
Quantized orbital angular momentum,
786, 786
Quantum chromodynamics (QCD), 1243
Quantum dot, 1093, 1169–1170, 1170
Quantum mechanics, 1079–1104
definition of, 1
particle in well of finite height, 1091,
1091–1093, 1092
quantum particle under boundary
conditions, analysis model of, 1084,
1084–1089, 1085, 1089
Schrödinger equation, 1089–1091,
1090, 1090
simple harmonic oscillator, 1096–1098,
1097
storyline on, 1079
tunneling applications, 1094, 1094–1096
tunneling through potential energy
barrier, 1093, 1093–1094
wave function, 1079–1083, 1080, 1082
Quantum model of hydrogen atom, 534,
1114, 1114–1118, 1115, 1116t
Quantum numbers
baryon number, 1233–1234
bottomness, for quarks, 1241
charm, for quarks, 1240t, 1241
description of, 1051n
lepton number, 1235–1236
orbital (,), 1115, 1116t, 1120
orbital magnetic (m,), 1115, 1116t,
1120–1123, 1121, 1122
principal (n), 1115, 1116t
spin magnetic (ms), 1123, 1123–1126, 1124,
1125, 1126t
strangeness (S), 1237
topness, for quarks, 1241
vibrational, 1151
Quantum physics, 1048–1078
blackbody radiation and Planck’s
hypothesis, 1049, 1049–1055, 1050,
1051, 1052, 1053
Compton effect, 1061, 1061–1063, 1062
double-slit experiment, 1070, 1070–1071
electromagnetic waves, 1063–1064
photoelectric effect, 1055, 1055–1060,
1058t, 1059
quantum particle model, 1067,
1067–1069, 1068
storyline on, 1048–1049
uncertainty principle, 1071, 1071–1073
wave properties of particles, 1064,
1064–1066, 1066
Quantum states, 1051
Quantum statistics, 1158
Quark-gluon plasma, 1242
Quarks, 593n, 1240–1244, 1240t, 1242t,
1243, 1244
Quasars, 1248–1249, 1256
Qubic, 1248
Queckenstedt’s test, 379
Quincy Quarries Reservation (MA), 415,
415, 447
Rad (radiation absorbed dose), 1212
Radial acceleration, 84, 84–85
Radial probability density function,
1117, 1119
Radian (rad, unit of angular position), 250,
389n, 390, A-10
Radiant intensity, 882
Radiation. See also Blackbody radiation
biological damage from, 1211–1213,
1212t
as energy transfer mechanism, 523–524
from primordial fireball, 1247, 1247–1248,
1248
uses for, 1213, 1213–1215, 1215
Radiation equivalent in man (REM), 1212
Radiation pressure of electromagnetic
waves, 884–886
Radiation therapy, 1214, 1215
Radioactivity
artificial, 1200
decay process in
alpha, 1191, 1191–1195, 1192t–1193t,
1195
beta, 1195–1198, 1196, 1197
carbon dating by, 1198–1199
gamma, 1199, 1199–1200, 1200t
overview, 1190–1191
discovery of, 1187–1190, 1188
natural, 1200
Radio waves, 887
Rail guns, 794
Rainbows, 898, 898, 913, 913, 914
Range equation, 76
Räsänen, Juha, 176
Ray diagrams for spherical mirrors, 931,
931–933, 931t, 932, 933
Rayleigh-Jeans law, 1050–1051, 1053, 1053Z
Rayleigh’s criterion, 989–990
Ray optics. See Light and ray optics
Rays, of wave fronts, 435
RBE (relative biological effectiveness), 1212,
1212t
RC circuits, 725–732
charging capacitors, 725–728, 727, 728,
729–730
discharging capacitors, 728–729, 729,
730–731
energy delivered to resistor in, 731–732
intermittent windshield wipers
example, 729
Reaction energy (Q), 1201
Reaction force, 103
Reactions, nuclear, 1200–1202
Reactors, nuclear, 1204, 1204–1207, 1205,
1206
Real image, 926
Reasonable values, 3
Receptacle testers, 847, 847
Rectangular components of vectors, 58
Rectangular coordinate systems, 53
Rectangular hyperbola, equation for, A-11
Redshift, in wavelength, 1029
Reduced mass of molecules, 1149
Reflecting telescope, 954
Reflection
change of phase from, 969, 969–970,
970
Huygens’s principle applied to, 911,
911–912, 912
polarization by, 999, 999–1001,
1000, 1001
total internal, 914, 914–917, 915, 916, 917
wave under, analysis model of, 902,
902–905, 903, 904, 905
Reflection coefficient (R), 1093
Reflection grating, 992
Reflections on the Motive Power of Heat
(Carnot), 563
Refracting telescope, 953
Refraction
Huygens’s principle applied to, 911,
911–912, 912
image formation by, 935, 935–939, 936,
937, 937t, 938
index of refraction, 970
wave under, analysis model of, 905–910
angle of refraction for glass, 908–909
index of refraction, 906–908, 907, 907t
light through prism, 910, 910
light through slab, 909–910, 910
overview, 905, 905–908, 906, 907,
908, 908
Refrigerators, heat pumps and, 559,
559–562, 560
Reines, Frederick, 1196
Relative acceleration, 85–88
Relative biological effectiveness (RBE),
1212, 1212t
Relative velocity, 85–88, 87, 1014, 1031–1034
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC),
Brookhaven National Laboratory,
1242
I-16 IndexRelativity
consequences of special theory of
length contraction, 1025–1026, 1026
pole-in-the-barn paradox, 1028, 1028–1029
relativistic Doppler effect, 1029
simultaneity and relativity of time, 1019,
1019–1020
space-time graphs, 1026, 1026–1029, 1028
time dilation, 1020, 1020–1024, 1021,
1021, 1021t, 1023
twin paradox, 1024, 1024–1025
definition of, 1
Einstein’s principle of, 1018, 1018–1019
Galilean, 1013, 1013–1016, 1014, 1015
general theory of, 1039–1041, 1040,
1040, 1041
Lorentz transformation equations, 1030,
1030–1031
Lorentz velocity transformation
equations, 1031–1034, 1033
Michelson-Morley experiment, 1016,
1016–1018
pole-in-the-barn paradox, 1028,
1028–1029
relativistic energy, 1035–1039, 1036
relativistic linear momentum, 1034–1035
storyline on, 1012–1013
Rem (radiation equivalent in man), 1212
Repulsive force, 589, 589, 590
Repulsive magnetic force, 790
Resistance (R), 864. See also Current and
resistance
Resistive forces, motion and, 138–143
Resistivity (r), 696, 697t, 700–701
Resistors
in alternating-current circuits, 848,
848–851, 849, 850
equivalent resistance, calculating, 721,
721
landscape lights example, 720, 720
in parallel, 718, 718–720, 720
in series, 716–718, 717, 718
three, in parallel, 722, 722
Resonance
Hertz’s electromagnetic wave detection
by, 877
overview, 406–407, 407
in RLC series circuits, 861–863, 862
in standing waves, 465, 465–466
in stimulated emission, 1134n
Resonance frequencies (v0), 406, 465–466,
861–862
Resonant tunneling transistors, 1169–1170,
1170
Rest energy (ER), 1036
Restoring force, 387
Retarding force, 404–405
Retinopathy, laser treatment for, 1137
Retroreflection, 904, 914
Return stroke of lightning, 636, 636
Reversible and irreversible processes in heat
engines, 562, 562–563
Reynold’s number, for fluid turbulence, 383
RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider),
Brookhaven National Laboratory,
1242
Richter, Burton, 1241
Riess, Adam, 1251
Rigel (star), 1050
Rigid objects
angular momentum of rotating, 293,
293–295, 294
under constant angular acceleration,
analysis model of, 252–254, 253
definition of, 250
in equilibrium, analysis model of, 311,
311–312, 312
model of, 250
moments of inertia to characterize, 260n
under net torque, analysis model of, 259,
259–263, 261, 262, 263
rolling motion of, 272, 272–277, 273, 274,
275
in static equilibrium, 313–319
horizontal beam, 315–317, 316
leaning ladder, 317, 317
seesaw, 314, 314–315
wheelchair on curb, 318, 318–319
RLC circuits, 837–839, 838, 838t, 839
RL circuits, 827, 827–830, 828, 829, 830
RLC series circuits
as alternating-current circuit, 856,
856–859, 857, 858
resonance in, 861–863, 862
RMS (root-mean-square) current, 850–851,
862
Rocket propulsion, 239, 239–241
Rockets, exploding, 236–237
Rod, center of mass of, 233, 233–234
Rods and cones, in eyes, 949
Roemer, Ole, 899–900, 918
Roentgen, Wilhelm, 996
Roentgen (R) unit of ionizing radiation,
1211
Rogowski coil, 817
Rolling friction, 273
Rolling motion of rigid object, 272,
272–277, 273, 274, 275
Root-mean-square (rms) speed of
molecules, 538, 538t
Rotational equilibrium, 311
Rotational motion, 249–284
angular and translational quantities,
254–257, 255, 256
angular momentum in, 212n
angular momentum of rigid object, 293,
293–295, 294
angular position, velocity, and
acceleration, 250–252, 251, 251
energy considerations in, 269, 269–272,
270t, 271, 272
energy states of molecules in, 1148–1151,
1149
equations for, 270t
moments of inertia, 263–267, 264, 265, 266
overview, 162
rigid object under constant angular
acceleration, analysis model of,
252–254, 253
rigid object under net torque, analysis
model of, 259, 259–263, 261,
262, 263
rolling motion of rigid object, 272,
272–277, 273, 274, 275
rotational kinetic energy, 267, 267–268,
268
storyline on, 249–250
torque, 257, 257–259, 258
Rotation of the Andromeda Nebula from a
Spectroscopic Survey of Emission
Regions (Rubin and Ford), 351n
Rotation rate, 82
Rubbia, Carlo, 1227
Rubin, V. C., 351n
Rutherford, Ernest, 1107–1108, 1108,
1178–1179, 1187
R-value of insulation material, 521–522,
521t, 522
Rydberg, Johannes, 1107, 1111
Rydberg constant, 1107
Safety
electrical, 733, 733–734, 734, 800, 800
in nuclear fission reactions, 1206–1207
Salam, Abdus, 1244
Satellite motion, 344, 344, 347, 347–351,
348, 350, 350t, 351
Savart, Félix, 772
Scalar product, work and, 154–156
Scalar quantities
addition of, 55
multiplication of, 56–57
overview, 22
pressure, 359
vectors and, 54–55, 154–156, 155
Scanning electron microscope (SEM), 1066
Scanning tunneling microscopes (STM),
1095, 1095–1096
Scattering, polarization of light waves by,
1002, 1002–1003
Scattering events, reactions as, 1201
Schmidt, Brian P., 1251
Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut, 382
Schmitt, Harrison, 102
Schrieffer, J. R., 703
Schrödinger, Erwin, 1090
Schrödinger equations, 1089–1091, 1090,
1090, 1092, 1114, 1115n, 1120n,
1121n
Schrödinger’s cat, 1252
Schwarzschild radius, 350
Schwinger, Julian, 1230
Scientific notation, A-4–A-5
Scissors, laser, 1136
Scotopic vision, of eyes, 949
Scott, David, 42
Search coil device, 821
Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
(SETI), 892
Second (s, SI base unit of time), 5
Secondary maxima, in diffraction
patterns, 984
Second derivative, in calculus, A-14
Second law of thermodynamics
entropy and, 578–580, 579
heat engines and, 557, 557–559, 558, 558
Segré, Emilio, 1228
Seismic waves, 417
Selection rules for allowed transitions,
1131, 1150
Selective absorption, polarization by,
998–999, 999
Selectron superpartner particle, 1253
Self-induced emf («L), 825
Index I-17Self-induction, 825, 825–826
Self-sustained nuclear chain reaction, 1205
SEM (scanning electron microscope), 1066
Semiconductor devices
integrated circuits, 1170, 1170–1171
junction diode, 1165, 1165–1166, 1166
light-emitting and light-absorbing diodes,
1166–1168, 1167
transistors
junction, 1168
MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor
field-effect tranistor), 1168,
1168–1169
resonant tunneling, 1169–1170, 1170
Semiconductors, 591, 702, 1163, 1163–1165,
1163t, 1164, 1165
Semimajor axis, of ellipse, 340
Semiminor axis, of ellipse, 340
Series combination of capacitors, 670, 670–671
Series combination of resistors, 716–718, 717
Series expansion, A-13
Series limit, of Balmer series, 1107
SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial
Intelligence), 892
Seurat, Georges, 1005
Shape, elasticity of, 321
Shear modulus, 320, 320t, 321, 321, 376
Shell model (Goeppert-Mayer and Jensen),
in nuclear physics, 1185–1187, 1186
Shells, atomic, 1116, 1116t
Sherwood, B. A., 191n
Shockley, William, 1168
Shock waves, 442, 442–443, 443
Side maxima, in diffraction patterns, 984
Sideview mirrors, automobile, 935, 935
Sigma (S) particle, 1236–1237
o (summation symbol), 44
Significant figures, 13–15, 14, 26n
Simple harmonic motion, 387. See also
Oscillatory motion
Simple harmonic motion of elements of the
medium, amplitude of, 457
Simple harmonic oscillator, 1096–1098, 1097
Simple magnifier, 951, 951
Simplification models, 8
Simplified pictorial representations, 9, 9
Simultaneity and relativity of time,
1019–1020, 1031
Sines and tangents of angles, 401t
Single-slit and circular aperture resolution,
988–992, 989, 990, 992
Single-slit diffraction patterns, intensity of,
987, 987–988, 988
Sinusoidal waves, 419, 419, 420, 422–423,
426, 426–428, 453–455, 454
SI (Système International) standards,
3, A-24
Six Flags Great America amusement park
(IL), 145
Ski jump, example of projectile motion,
80, 80
Skysurfer, forces on, 142, 142
SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator),
1241
Slipher, Vesto Melvin, 1248
Slopes of graphs, 25
Slug (unit of mass), 100n
Small angle approximation, 401
Smartphones, physics activities involving,
2, 20, 50, 52, 68, 89, 127, 129,
137–138, 144, 228, 307, 354, 415,
445, 447, 475, 495, 636, 664, 711,
742, 873, 920, 925, 956
Smith, George E., 1060
Smithsonian Institution, 825
Snell’s law of refraction, 907–908, 912, 924
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
(SOHO), 357
Solar cells, nonreflective coatings for,
973, 973
Solar sailing, for spacecraft propulsion, 885
Solar Star (CA), 1167
Solenoids
electric field induced by changing
magnetic field in, 809, 809–810
inductance of, 830–831
magnetic fields of, 782, 782–783, 783
mutual inductance of, 833
Solidification, latent heat of, 509n
Solids. See Molecules and solids
Solid-state physics, 1144
Sonic booms, 443
Sorbonne (France), 1064
Sound level (b), in decibels (dB), 436–437
Sound waves, 429–443
beating, 469–471, 471
Doppler effect, 438–443, 439, 440, 442, 443
intensity of, 433–438, 434, 436t, 438
overview, 429–431, 430, 431
speed of, 431–433
standing, in air columns, 466–469, 467
South Pole Telescope, 1248
Space quantization, 1122–1124, 1124
Spacetime, curvature of, 1040–1041
Space-time graphs, in special theory of
relativity, 1026, 1026–1029, 1028
Space-time transformation equations,
Galilean, 1014
Spatial interference, 469
Special theory of relativity
length contraction, 1025–1026, 1026
relativistic Doppler effect, 1029
simultaneity and relativity of time, 1019,
1019–1020
space-time graphs, 1026, 1026–1029, 1028
time dilation, 1019, 1019–1024, 1020,
1021, 1021t, 1023
twin paradox, 1024, 1024–1025
Specific heat (c)
calorimetry and, 504–508, 505, 506t, 507
molar, for ideal gas, 539, 539–542, 540,
541t
molar, of hydrogen, 1097–1098
Spectra
of electromagnetic waves, 887–889, 888,
888, 889, 889
of gases, 1106, 1106–1107, 1107
molecular, 1153, 1153–1156, 1154, 1155
visible, 1130, 1130–1131
x-ray, 1131, 1131–1133, 1132, 1133
Spectroscopy
as diffraction grating application,
994–996, 995
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR),
974–975
Kirchhoff and Bunsen as founders of, 724
Specular reflection, 902
Speed (v)
angular (v), 82
average angular (v), 251
constant angular, 399–400
conversion factors for, A-1
dimensions and units of, 10t
of electromagnetic waves, 878, 880
escape, 348, 348–350, 350t
instantaneous, 24–27, 26
instantaneous angular, 251
of light, 899–901, 900, 1015, 1015–1016,
1018
of light in vacuum, 4
maximum, 130–131
of particles, 21–24
phase, of waves in wave packets,
1068–1069
of pulses on cords, 425
resistive force proportional to object, 141,
141–143
root-mean-square (rms), of molecules,
538, 538t
of sound waves, 431–433, 433t
tangential, 255
terminal, 140–141, 142t
of water spray, 370, 370–371
of waves on strings, 423–426, 424, 425
work-kinetic energy theorem related
to, 163
Speedometer, 12
Spheres
capacitance of isolated charged, 665
capacitor as, 668, 668
charge distribution symmetric to, 626,
626–627, 627
charge on, as example of Coulomb’s law,
591–592, 597, 597–598
Spherical aberrations in lenses, 947, 947
Spherical mirrors
concave, 928, 928–930, 929, 930, 933–934
convex, 930–931, 931, 935, 935
ray diagrams for, 931, 931–933, 931t, 932,
933
Spherical waves, 435, 435
Spin angular momentum, for electrons,
1125, 1125n
Spin magnetic quantum number (ms), 1123,
1123–1126, 1124, 1125, 1126t
Spinning object, 130
Spin property of electrons, 786–787, 787
Spirit-in-glass thermometer, 383
Spontaneous and stimulated transitions,
1133–1134, 1134
Spontaneous emission, 1134
Spring constant (k), 158
Springs. See also Oscillatory motion
motion of object attached to, 387,
387–388
pushing on, 238, 238–239
two-body collision with, 226, 226–227
work done by, 158, 158–160, 159,
160, 168
Square barrier, 1093
Square well, particle-in-a-box in, 1090
Squark superpartner particle, 1253
Stability, nuclear, 1181–1182, 1182
Stable equilibrium, 173, 173
I-18 IndexStandard international notation for large
numbers, 4n
Standard Model (electroweak theory and
QCD), 1244–1245, 1245
Standing waves, 456–459, 457, 458. See also
Superposition and standing waves
Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC), 1241
Stanford Linear Collider, 1245
Stanford University, 1241
State variables, 513, 672n
Static equilibrium. See Equilibrium
Static friction forces, 114, 115
Stationary states of electrons, 1109
Statistical physics, 1158
Steady flow, 368
Steam engine, 567
Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 1049
Stefan’s law, 1049–1050, 1053, 1256
Stellarator fusion device, 1210
Step-down transformer, 864
Stepped leader of lightning, 636, 636
Step-up transformer, 864
Stern, Otto, 1124–1126
Stick-and-slip motion, 412
Stimulated absorption, 1133–1134, 1134
Stimulated emission, 1134, 1134–1135
Stimulated transitions, 1133–1134, 1134
Stirling, Robert, 584
Stirling engine, 584, 584
STM (scanning tunneling microscopes),
1095, 1095–1096
Stokes’s law, 657
Stonehenge, as observatory, 2
Stopping potential, 1056
Storyline
alternating-current circuits, 847–848
angular momentum, 285–286
atomic physics, 1105
circular motion, 127–128
continuous charge distributions, 615–616
current and resistance, 691–692
diffraction patterns, 983
direct-current circuits, 713–714
electric fields, 588–589
electric potential, 636–637
electromagnetic waves, 873–874
energy, 150–151
energy, conservation of, 181–182
equilibrium, 310–311
Faraday’s law of induction, 797–798
fluid mechanics, 358
gravitation, 332–333
heat engines, 556–557
image formation, 925–926
kinetic theory of gases, 533–534
light and ray optics, 898–899
linear momentum, 210
magnetic fields, 742–743
magnetic fields, sources of, 771–772
measurement, 2–3
molecules and solids, 1144–1145
motion, laws of, 95
motion in one dimension, 20–21
motion in two dimensions, 68
nuclear physics, 1177–1178
particle physics and cosmology,
1225–1226
quantum mechanics, 1079
quantum physics, 1048–1049
relativity, 1012–1013
rotational motion, 249–250
superposition and standing waves,
451–452
temperature, 482–483
vectors, 52
wave motion, 415–416
Strange particles and strangeness,
1236–1238, 1237
Strange type of quark (s), 1240
Strassmann, Fritz, 1202
Streamline flow, 369, 377
Strings
power supplied to vibrating, 427–428
sinusoidal waves on, 422–423, 426–428
speed of waves on, 423–426, 424, 425
standing waves on, 457, 457–459, 458
String theory, 1252, 1252–1253
Stroboscopic photograph, 36
Strong force, 96, 1231, 1242
Strontium-90, 1222
Structural mechanics, 593
Structural models, 7
Subshells, atomic, 1116, 1116t
Subtraction of vectors, 56, 56
Successive radioactive decays, law of, 1220
Summation symbol (o), 44
Sun
atmosphere, analysis of gases in, 1106
electromagnetic radiation from, 523–524
escape speed of, 350t
fusion in, 1207
magnetic field of, 747t
mass of, 5t, 343, 343t
planetary data on, 343t
temperature of, 487
wavelength of radiation from, 1054
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande
Jatte, A (Seurat), 1005
Sunglasses, to reduce ultraviolet light
damage, 889, 889
Sunscreen lotions, to reduce ultraviolet light
damage, 889
Superconductors, 702, 702–703, 702t,
789–790, 790, 792, 845
Superheating, 512
Super Kamiokande neutrino facility,
1234–1235
Supernova explosions, 1045
Supernova Shelton 1987A, 1257, 1257–1258
Supernumerary bows, 898
Superposition and standing waves, 451–480.
See also Wave motion
in air columns, 466–469, 467, 469
beats: interference in time, 469–471, 471
boundary conditions, analysis model of,
461, 461–465, 463, 464
boundary effects: reflection and
transmission, 459, 459–460, 460
nonsinusoidal waveforms, 472, 472–473,
473
overview, 456, 456–459, 457, 458
resonance, 465
storyline on, 451–452
on strings, 457, 457–459, 458
waves in interference, analysis model of,
452–456, 453, 454, 455
Super Proton Synchrotron, CERN, 1245
Supersymmetry (SUSY), 1253
Surface charge density (s), 617, 649
Surface effect, in liquid-drop model, 1184
Surface-water waves, 417, 417
Surfactants, 680
S waves, 417
Symbols, A-2–A-3
Symmetry effect, in liquid-drop model,
1184–1185
Systems. See also Analysis models
deformable, 152, 237–239, 238
energy diagrams and equilibrium of, 173,
173–174, 174
energy model based on, 151
of many particles, 234–237
Tabular representations, 9, 22
Tacoma Narrows Bridge (WA), 407, 407
Tangent function, 60
Tangential acceleration, 84, 84–85, 255
Tangential velocity, 255
Tangents and sines of angles, 401t
Tau (t) particles, 1233
Taylor, J. B., 1124–1126
Telegraph, 792
Telescopes, 953, 953–954, 954, 991
TEM (transmission electron microscope),
1066
Temperature (T), 482–501
Celsius scale, 484–485, 485, 487
constant-volume gas thermometers and
absolute scale, 485, 485–487, 486,
486, 487
Curie, 788, 788t
current and resistance and, 701, 701–702
energy-level diagrams and, 545
Fahrenheit scale, 487
ideal gas, macroscopic description of,
492, 492–494, 493
Kelvin scale, 487
molar specific heat as function of, 544
molecular kinetic energy and, 537
power of emitted radiation increases
with, 1049
storyline on, 482–483
of surfaces of planets, 527t, 552t
thermal expansion of solids and liquids,
488, 488–491, 489, 489t, 490, 491
thermometers and Celsius scale, 484–485,
485, 487
zeroth law of thermodynamics and,
483–484, 484
Temperature coefficients of resistivity,
697t, 701
Temperature gradient (dT/dx), 519
Temporal interference, 470
Ten, powers of, 6t
Tensile strain, 320, 321
Tensile stress, 320, 321
Terminal speed, 140–141, 142t
Terminal voltage of battery, 714–716
Terrestrial fusion reactions, 1207–1209
Tesla (T, unit of magnetic field), 747
Tesla, Nikola, 865, 865
Tevatron, Fermi National Accelerator
Laboratory, 1245
Texas Instruments, Inc., 1170
Index I-19TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor),
1209, 1210
Theorem of equipartition of energy, 538
Theory of Everything, 1252
Thermal conduction
current analogy to, 692
entropy change in, 577–578
overview, 519, 519–521, 520
Thermal efficiency (e) of heat engines,
558–559
Thermal energy, 502
Thermal equilibrium, 483
Thermal expansion of solids and liquids,
488, 488–491, 489, 489t, 490, 491.
See also Temperature
Thermal neutrons, moderators and, 1202
Thermal radiation, 1053–1054
Thermodynamics. See also Temperature
definition of, 1
electricity linked to, 705–706
zeroth law of, 483–484, 484
Thermodynamics, first law of, 501–532
energy transfer mechanisms
convection, 522–523
Dewar flask, 525
home insulation, 521–522, 521t, 522
overview, 518–519
radiation, 523–524
thermal conduction, 519, 519–521, 520
heat and internal energy, 502–505, 504
latent heat, 509–512, 510, 510t
overview, 514–518, 515, 516, 517
specific heat and calorimetry, 504–508,
505t, 506, 506
storyline on, 501–502
work in, 513, 513–514, 514
Thermodynamic systems
entropy change in, 572–578
in Carnot cycle, 575–576
in free expansion, 576–577
overview, 572–575
in thermal conduction, 577–578
Thermodynamic variables of ideal
gas, 493
Thermometers, 383, 1053, 1053. See also
Temperature
Thermonuclear fusion reactions, 1207
Thermos flask (Dewar flask), 525
Thin films, interference in, 970, 970–973,
971, 973
Thin lens equations, 941
Thin lenses. See Lenses
Thompson, Benjamin, 504
Thomson, G. P., 1065
Thomson, J. J., 630, 753, 753, 766, 1075,
1107, 1107
Thomson, William (Lord Kelvin), 557
Thorud, Richard A., 921
Threshold of hearing, 435
Threshold of pain, 435
Tilting rearview mirrors, 928, 928
Time (t)
conversion factors for, A-1
dilation of, from special theory of
relativity, 1019, 1019–1024, 1020,
1021, 1021, 1021t, 1023, 1031
example values of, 5t
interference in, 469–471, 471
length connection to, 402
standards of, 5–6
Time constant (t), 140
of RC circuit, 728
of RL circuits, 829–830, 830
Time-dependent Schrödinger equation,
1090
Ting, Samuel, 1241
Tinibagam Sin Itiro, 1230
Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR),
1209, 1210
Tokamak magnetic confinement device, for
fusion reactions, 1209, 1209–1210
Tops and gyroscopes, motion of, 301, 301
Top type of quark (t), 1241
Toro Company, Inc., 921
Toroid, magnetic field created by, 781,
781–782
Toroidal magnetic confinement device, for
fusion reactions, 1209, 1209–1210
Torque (St )
on current loop in uniform magnetic
field, 757, 757–760, 758, 759, 760
overview, 257, 257–259, 258
rigid object under net, 259, 259–263, 261,
262, 263
vector product and, 286, 286–288
zero net, 311
Torricelli, Evangelista, 364, 383
Torricelli’s barometer, 380, 380
Torricelli’s law, 374, 374–375
Torsional pendulum, 404, 404
Torsion constant (k), 404
Total energy (E), 1037
Total energy of simple harmonic oscillator,
395, 396
Total instantaneous energy density (u), 883
Total internal reflection, 914, 914–917, 915,
916, 917
Totally submerged objects, buoyant force
on, 366, 366
Toyota Motor Company, 1
Tracing, radioactivity in, 1213, 1213–1214
Trajectory of projectiles, 74–80
Trans-Alaska Pipeline, 496
Transfer of energy, 182, 182, 183
Transfer variables, 513
Transformation of energy, 186
Transformers
eddy currents in, 815, 865
and power transmission, 863–866, 864,
864, 865
step-down, 864
step-up, 864
Transistors
field-effect, 1168, 1168–1169
junction, 1168
resonant tunneling, 1169–1170
Transitions
forbidden, 1130
selection rules for allowed, 1131
spontaneous and stimulated, 1133–1134,
1134
Translational motion, 22, 162
center of mass moving in, 271, 272, 273
equations for, 270t
kinematic equations for, 253t
in rotational motion, 254–257
Transmission coefficient (T), 1093–1094
Transmission electron microscope (TEM),
1066
Transmission grating, 992
Transmission of standing waves, 459,
459–460, 460
Transverse waves, 416, 416, 417, 466
Traveling waves, analysis model of, 419,
419–423, 420, 422, 423. See also
Superposition and standing waves
Triboelectric series, 609
Trigonometric functions of angles, 53, 389n,
401t
Trigonometry, A-11–A-13, A-12t
Triple point of water, 486
Tropical year, 18
Trough, of waves, 417
Tsunami (Japan)-caused nuclear power
disaster (2011), 1206
Tuning fork, frequency of, 469
Tunneling
applications for, 1094, 1094–1096
through potential energy barrier, 1093,
1093–1094
Turbulent flow, 369, 369, 383
Twin paradox, in special theory of relativity,
1024, 1024–1025
Two-slit diffraction patterns, intensity
of, 988
Uhlenbeck, George, 1123–1124
Ukraine Radiological Institute, 1206
Ultrasonic sound waves, 429
Ultraviolet catastrophe, 1051
Ultraviolet waves, 888–889
Uncertainty
entropy and, 570–571
experimental, 508
propagation of, A-20–A-21
Uncertainty principle, 1071, 1071–1073
Underdamped systems, 405
Uniform circular motion, 81, 81–83, 398,
398–400, 399. See also Circular
motion
Uniformly charged disk, 620, 620, 649,
649–650
Uniform ring of charge, 618–619, 619, 649,
649
United Nations Environment Programme,
1155
United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change, 1155
Units, conversion of, 12
Units of physical quantities, A-2–A-3
Unit vectors, 59, 59–60, 60
Universal gravitation. See Gravitation
Universe
Big Bang theory of creation of, 1246,
1246–1248
critical density and fate of, 1249,
1249–1250
dark matter and missing mass of,
1250–1251
evidence for expansion of, 1248–1249
mysterious energy of, 1251
University of Cambridge (UK), 753
University of Chicago, 1061
University of Helmstedt (Germany), 624
I-20 IndexDoppler effect, 438–443, 439, 440, 442,
443
intensity of, 433–438, 434, 436t, 438
overview, 429–431, 430, 431
speed of, 431–433, 433t
standing, in air columns, 466–469, 467
speed of waves on strings, 423–426, 424,
425
storyline on, 415–416
traveling waves, analysis model of, 419,
419–423, 420, 422, 423
Wave number (k), 421
Wave optics, 962–982. See also Diffraction
patterns
intensity distribution of double-slit
interference pattern, 968–969,
969
in interference, analysis model of, 965,
965–968, 966, 966
interference in thin films, 970, 970–973,
971, 973
Michelson interferometer, 973–975, 974,
975
reflection causing change of phase, 969,
969–970, 970
storyline on, 962
Young’s double-slit experiment, 963,
963–964, 964
Wave packets, 1067, 1067–1068
Wave-particle duality, 1070, 1080
Wave under reflection, analysis model of,
902, 902–905, 903, 904, 905
Wave under refraction, analysis model of,
905–910
angle of refraction for glass, 908–909
index of refraction, 906–908, 907, 907t
light through prism, 910, 910
light through slab, 909–910, 910
overview, 905, 905–906, 906, 907, 908,
908
Weak force, 96, 1226–1227, 1227t
Weakly interacting massive particle
(WIMP), 351
Weber (Wb, unit of magnetic flux), 784
Weber, Wilhelm, 792
Weight
in Archimedes’ principle, 365
example of, 111, 111–112
gravitational force and, 102–103
mass versus, 99
Weinberg, Steven, 1244
Well, particle-in-a-box in, 1090
Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, for nuclear
fusion (Germany), 1210
Weyl, H., 1018n
White, Jack, 451
Wien’s displacement law, 1050, 1050
Wi-Fi signals, 873, 873, 889
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe,
1248
Wilson, Charles, 1061
Wilson, Robert W., 1247, 1247–1248
WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle),
351
Windmills, 797, 797
Wireless battery charger, 833, 833
Wire-wound resistor, 696
Wooster College, 1061
Visible spectra, 913, 1130, 1130–1131
VLA (Very Large Array, NM), 1007
Volt (V, unit of electric potential), 638
Voltage (DV)
across capacitor, 855
amplitude of, 848–850
instantaneous, 849
maximum possible of battery, 714
potential difference as, 638
Voltage drop, 717n
Voltmeter, potential difference measured
by, 676
Volume (V)
of geometric shapes, A-10, A-10t
molar specific heat of ideal gas at
constant, 539–540, 540
of nucleus, 1180–1181
overview, 10t
Volume charge density (r ), 616
Volume effect, in liquid-drop model, 1184
Volume elasticity, 321–322, 322
Voyager I and 2 satellites, 355
Washboarding, on roadways, 412
Waste disposal in nuclear reactors,
1206–1207
Water
as polar molecule, 680
thermal-expansion behavior of, 490, 490
triple point of, 486
Watt (W, unit of power), 201
Watt, James, 201
Waveform, 418
Wave front, 435
Wave function (C)
for hydrogen, 1117, 1117–1120, 1118, 1119
overview, 417–418, 421, 1079–1083, 1080,
1082
in particle-in-a-box problem, 1084–1085
Wave intensity (I), 882
Wavelength (l)
blueshift and redshift in, 1029
Brewster’s angle as function of, 1000
Compton, 1062
cutoff, in photoelectric effect, 1059
de Broglie, 1064, 1064n, 1084
description of, 419–420, 420, 423
measuring, 967
separating double-slit fringes of two,
967–968
signal components identified by, 975n
of visible light versus color, 888t
Wien’s displacement law effect on, 1050,
1050
Wave model of light (Huygens), 899
Wave motion, 415–450. See also
Electromagnetic waves; Oscillatory
motion; Superposition and
standing waves
energy transfer by sinusoidal waves on
strings, 426, 426–428
gravitational, 1042
linear wave equation, 428, 428, 428–429
particle properties of, 1064, 1064–1066, 1066
from propagation of a disturbance, 416,
416, 416–419, 417, 418
sound waves, 429–443
beating, 469–471, 471
University of Manchester (UK), 1157
University of Munich (Germany), 695, 1071
Unstable equilibrium, 173, 173
Up type of quark (u), 1240
Uranium, fission of, 1109
Urner, Steve, 91
U.S. Coast Guard, 63, 92
U.S. customary system of measurement
units, 5, 100n
U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1215
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
1215
U.S. Post Office, 123
Valence band, 1163
Van Allen radiation belts, 752, 752
Vancouver International Airport (British
Columbia, Canada), 745
Van de Graaff generator, 709–710
van der Meer, Simon, 1227
van der Waals molecular bonds, 1147, 1243
Vaporization, latent heat of (Lv), 509, 510t
Vector product, torque and, 286, 286–288
Vector quantities, 22, 54, 252n
Vectors, 52–67
addition of, 61
arithmetic for, 55, 55–58
components of, 58, 58–62, 59
coordinate systems, 53–54
cross product of two, 286, 286
dot product of two, 154–156, 155
force and, 97, 97
linear momentum as vector quantity, 212
in nonuniform circular motion, 134, 134
scalar multiplication of, 56–57
scalar product of two, 154–156, 154
scalar quantities and, 54–55
storyline on, 52
vector product of two, 286, 286
Velocity (Sv)
angular (Sv), 250–252
constant, 27–30, 28
in constant acceleration model, 39, 72, 72
constant positive, 36, 37
Galilean transformation equations,
1015–1016
instantaneous, 24–27, 25
as kinematic equation, 45
Lorentz velocity transformation
equations, 1031–1034, 1033
of particles, 21–24
relative, 85–88, 87, 87–88
resistive force proportional to object, 139,
139–141
of simple harmonic oscillator, 390n, 391,
391–392
tangential, 255
vectors of, 69–71
Velocity selector, 752, 752
Velocity-time graph, 33, 33, 35
Venturi tube, 373, 373–374
Very Large Array (VLA, NM), 1007
Vibrational motion, 1151, 1151–1153, 1152
Vibrational quantum number, 1151
Virtual image, 926
Virtual photons, 1230–1231
Viscosity, 369, 375–377, 376, 376, 376t
Visible light, 888, 888t
Index I-21y-intercept, in linear equations, A-7
Young, Thomas, 899, 963, 984
Young’s double-slit experiment in wave
optics, 963, 963–965, 964,
965
Young’s modulus, 320–321, 320t
YouTube.com, 143–144
Yukawa, Hideki, 1229–1231, 1243
Zeeman effect, 1122, 1122, 1123n
Zero, net force value as, 596, 596–597
Zero acceleration, 36, 37
Zeroth law of thermodynamics, 483–484
Zoom lens system, 961
Zweig, George, 1240–1241
Zwicky, Fritz, 351n, 1250
overview, 161–164, 162t, 163, 164
for particles, 192
positive vs. negative effects in, 162–163
relativistic, 1035–1036, 1036
for rotational motion, 269
World Health Organization, 1215
World-line (path through space), 1026–1027
World Meteorological Organization, 1155
x and y components of vectors, 58
X-rays, 889, 996, 996–997, 997, 1063
X-ray spectra, 1131, 1131–1133, 1132
Yellowstone National Park, 381, 481
Yerkes Observatory (Williams Bay, WI),
954
Work (W)
constant force for, 151–154, 152, 153, 154
definition of, 182
first law of thermodynamics and, 513,
513–514, 514
varying force for, 156–161, 157, 158,
159, 160
Work and Heat Transfer in the Presence of
Sliding Friction (Sherwood and
Bernard), 191n
Work functions of metals, 1057–1058,
1058t
Work-kinetic energy theorem, 161, 161–164,
162t, 163, 164. See also Kinetic energy
in magnetic fields, 747
for nonisolated systems, 182
I-22 Index
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