Physical Analysis for Tribology

Physical Analysis for Tribology
اسم المؤلف
Terence F. J. Quinn
التاريخ
8 نوفمبر 2017
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Physical analysis for tribology
Terence F. J. Quinn
Professor of Engineering
School of Engineering and Applied Science
United States International University
(European Campus)
Bushey, Hertfordshire
Contents
page
Preface vii
Nomenclature list ix
1 Tribology 1
1.1 Definitions of common tribological terms 1
1.2 Frictional behaviour of materials 9
1.3 Lubrication between surfaces in relative motion 19
1.4 The wear of sliding and rolling surfaces 22
1.5 Concluding remarks on the relevance of physical analytical
techniques for tribology 34
2 Macroscopic physical techniques 35
2.1 Optical microscopy and optical interferometry 35
2.2 Transmission electron microscopy of replicas of surfaces 50
2.3 Profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 56
2.4 Electrical capacitance and resistance 64
2.5 Magnetic perturbation techniques 67
2.6 Macroscopic techniques for monitoring oil-lubricated
machinery (with special emphasis on ‘ferrography’) 77
2.7 Concluding remarks regarding the importance of macroscopic
physical techniques to tribology 80
3 Microscopic physical techniques for studying atomic arrangement 82
3.1 Basic crystallography 82
3.2 X-ray diffraction techniques 98
3.3 Electron diffraction methods 123
3.4 Concluding remarks regarding the importance of microscopic
techniques for studying the atomic arrangements in
tribo-elements 146
4 Microscopic techniques for studying atomic structure 148
4.1 Optical spectra 148
4.2 X-ray spectra 153
4.3 Electron probe microanalysis 166
4.4 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy 175
4.5 Auger electron spectroscopy 190
4.6 Other microscopic techniques 200
4.7 Concluding remarks 201Contents
5 The analysis of lubricant films 202
5.1 The analysis of extreme-pressure lubricant films formed in the
presence of typical disulphide additives 202
5.2 The analysis of solid lubricant films formed when lamellar solids
slide against metals and alloys 224
5.3 The application of physical methods of analysis to the
measurement of lubricant film thickness 259
5.4 The analysis of surface films formed in the presence of anti-wear
additives 275
6 The analysis of surface temperatures in tribo-systems 291
6.1 The thermal aspects of sliding 291
6.2 The crystallographic changes caused by ‘hot-spot’ temperatures
during sliding wear 313
6.3 Direct measurement of surface temperatures 338
6.4 Concluding remarks on the relevance of physical analytical f
techniques for analysing surface temperatures in tribo-systems 358
7 The analysis of pitting failures in tribo-systems 360
7.1 Failure in rolling contact bearings in nominal point contact 360
7.2 Basic research into the contact fatigue of ball-bearings 363
7.3 Failures in gears and other tribo-systems in nominal line contact 365
7.4 Basic research on the pitting of discs 368
7.5 Physical analysis of contact fatigue pitting in tribo-systems 376
7.6 The current position in contact fatigue pitting failures 397
8 The analysis of oxidational wear in tribo-systems 399
8.1 Introduction 399
8.2 The oxidational wear of a typical low-alloy steel tribo-system 400
8.3 The oxidational wear of the high-chromium ferritic steel/
austenitic stainless steel tribo-system 408
8.4 The oxidational wear of 316 stainless steel tribo-systems 417
8.5 Concluding remarks 431
9 The application of physical techniques to selected ceramic tribo- 432
systems
9.1 Introduction 432
9.2 Silicon nitride tribo-systems 432
9.3 Silicon carbide tribo-systems 439
9.4 Sapphire tribo-systems 446
9.5 Concluding remarks on the application of physical techniques to
ceramic tribo-systems 456
References 458
Index
Index
aberration
astigmatic, 38
chromatic, 37
spherical, 37
aberrations, in optical lenses, 37
abrasion, 4
absorption coefficient
for light, 263
linear, 161
mass, 161
absorption correction, X-ray, 173
absorption edges, for X-rays, 162
absorption factor for X-rays, 121
absorption X-ray spectra, 160
activation energy, for parabolic oxidation,
29, 298, 299
additive
disulphide, 202
extreme-pressure, 74
additives
anti-oxidant, 276
lubricity, 276
adhesion, 4
adhesive wear, 5
adiabatic diesel, 229
advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR), 417
adventitious carbon peak (XPS), 421
AES analysis of anti-wear films of ZDDP,
280
AES analysis of worn silicon carbide, 442
AES analysis of worn silicon nitride, 436
AES analysis of worn stainless steel, 424
AES applied to pitting failure under e.p.
additives, 387
AGR (Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor), 4
Aldermaston School of Surface Physics, 9,
24 .
a-Al2O3 (sapphire), 446
a-Fe R-values, 331
aluminium/electrographite tribo-system, 321
aluminium K-values, 324
aluminium-bronze/steel sliding system, 284
amorphous contrast of electron micrographs,
140, 267
amplitude density function, 57, 59
amplitude factor for X-rays, 119
analyser, electron energy, 177
electrostatic, 179
magnetic, 178
analysis
of amorphous wear tracks, silicon nitride,
436
of lubricant films, 202
of oxidational wear in tribo-systems, 399
of solid lubricant films, 224
angular momentum, 149
anti-oxidant additives, 276
anti-wear additives, 137, 202, 275
definitions, 203, 277
anti-wear region of lubrication, 203
anti-wear surface films, XPS analysis of, 277
aperture, numerical, 40
aqueous lubricant
Stribeck curve, 374
and pitting, 368
Archard and Cowking equation, 371
Archard Wear Law, 29
Archard’s hypothesis of friction, 14
area density of contact spots, 34
area of contact
apparent, 10, 34
real, 9
Arrhenius constant
for static oxidation, 298
for tribological oxidation, 29, 299
associated Auger electron emission, 176
astigmatism, 38
Aston University, Tribology Group, 383, 419
atomic number correction, 171
atomic scattering factor for X-rays, 118, 323
atomic sensitivity factor, XPS, 181
Auger electron emission, associated with
XPS, 176
Auger electron spectroscopy, (AES), 190
Auger lines, in XPS spectra, 183
Auger Microprobe, Scanning, 424
Auger parameter, modified, (XPS), 188
Auger process, 190
austenite, proportion of retained, 318
autoradiographic technique, 24
average roughness height, 57
aviation fuel, lubricity of, 283
477Index
BIO life, 360
BIO life, empirical equation, 361
BIO life, factors affecting, 363
back-scattering coefficient, 172
ball bearing systems, 360
ball bearings, surface analysis applied to, 377
Balmer series, 150
basic dynamic capacity of ball bearings, 360
bearing length ratio, 58
bearing number, its effect on pitting wear,
374
bearing parameter, of the Stribeck curve, 20,
284
bearing steel (AISI 52100), wear of, 296
bearings, 6
ball, 6
plain, 6
roller, 6
Blok’s flash temperature criterion, 366
body-centred cubic lattice, 96
Bohr theory of hydrogen spectra, 148
boron nitride, 224
boundary lubrication, 19, 280, 285
Bragg’s hypothesis of graphitic lubrication,
225
Bragg’s Law, for X-ray diffraction, 98
Bragg—Brentano focusing system, 117
Bravais lattices, 95
non-primitive, 96
primitive, 95
Brinell hardness and the coefficient of
friction, 13
cam and flat lifter system, 349
cam lifter
isotherms, 351
temperature distribution, 351
test apparatus, 350
Cambridge School, Physics and Chemistry
of Surfaces Laboratory, 4
cams, 260
carbon fibres, 5
carbon peak, adventitious, XPS, 421
carbon, /^-values, 314
CEGB Research Laboratories, 419
centipoise, unit of dynamic viscosity, 8
centistokes, unit of kinematic viscosity, 8
centre line average, definition of, 57
centre line, definition of, 57
centre of inversion, 83
ceramic diesel, 342, 399, 431, 432
ceramic tribo-systems, 432
characterising unworn surfaces, 445
characteristic curves, for photographic
plates, 273
characteristic life, of a population of ball
bearings, 365
chromium steels, wear of, 314
classification of crystals, 82
classifications of wear, 4
cold welding, 11
computer analysis for oxidational wear, 302
constantan/mild steel tribo-system, 340, 341
contact fatigue
(or pitting), 22, 260, 360
(rolling-four-ball tester), 361
in
gears, 365
(Unisteel tester), 362
contact plateaux, 26
contact resistance, 65
contact temperature, 27, 32
in
terms of oxide thickness, 413
contacting techniques, 60
contrast
of a scanning electron micrograph, 62
of electron micrographs, amorphous, 140,
267
per unit thickness (electron microscopy),
54
copper, K-values, 328
copper/reactor graphite tribo-system, 240,
321
corrosion by extreme-pressure additives, 397
corrosion resistance and tribological
performance, 417
cosine squared curve, 41
crack detector, magnetic perturbation
method, 74, 75
crack propagation time, 383
criteria for selection, oxidational wear
model, 298
critical oxide film thickness, 27
critical thickness, for electron diffraction, 145
cross sections for electron scattering, 269
crystal lattices, 85
crystal orientation, wear of sapphire on
steel, 446, 448
crystal spectrometer, 153
crystal systems, 91
crystallites, 82
crystallographic axes, 87
crystallographic directions, 88, 89
crystallographic indicators of hot-spot
temperatures, 313
crystallography, 82
cubic crystal lattice, 88
cuprous oxide, R-values, 28, 33
cylindrical mirror electron energy analyser,
177, 426
cylindrical X-ray diffraction camera, 109
478Index
D-ratio, definition, 72, 369
D-ratio, in pitting contact fatigue, 22, 259,
365
Debye-Waller temperature factor, for Xrays, 121
delamination wear, 27
depth of field, 41, 50, 52
depth of focus, 50, 52
depth profiling, 177, 194, 390, 424
di-tert-butyl disulphide (DTBDS), 204
diagonal glide planes, 97
diametral plane in stereographic projection,
84
diamond glide planes, 97
dibenzyl disulphide (DBDS), 204
diesel, ceramic, 342
diesel engine exhaust valve materials, wear
of, 408
diffraction grating, optical, 148
diffusivity, 293
dimeric acid, 285
diphenyl disulphide (DPDS), 204
disc of confusion, 37
dispersion of X-rays, 154
distance of sliding contact, 297
disulphide additives, 202
division of heat, 291
at contacting interfaces, 7
measurement of, 294
dry bearings, especially graphitic, 5
dry wear, 23
of steels, 25
duplex oxide, 418
dwell number, 283
dwell test, Lucas, 283
dwell tester, 283
dynamic friction, 1, 4
dynamic thermocouples, 291, 339
dynamic viscosity, 7
dynamical diffraction, 120
dynamical theory of electron diffraction, 144
edge-irradiated, glancing-angle XRD
method, 112, 115
EHL tester, for infra-red analysis of hot
spots, 347
elastic deformation and the laws of friction,
14
elastic limit, 11
elastic modulus, reduced, 17, 363
elasto-hydrodynamics, 2, 6
elasto-hydrodynamic film thickness, 259
elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), 20,
259, 260
electrical capacitance
for oil film thickness, 275
methods, 64
electrical conductivity of rolling contacts,
380
electrical resistance methods, 64
electrographite, 229
/aluminium tribo-system, 321
/electrographite tribo-system, 327
/steel tribo-system, 327
electrolytic removal
of contact films, 238
of thin films, 56
electron beam, the wavelength of, 50, 52
electron diffraction, 83, 123
analysis of contact films, 237
camera (HEED), 132
dynamical theory, 144
intensities, 139
kinematical theory of, 144
low energy (LEED), 136
reflection (RHEED), 124, 128
electron energy analyser
electrostatic, XPS, 178
XPS, 177
electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), 200,
435
electron mean free paths, 269
electron micrographs, amorphous contrast of,
140, 259
electron microscopy, 35, 50
of replicas, 50, 53, 285, 400
scanning, 50, 56
transmission, 50, 51
electron probe microanalysis, (EPMA), 166
electron scattering, 139
electronic structure of the atom, 151
electrons
elastic scattering of, 139
inelastic scattering of, 139
ellipsometry, 285
emission X-ray spectra, 158, 166
energy dispersion of X-rays, (EDX), 167,
418
EPMA applied to extreme-pressure
lubrication, 206, 215
ester lubricant, 380
Ewald sphere construction, 103
excess surface temperature, 292, 293
exoelectron emission from failing ball
bearings, 377
exponential decay formula, 269
exponential distribution of asperity heights,
17, 59
extinction distance, 145
extraction replicas, 404
479Index
extreme-pressure additives, 74, 202
AES of pitted surfaces, 390
corrosive effects, 397
effect on pitting life, 364, 371
extreme-pressure lubricant films, 202
extreme-pressure oils, 20
extreme-pressure region, of lubrication, 203
face-centred cubic lattice, 96
failures in rolling-element bearings, detection
of, 67
fatigue and impact wear in AGRs, 418
Fermi level, 183
ferrogram, 80
ferrography, 77, 79, 80
film thickness (measured by electron
microscopy), 259, 267
filter inspection, 78
flake removal, 407
flash temperature, 7
flash temperature criterion, Blok’s, 366
flat film X-ray diffraction camera, 105
flow pressure, reduced, 18
fluid film lubrication, 260
fluorescence, 155
fluorescent correction, 155
forensic use of physical analytical
techniques, 445
form of a surface, 61
four-ball machine
rolling, 202
sliding, 202
fretting corrosion, 3, 418
fretting wear, 3
friction
dynamic, 1, 4
kinetic (also known as dynamic friction), 9
static, 9
fringe order, in optical interference, 264
fuel pump problems, 283
Gaussian distribution of asperity heights, 17,
59
gears, 260
scuffing of, 365
simulation by rolling discs, 64
general area high-energy electron diffraction,
133
Georgia Institute of Technology Tribology
Laboratories, 10, 346, 349, 420
glancing angle, edge-irradiated, XRD
technique, 112, 206
glide plane symmetries, 97
goniometer, 82
grain boundaries, 82
graphite, 5, 224
graphite contact films, 237
analysis by electron diffraction, 237
graphite fluoride, 226
graphite lubrication, as revealed by
RHEED, 227
graphite structure
hexagonal, 225
rhombohedral, 225
graphite surfaces
effect of current on orientation, 235
orientation of, 227
grooving, 5
Haematite, X-ray powder data file card, 111
hardness, 9
heat, division of, 291
heat flow analysis and oxidational wear of
steels, 296
heat flow method of deducing surface
temperatures, 291
Hertzian compressive stress, maximum, 363
Hertzian diameter, 204
Hertzian equation for film thickness, 264
Hertzian pressure, 264
Hertzian radius, 261, 264
hexagonal close-packed structure, 96
hexagonal graphite, 225
hexagonal unit cell, 91, 92
high-energy electron diffraction (HEED)
camera, 132
hot-spot temperature, 32, 287, 339
Ti/sapphire system (infra-red analysis),
452
hot-spots,
optical analysis, 341
photographs of, 343, 344, 345
hot-pressed silicon nitride (HPSN), 352, 432
Huygen wavelets, 43
hydrodynamic lubrication, 6, 20, 259
and wear, 260
hydrogen spectra, Bohr theory of, 148
hydrotreating aviation fuel, 283
identification by X-ray diffraction, 110
identification by X-ray photoelectron
spectroscopy, 183
image converting system (SEM), 63
image intensification, 404
immersion tests, reliability of, 277
impact wear in AGRs, 418
incompatibility, tribological, 400
inelastic scattering cross-section, 140
inelastic scattering of electrons, 139
infra-red analysis
480Index
of HPSN/sapphire tribo-system, 353
of lubricated surfaces, 346
of unlubricated surfaces, 352, 451
infra-red camera, 352
infra-red detector, 291, 339
initial seizure load, 203
intensity of THEED patterns
from random graphite, 248
from oriented graphite, 251, 257
intensity of X-rays
scattered by a crystal, 119
scattered by an atom, 118
interferometer,
Newton’s rings, 44
multiple beam, 45, 263
optical, 35
interference, two-beam, 41, 263
interpenetration area, denned, 13
interplanar spacing, general expression for,
102
inversion, centre of, 83
inversion symmetry, 83
ion gun (XPS), 183
ionization potential, 171
iron mercaptide film, 205
islands of contact, 405
isotherms of a cam-lifter contact system, 351
Jost Committee, 1
journal bearings, 260
junction growth equation, Tabor’s, 310
junction growth, in the wear of steels, 341
K-factor, wear, 29, 451
kinematical theory of electron diffraction, 144
kinetic friction (sometimes called dynamic
friction), 9
kinetic viscosity, 7
lambda ratio, 365, 375
lamellar solids, 21, 224
lattices, crystal, 85
Laue zones, in electron diffraction patterns,
129
laws of friction, 1, 9
laws of wear, 24
lay of a surface, 61
lead/mild steel tribo-system, 340
least distance of distinct vision, 37
Lenard coefficient, modified, 174
lens aberrations (optical lenses), 37
Leonardo da Vinci, 1
life
to first crack, 383
to first pit, 383
line contact tribo-systems, physical analysis
of, 382
linear absorption coefficient, for X-rays, 161
linear oxidation, 31
load-carrying capacity, 204
Lorentz factor, 121
Lorentz-polarization factor (for X-rays), 121
low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), 136
lubricant films, the analysis of, 202
lubricated wear, 22
lubrication
boundary, 19
definition, 19
mixed, 20
of rollers, 64
solid, 21
lubricious oxide, of titanium, 450
lubricity of graphitic materials, Bragg’s
hypothesis, 225
Lucas dwell test, 283
macroscopic symmetry elements, 82
magnetic crack detector, combined with
SEM, 385
magnetic detection of pitting failures, 72, 383
magnetic perturbation techniques, 67
magnetic plug inspection, 78
maps, temperature, related to the wear of
steels, 306
mass absorption coefficient, for X-rays, .161
maximum Hertzian compressive stress, point
contact, 363
mean pressure, between contacting
asperities, 11
mean tangential shear stress, 13
mechanical properties
of sapphire, 347
of steel, 347
mechanical twinning model of graphitic
friction, 233
mechanism
of atomic transfer during wear, 23
of oxidational wear, TEM of replicas, 401,
406
of wear, 4, 26, 27
Meitner-Auger effect, 190
melt wear, 27, 291, 308, 310
mercaptide, iron, 205
microdensitometer traces, of X-ray
diffraction patterns, 323
microfracture, 432
microscopic symmetry elements, 83, 95
microscopy
electron, 35, 50
optical, 35, 51
481Index
microscopy (cont.)
scanning electron (SEM), 50, 56
transmission electron (TEM), 50
mild wear, 17, 24, 25
in the rolling four-ball machine, 380
Mild-oxidational wear, 27, 409, 431
of steels, as revealed by heat flow, 296
Miller indices, of crystal planes, 87
Miller—Bravais indices, for hexagonal
crystals, 91
minimum oil film thickness
in line contact, 372
in point contact, 372
mirror planes, of symmetry, 83
MIT School of Tribology, 377
mixed lubrication, 20
modified Auger parameter, 189
modified Lenard coefficient, 174
molybdenite (molybdenum disulphide), 5,
224, 226
mosaic model of a single crystal, 119
multiple asperity contact, 11
multiple beam interferometry, 45, 263
multiplicity of crystal planes, 121, 131
Newton’s rings interferometer, 44
Newtonian fluid, 8
nominal surface, definition, 57
non-stoichiometric form of titanium oxide,
450
normal sections, through worn surfaces, 220
normalized oxidational wear rate, 310, 312
normalized pressure, 28, 307
normalized velocity, 28, 307
normalized wear rate, 28, 310
nuclear atom model, 149
nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), 200
number of contacts in terms of oxide plateau
thickness, 413
numerical aperture, 40
one-ball-on-three-flats, four-ball machine
geometry, 207
optical analysis of hot spots, 341
optical elasto-hydrodynamics, 262
optical emission spectrometer, 148
optical interferometry, 25, 259
optical microscopy, 35
and extreme-pressure lubrication, 206, 220
optical path difference, 43
optical resolving power, 37
optical spectra, 148
order of optical interference fringes, 264
organo-sulphur load-carrying compounds,
204
orientation effects in the wear of sapphire on
steel, 447
orientation of graphitic surfaces, 227
effect of current, 235
orientation, preferred, 82, 131, 228
oxidation
of oil, 276
parabolic, 31, 32
parabolic rate constant, 33
static, of stainless steels, 418, 419
oxidation temperature, 27, 33
oxidation-dominated wear mechanisms, 308,
310
oxidational constants
static, or iron, 298
tribological, of iron, 299
oxidational growth rate laws, 31
oxidational theory of wear, 29
oxidational wear, 26, 292
computer analysis, 302
during lubricated sliding, 20
in tribo-systems, 399
linear, 456
mechanism, 26, 27, 401, 406
mild-, 27, 310
of 316 stainless steel tribo-systems, 417
of ferritic steel on austenitic steel, 408
of steels, 292, 330
of titanium on sapphire, 455
severe-, 27, 310
oxidation, linear, 31
oxide glaze, formed during wear, 30
oxide plateaux,
formed during oxidational wear, 30
thickness by AES analysis, 429
thickness measurement by SEM, 408, 435
rhombohedral, 115
spinel, 115
oxygen content of oxidational wear plateau,
AES analysis, 430
parabolic oxidation, 31, 32
rate constant, 34
particle counting, 77
Pascal-second, alternative SI unit of
viscosity, 8
peak area sensitivity factor (XPS), 181
peak height sensitivity factor (XPS), 181
peak-to-valley roughness, 58
Peclet number, 293
phase change, of light wave, on reflection,
265
photoelectron emission (XPS), 175
photoelectron lines, in XPS, 183
physical analysis
482Index
of line contact tribo-systems, 382
of point contact tribo-systems, 377
physical wedge, in journal bearing
configuration, 20
Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces
Laboratory (PCSL), 4, 9, 339
pitting failures,
analysis by AES, 387
magnetic detection of, 72
pitting lives of gears and discs under mineral
oils, 369
pitting of rolling contact under aqueous
lubricants, 368
pitting, or contact fatigue, 3, 22, 360
pitting wear, dependence upon bearing
number, 374
plain bearings, 2
Planck’s constant, 52, 156
plastic deformation and the laws of friction,
10
plasticity-dominated wear mechanisms, 308,
312
plateaux
formed during oxidational wear, 26, 27,
405, 408
in Ti surfaces worn against sapphire, 453
of oxide, in worn stainless steel surfaces,
426
of oxide, thickness measurement by SEM,
408, 413, 415
oxide, 30, 406
ploughing component of friction, 13
point surface origin, mode of failure, 385
poise, the SI unit of viscosity, 7
Poisson’s ratio, 264
polarimetry, 446
polarization factor for X-rays, 121
pole figure
from electron diffraction, 246, 247
related to preferred orientation, 241
pole figures, 85
pole of a crystal plane, 83
polymeric films, formation during wear, 280
polytetra-fluoroethylene, PTFE, 5
powder camera, 109
powder data file, for X-ray diffraction, 110
preferred orientation, 82, 131, 228
pressure, normalized, 28, 307
primary extinction of X-rays, 119
profile, 57
profilometry, 56
proportion of preferentially-oriented
crystallites, 257
proportional analysis
and electron diffraction, 319
by X-ray diffraction, 319
of wear debris by XRD, 319, 321, 330
prow mechanism, 405
quantitative analysis by AES, 194
quantitative electron probe microanalysis,
169
quantitative theories of wear, 297
quantitative X-ray photoelectron analysis
(XPS), 180
quantum number, 150
K-values
(in X-ray diffraction), 328, 331
fora-Fe, 331
for aluminium, 324
for carbon, 324
for copper, 328
for cuprous oxide, 328
for FeO, 331
for rhombohedral iron oxide, 331
for spinel iron oxide, 331
radioactive additives, 276
radioactive tracers, 200, 379
radius of an asperity in terms of oxide
plateau thickness, 413
random orientation of crystallites, 131
Rayleigh criterion, 39
reactor graphite/copper tribo-system, 240,
321
real area of contact, 9, 296, 297
reciprocal lattice, 99
of a cubic unit cell, 125
of a thin crystal, 101
of an hexagonal lattice, 104
of an orthorhombic crystal, 101
reduced elastic modulus, 17, 261, 363
reduced flow pressure, 18
reduced radius of contact, 261, 371
reference sphere, 83
reflection electron diffraction (RHEED), 124,
128
reflection symmetry, 83
reflectivity of a surface, 47
refractive index, dependence upon pressure,
265
relative intensities
of electron diffraction rings, 145
of X-ray diffraction rings, 123
relative sensitivity factor, 196, 391
removal of contact films, electrolytically, 238
replicas, for electron microscopy, 50, 53, 285
resistance, contact, 65
resolution limit, 39
resolution of an X-ray spectrometer, 154
483Index
Reynold’s equation, 260
RHEED, applied to the analysis of graphitic
lubrication, 227
rheology, 7
rhombohedral graphite, 225
rhombohedral oxide, 115, 298
rollers
lubrication of, 64
simulating gears, 64
rolling contact bearings
failures of, 360
in nominal point contact, 360
rolling contact fatigue
of ball bearings, 361
Unisteel tester, 362
rolling four-ball machine, 202, 361
rolling two-disc machine, 368
rolling wear constant, 380
for an ester lubricant, 382
for mineral oil, 382
for polythenylether, 382
root-mean-square roughness, 60
rotating cantilever machine, 290
rotational slip, 226
rotational symmetry, 83
roughness, 57
height, average, definition of, 57
peak-to-valley, 58
root-mean-square, 60
width cut-off, 57
roughnesses, table of typical values of
surface, 59
running in, 5
Rutherford back-scattering (RBS), 200
SAED analysis of graphitic contact films,
241
Saggital formula, 45
sapphire/steel tribo-system, 447
sapphire/titanium tribo-system, 446, 450,
451
scanning Auger microprobe, 424
scanning electron microscope, tilt facility,
409
scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 50, 56,
61,62
and surface topography, 61
scattering cross-sections for electrons, 266
scattering of electrons, 139
elastic, 139
inelastic, 139
scattering of X-rays, 118
scoring, 5
screw axis symmetry, 97
scuffing, 5
and pitting of cams and tappets, 366
of gears, definition, 366
secondary extinction of X-rays, 119
secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS),
200
seizure wear mechanism, 308, 310
selected area electron diffraction (SAED),
133, 134
ray diagram, 135
SEM analysis of worn silicon nitride
surfaces, 435
SEM applied to extreme pressure
lubrication, 206, 217
SEM, versus TEM of replicas, for studying
worn surfaces, 406
sensitivity factor
atomic (XPS), 181
peak area (XPS), 181
peak height (XPS), 181
severe metallic wear, 366
severe wear, 17, 310
of electrographite/aluminium tribo-system,
321
severe-oxidational wear, 27, 291, 310, 312,
400, 409
sheet texture, 241
short wavelength cut-off, 156
silicon carbide/iron tribosystems, 440
silicon nitride
EELS analysis of amorphous wear tracks,
435
hot-pressed (HPSN), 432
simulation of gears by rolling discs,
discussion of, 370
single asperity contact, theory of, 10
single crystal rotation camera, 112
sliding four-ball machine, 202
sliding textures, 246, 247
solid lubricant, 5
film thickness, 266
solid lubrication, 21
via adsorption, 227
via crystallite orientation, 227
space group, 97
spalling, 5
spectra (XPS) of standards relevant to wear
under ZDDP, 278
spectrographic oil analysis, 78
spherical aberration, 37
spherical wear particles, 80, 445
spinel oxide, 115, 298
stainless steels, wear of, 315
standard infra-red curves for iron and iron
oxides, 337
static friction, 1, 9
484Index
static oxidation constants of iron, 298
static oxidation of stainless steels, 418, 419
stationary orbits, 149
steels, AISI 52100, wear of, 296
stereographic projection, 80, 81, 82, 94
stick-slip in iron/silicon carbide tribosystem, 441
stokes, the SI unit of kinematic viscosity, 8
stopping power, 171
Stribeck curve, 20, 284, 374
structure (or amplitude) factor for X-ray
diffraction, 119
structure factor for electron diffraction, 144
stylus profilometer, 56
surface
definition of, 57
nominal, 57
surface analysis
by optical emission spectroscopy, 151
of failed ball bearings, 377
surface characteristics, 6, 59, 60
surface form, 61
surface lay, 61
surface reflectivity, 47
surface temperature, 27, 32, 291
as indicated by thermocouples, 339
direct measurement of, 338
surface texture, definition of, 57
surface waviness, 60
surfaces roughnesses, table of typical values
of, 59
Tabor’s junction growth equation, 310
talc, 224
Talysurf, 61
taper sections, 220
tappets, 260
TEM of replicas, versus SEM, for studying
worn surfaces, 406
temperature
contact, 29, 32
excess, 292
hot-spot, 32
oxidation, 27, 33
surface, 27, 33, 291
surface, direct measurement of, 338
temperature distribution at a cam-lifter
contact, 351
temperature factor, Debye-Waller, 121
temperature maps, related to the wear of
steels, 306
texture
sheet, 241
sliding, 246
surface, definition of, 57
THEED analysis of graphitic contact films,
237
thermal conductivity of oxides, 414
thermal properties
of sapphire, 347
of steel, 347
thermocouples, dynamic, 291
thickness of graphitic contact films (by
TEM), 238
tilt facility, in the SEM, 409
titanium as a tribo-material, 450
titanium iodide, 224
titanium oxide (rutile), 450
as a lubricious oxide, 450
the non-stoichiometric form, 450
topography, 50
total life to pitting, 383
traction, 1
transition, from mild- to severe-oxidational
wear, 409
transition loads in the wear of chromium
steels, 318
transitions, crystalline, hot-spot temperature
indicators?, 313
transitions in the wear rate, 25, 315
transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 50
of worn surfaces, 400
transparency thickness, 269
tribo-system
3.0%Cr-0.5%Mo steel/3.0%Cr-0.5%Mo
steel, 400
316 stainless/316 stainless, 315, 399, 417
AISI 4340 steel/AISI 4340 steel, 400
AISI 52100 steel/AISI 52100 steel, 296
AISI 52100 steel/sapphire, 346
aluminium-bronze/steel, 284
chromium steel/chromium steel, 314, 318
constantan/mild steel, 340, 341
electrographite/aluminium, 321
electrographite/copper, 229
electrographite/electrographite, 327
electrographite/steel, 327
ferritic steel/austenitic stainless, 399, 408
graphite/copper, 227
hot-pressed silicon nitride/sapphire, 352
lead/mild steel, 340
low-alloy steel/low-alloy steel, 296, 330, 399
reactor graphite/copper, 240, 321
sapphire/steel, 447
sapphire/titanium, 446, 450
silicon carbide/iron, 440
silicon nitride/silicon nitride, 433
tool steel/sapphire, 342
oxidational wear in, 399
pitting failures of, 360
485Index
tribological incompatibility, 400
tribological oxidation constants of iron, 299
tribology, definition of, 1
Tribology Group, Aston University, 383,
419
Tribology Laboratories, Georgia Institute of
Technology, 10, 346, 349, 420
tribotesting, 6
triclinic unit cell, 90, 91
two-beam interference, 41, 263
two-disc machine, rolling, 368
ultra-mild wear, 27
unisteel rolling contact fatigue tester, 362
unit cell, of a crystal lattice, 85
valve sinkage, 408
velocity, normalized, 28, 307
viscosity, 2
dependence upon pressure, 260, 371
dynamic, 7
kinematic, 7
pressure coefficient of, 371
wave mechanics, 151
wavelength dispersion of X-rays, 167
wavelength of an electron beam, 50, 52
waviness of a surface, 60
wear
as a fatigue process, 80
definition, 2
delaminational, 27
dry, 23
during pitting, effect of bearing number,
374
during pitting, effect of frictional elastic
contact, 379
during pitting, effect of load, 379
mechanism maps, 27, 28, 304, 308, 399,
431
mild, 17, 24, 25
of chromium steels, 314, 318
of diesel engine exhaust valve materials,
408, 412
of silicon nitride, 433
of stainless steels, 315, 417
oxidational, 26, 292
wear particles, spherical, 80
wear patterns, 415, 419, 420
wear plateaux, heights of, 413
severe, 17, 24, 25
wear rate, 25
normalized, 28, 310
transitions, 25
wedge action, in hydrodynamics, 260
wedge-shaped film, 48
Weibull distribution function, cumulative,
365
Weibull distribution, simple formula, 69
Weibull plot, 69
Weiss zone law, 95
weld load, 203
wire-wool failures, 400
work function, 179, 183
Wulffnet, 85, 95
Wustite, 298
Wustite K-values, 331
X-ray absorption, 169
coefficient, 173
used for measuring oil film thickness, 275
X-ray diffraction (XRD), 93
Laue method, 446
X-ray diffraction camera
cylindrical, 109
flat film, 105
X-ray diffraction intensities, 118
X-ray diffractometer, 116
X-ray filter, 162
X-ray fluorescence, 165
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),
175
X-ray powder data file, 110
X-ray scattering, 118
X-ray spectra, 153, 98
characteristic, 157
characteristic, absorption, 160
characteristic, emission, 158
continuous, 156
theory of, 165
X-rays
energy dispersion of, 167
wavelength dispersion of, 167
xenon sputtering, 287
XPS analysis
of anti-wear surface films, 277
of worn 316 stainless steels, 421
of worn silicon carbide, 442
XPS standards for studying the anti-wear
action of ZDDP, 278
XRD analysis of crystallite size, 239
XRD of debris formed in the wear of 316
stainless steel, 421
XRD technique, edge-irradiated, glancingangle, 114, 115
Young’s modulus, 264
zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDPs)
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