**Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers **

**Revised by a staff of specialists **

**EUGENE A. AVALLONE Editor **

**Consulting Engineer; Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Emeritus**

**The City College of the City University of New York**

**THEODORE BAUMEISTER III Editor**

**Retired Consultant, Information Systems Department**

**E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.**

**ALI M. SADEGH Editor**

**Consulting Engineer; Professor of Mechanical Engineering**

**The City College of the City University of New York **

**xix**

**For symbols of chemical elements, see Sec. ; for abbreviations applying to metric weights**

**and measures and SI units, Sec. ; SI unit prefixes are listed on p. – .**

**Pairs of parentheses, brackets, etc., are frequently used in this work to indicate corresponding values. For example, the statement that “the cost per kW of a , -kW plant is**

**$ ; of a , -kW plant, $ ; and of an , -kW plant, $ ,” is condensed as follows:**

**The cost per kW of a , ( , ) [ , ]-kW plant is $ ( ) [ ].**

**In the citation of references readers should always attempt to consult the latest edition of**

**referenced publications.**

**Symbols and Abbreviations**

**A or Å Angstrom unit m; . in**

**A mass number N Z; ampere**

**AA arithmetical average**

**AAA Am. Automobile Assoc.**

**AAMA American Automobile Manufacturers’ Assoc.**

**AAR Assoc. of Am. Railroads**

**AAS Am. Astronautical Soc.**

**ABAI Am. Boiler & Affiliated Industries**

**abs absolute**

**a.c. aerodynamic center**

**a-c, ac alternating current**

**ACI Am. Concrete Inst.**

**ACM Assoc. for Computing Machinery**

**ACRMA Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Manufacturers Assoc.**

**ACS Am. Chemical Soc.**

**ACSR aluminum cable steel-reinforced**

**ACV air cushion vehicle**

**A.D. anno Domini (in the year of our Lord)**

**AEC Atomic Energy Commission (U.S.)**

**a-f, af audio frequency**

**AFBMA Anti-friction Bearings Manufacturers’ Assoc.**

**AFS Am. Foundrymen’s Soc.**

**AGA Am. Gas Assoc.**

**AGMA Am. Gear Manufacturers’ Assoc.**

**ahp air horsepower**

**AIChE Am. Inst. of Chemical Engineers**

**AIEE Am. Inst. of Electrical Engineers (see IEEE)**

**AIME Am. Inst. of Mining Engineers**

**AIP Am. Inst. of Physics**

**AISC American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.**

**AISE Am. Iron & Steel Engineers**

**AISI Am. Iron and Steel Inst.**

**Al. Assn. Aluminum Association**

**a.m. ante meridiem (before noon)**

**a-m, am amplitude modulation**

**Am. Mach. Am. Machinist (New York)**

**AMA Acoustical Materials Assoc.**

**AMCA Air Moving & Conditioning Assoc., Inc.**

**amu atomic mass unit**

**AN ammonium nitrate (explosive); Army-Navy Specification**

**AN-FO ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (explosive)**

**ANC Army-Navy Civil Aeronautics Committee**

**ANS Am. Nuclear Soc.**

**ANSI American National Standards Institute**

**antilog antilogarithm of**

**API Am. Petroleum Inst.**

**approx approximately**

**APWA Am. Public Works Assoc.**

**AREA Am. Railroad Eng. Assoc.**

**ARI Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Inst.**

**ARS Am. Rocket Soc.**

**ASCE Am. Soc. of Civil Engineers**

**ASHRAE Am. Soc. of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning**

**Engineers**

**ASLE Am. Soc. of Lubricating Engineers**

**ASM Am. Soc. of Metals**

**ASME Am. Soc. of Mechanical Engineers**

**ASST Am. Soc. of Steel Treating**

**ASTM Am. Soc. for Testing and Materials**

**ASTME Am. Soc. of Tool & Manufacturing Engineers**

**atm atmosphere**

**Auto. Ind. Automotive Industries (New York)**

**avdp avoirdupois**

**avg, ave average**

**AWG Am. Wire Gage**

**AWPA Am. Wood Preservation Assoc.**

**AWS American Welding Soc.**

**AWWA American Water Works Assoc.**

**b barns**

**bar barometer**

**B&S Brown & Sharp (gage); Beams and Stringers**

**bbl barrels**

**B.C. before Christ**

**B.C.C. body centered cubic**

**Bé Baumé (degrees)**

**B.G. Birmingham gage (hoop and sheet)**

**bgd billions of gallons per day**

**BHN Brinnell Hardness Number**

**bhp brake horsepower**

**BLC boundary layer control**

**B.M. board measure; bench mark**

**bmep brake mean effective pressure**

**B of M, Bureau of Mines**

**BuMinesxx SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS**

**BOD biochemical oxygen demand**

**bp boiling point**

**Bq bequerel**

**bsfc brake specific fuel consumption**

**BSI British Standards Inst.**

**Btu British thermal units**

**Btub, Btu/h Btu per hr**

**bu bushels**

**Bull. Bulletin**

**Buweaps Bureau of Weapons, U.S. Navy**

**BWG Birmingham wire gage**

**c velocity of light**

**C degrees Celsius (centigrade)**

**C coulomb**

**CAB Civil Aeronautics Board**

**CAGI Compressed Air & Gas Inst.**

**cal calories**

**C-B-R chemical, biological & radiological (filters)**

**CBS Columbia Broadcasting System**

**cc, cm cubic centimetres**

**CCR critical compression ratio**

**c to c center to center**

**cd candela**

**c.f. centrifugal force**

**cf. confer (compare)**

**cfh, ft /h cubic feet per hour**

**cfm, ft /min cubic feet per minute**

**C.F.R. Cooperative Fuel Research**

**cfs, ft /s cubic feet per second**

**cg center of gravity**

**cgs centimetre-gram-second**

**Chm. Eng. Chemical Eng’g (New York)**

**chu centrigrade heat unit**

**C.I. cast iron**

**cir circular**

**cir mil circular mils**

**cm centimetres**

**CME Chartered Mech. Engr. (IMechE)**

**C.N. cetane number**

**coef coefficient**

**COESA U.S. Committee on Extension to the Standard Atmosphere**

**col column**

**colog cologarithm of**

**const constant**

**cos cosine of**

**cos angle whose cosine is, inverse cosine of**

**cosh hyperbolic cosine of**

**cosh inverse hyperbolic cosine of**

**cot cotangent of**

**cot angle whose cotangent is (see cos )**

**coth hyperbolic cotangent of**

**coth inverse hyperbolic cotangent of**

**covers coversed sine of**

**c.p. circular pitch; center of pressure**

**cp candle power**

**cp coef of performance**

**CP chemically pure**

**CPH close packed hexagonal**

**cpm cycles per minute**

**cycles/min**

**cps, cycles/s cycles per second**

**CSA Canadian Standards Assoc.**

**csc cosecant of**

**csc angle whose cosecant is (see cos )**

**csch hyperbolic cosecant of**

**csch inverse hyperbolic cosecant of**

**cu cubic**

**cyl cylinder**

**db, dB decibel**

**d-c, dc direct current**

**def definition**

**deg degrees**

**diam. (dia) diameter**

**DO dissolved oxygen**

**D**

** O deuterium (heavy water)**

**d.p. double pole**

**DP Diametral pitch**

**DPH diamond pyramid hardness**

**DST daylight saving time**

**d tons breaking strength, d chain wire diam. in.**

**DX direct expansion**

**e base of Napierian logarithmic system ( . )**

**EAP equivalent air pressure**

**EDR equivalent direct radiation**

**EEI Edison Electric Inst.**

**eff efficiency**

**e.g. exempli gratia (for example)**

**ehp effective horsepower**

**EHV extra high voltage**

**El. Wld. Electrical World (New York)**

**elec electric**

**elong elongation**

**emf electromotive force**

**Engg. Engineering (London)**

**Engr. The Engineer (London)**

**ENT emergency negative thrust**

**EP extreme pressure (lubricant)**

**ERDA Energy Research & Development Administration (successor**

**to AEC; see also NRC)**

**Eq. equation**

**est estimated**

**etc. et cetera (and so forth)**

**et seq. et sequens (and the following)**

**eV electron volts**

**evap evaporation**

**exp exponential function of**

**exsec exterior secant of**

**ext external**

**F degrees Fahrenheit**

**F farad**

**FAA Federal Aviation Agency**

**F.C. fixed carbon, %**

**FCC Federal Communications Commission; Federal Constructive**

**Council**

**F.C.C. face-centered-cubic (alloys)**

**ff. following (pages)**

**fhp friction horsepower**

**Fig. figure**

**F.I.T. Federal income tax**

**f-m, fm frequency modulation**

**F.O.B. free on board (cars)**

**FP fore perpendicular**

**FPC Federal Power Commission**

**fpm, ft/min feet per minute**

**fps foot-pound-second system**

**ft/s feet per second**

**F.S. Federal Specifications**

**FSB Federal Specifications Board**

**fsp fiber saturation point**

**ft feet**

**fc foot candles**

**fL foot lamberts**

**ftlb foot-pounds**

**g acceleration due to gravity**

**g grams**

**gal gallonsSYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS xxi**

**gc gigacycles per second**

**GCA ground-controlled approach**

**gcal gram-calories**

**gd Gudermannian of**

**G.E. General Electric Co.**

**GEM ground effect machine**

**GFI gullet feed index**

**G.M. General Motors Co.**

**GMT Greenwich Mean Time**

**GNP gross national product**

**gpcd gallons per capita day**

**gpd gallons per day, grams per denier**

**gpm, gal/min gallons per minute**

**gps, gal/s gallons per second**

**gpt grams per tex**

**H henry**

**h Planck’s constant . org-sec**

**Planck’s constant, h/ **

**HEPA high efficiency particulate matter**

**h-f, hf high frequency**

**hhv high heat value**

**horiz horizontal**

**hp horsepower**

**h-p high-pressure**

**HPAC Heating, Piping, & Air Conditioning (Chicago)**

**hp hr horsepower-hour**

**hr, h hours**

**HSS high speed steel**

**H.T. heat-treated**

**HTHW high temperature hot water**

**Hz hertz cycle/s (cps)**

**IACS International Annealed Copper Standard**

**IAeS Institute of Aerospace Sciences**

**ibid. ibidem (in the same place)**

**ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization**

**ICC Interstate Commerce Commission**

**ICE Inst. of Civil Engineers**

**ICI International Commission on Illumination**

**I.C.T. International Critical Tables**

**I.D., ID inside diameter**

**i.e. id est (that is)**

**IEC International Electrotechnical Commission**

**IEEE Inst. of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (successor**

**to AIEE, q.v.)**

**IES Illuminating Engineering Soc.**

**i-f, if intermediate frequency**

**IGT Inst. of Gas Technology**

**ihp indicated horsepower**

**IMechE Inst. of Mechanical Engineers**

**imep indicated mean effective pressure**

**Imp Imperial**

**in., in inches**

**in lb, inch-pounds**

**in lb**

**INA Inst. of Naval Architects**

**Ind. & Eng. Industrial & Eng’g Chemistry (Easton, PA)**

**Chem.**

**int internal**

**i-p, ip intermediate pressure**

**ipm, in/min inches per minute**

**ipr inches per revolution**

**IPS iron pipe size**

**IRE Inst. of Radio Engineers (see IEEE)**

**IRS Internal Revenue Service**

**ISO International Organization for Standardization**

**isoth isothermal**

**ISTM International Soc. for Testing Materials**

**IUPAC International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry**

**h h**

**J joule**

**J&P joists and planks**

**Jour. Journal**

**JP jet propulsion fuel**

**k isentropic exponent; conductivity**

**K degrees Kelvin (Celsius abs)**

**K Knudsen number**

**kB kilo Btu ( Btu)**

**kc kilocycles**

**kcps kilocycles per second**

**kg kilograms**

**kg cal kilogram-calories**

**kg m kilogram-metres**

**kip lb or kilo-pound**

**kips thousands of pounds**

**km kilometres**

**kmc kilomegacycles per second**

**kmcps kilomegacycles per second**

**kpsi thousands of pounds per sq in**

**ksi one kip per sq in, psi (lb/in )**

**kts knots**

**kVA kilovolt-amperes**

**kW kilowatts**

**kWh kilowatt-hours**

**L lamberts**

**l, L litres**

**£ Laplace operational symbol**

**lb pounds**

**L.B.P. length between perpendiculars**

**lhv low heat value**

**lim limit**

**lin linear**

**ln Napierian logarithm of**

**loc. cit. loco citato (place already cited)**

**log common logarithm of**

**LOX liquid oxygen explosive**

**l-p, lp low pressure**

**LPG liquified petroleum gas**

**lpw, lm/W lumens per watt**

**lx lux**

**L.W.L. load water line**

**lm lumen**

**m metres**

**M thousand; Mach number; moisture, %**

**mA milliamperes**

**Machy. Machinery (New York)**

**max maximum**

**MBh thousands of Btu per hr**

**mc megacycles per second**

**m.c. moisture content**

**Mcf thousand cubic feet**

**mcps megacycles per second**

**Mech. Eng. Mechanical Eng’g (ASME)**

**mep mean effective pressure**

**METO maximum, except during take-off**

**me V million electron volts**

**MF maintenance factor**

**mhc mean horizontal candles**

**mi mile**

**MIL-STD U.S. Military Standard**

**min minutes; minimum**

**mip mean indicated pressure**

**MKS metre-kilogram-second system**

**MKSA metre-kilogram-second-ampere system**

**mL millilamberts**

**ml, mL millilitre . cm **

**mlhc mean lower hemispherical candles**

**mm millimetresxxii SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS**

**mm-free mineral matter free**

**mmf magnetomotive force**

**mol mole**

**mp melting point**

**MPC maximum permissible concentration**

**mph, mi/h miles per hour**

**MRT mean radiant temperature**

**ms manuscript; milliseconds**

**msc mean spherical candles**

**MSS Manufacturers Standardization Soc. of the Valve & Fittings**

**Industry**

**mu micron, micro**

**MW megawatts**

**MW day megawatt day**

**MWT mean water temperature**

**n polytropic exponent**

**N number (in mathematical tables)**

**N number of neutrons; newton**

**N**

**s specific speed**

**NA not available**

**NAA National Assoc. of Accountants**

**NACA National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (see NASA)**

**NACM National Assoc. of Chain Manufacturers**

**NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration**

**nat. natural**

**NBC National Broadcasting Company**

**NBFU National Board of Fire Underwriters**

**NBS National Bureau of Standards (see NIST)**

**NCN nitrocarbonitrate (explosive)**

**NDHA National District Hearing Assoc.**

**NEC® National Electric Code® (National Electrical Code® and NEC®**

**are registered trademarks of the National Fire Protection**

**Association, Inc., Quincy, MA.)**

**NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Assoc.**

**NFPA National Fire Protection Assoc.**

**NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology**

**NLGI National Lubricating Grease Institute**

**nm nautical miles**

**No. (Nos.) number(s)**

**NPSH net positive suction head**

**NRC Nuclear Regulator Commission (successor to AEC; see also**

**ERDA)**

**NTP normal temperature and pressure**

**O.D., OD outside diameter (pipes)**

**O.H. open-hearth (steel)**

**O.N. octane number**

**op. cit. opere citato (work already cited)**

**OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Administration**

**OSW Office of Saline Water**

**OTS Office of Technical Services, U.S. Dept. of Commerce**

**oz ounces**

**p. (pp.) page (pages)**

**Pa pascal**

**P.C. propulsive coefficient**

**PE polyethylene**

**PEG polyethylene glycol**

**P.E.L. proportional elastic limit**

**PETN an explosive**

**pf power factor**

**PFI Pipe Fabrication Inst.**

**PIV peak inverse voltage**

**p.m. post meridiem (after noon)**

**PM preventive maintenance**

**P.N. performance number**

**ppb parts per billion**

**PPI plan position indicator**

**ppm parts per million**

**press pressure**

**Proc. Proceedings**

**PSD power spectral density, g /cps**

**psi, lb/in lb per sq in**

**psia lb per sq in. abs**

**psig lb per sq in. gage**

**pt point; pint**

**PVC polyvinyl chloride**

**Q Btu**

**qt quarts**

**q.v. quod vide (which see)**

**r roentgens**

**R gas constant**

**R deg Rankine (Fahrenheit abs); Reynolds number**

**rad radius; radiation absorbed dose; radian**

**RBE see rem**

**R-C resistor-capacitor**

**RCA Radio Corporation of America**

**R&D research and development**

**RDX cyclonite, a military explosive**

**rem Roentgen equivalent man (formerly RBE)**

**rev revolutions**

**r-f, rf radio frequency**

**RMA Rubber Manufacturers Assoc.**

**rms square root of mean square**

**rpm, r/min revolutions per minute**

**rps, r/s revolutions per second**

**RSHF room sensible heat factor**

**ry. railway**

**s entropy**

**s seconds**

**S sulfur, %; siemens**

**SAE Soc. of Automotive Engineers**

**sat saturated**

**SBI steel Boiler Inst.**

**scfm standard cu ft per min**

**SCR silicon controlled rectifier**

**sec secant of**

**sec– angle whose secant is (see cos– )**

**Sec. Section**

**sech hyperbolic secant of**

**sech– inverse hyperbolic secant of**

**segm segment**

**SE No. steam emulsion number**

**SEI Structural Engineering Institute**

**sfc specific fuel consumption, lb per hphr**

**sfm, sfpm surface feet per minute**

**shp shaft horsepower**

**SI International System of Units (Le Systéme International**

**d’Unites)**

**sin sine of**

**sin– angle whose sine is (see cos– )**

**sinh hyperbolic sine of**

**sinh– inverse hyperbolic sine of**

**SME Society of Manufacturing Engineers (successor**

**to ASTME)**

**SNAME Soc. of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers**

**SP static pressure**

**sp specific**

**specif specification**

**sp gr specific gravity**

**sp ht specific heat**

**spp species unspecified (botanical)**

**SPS standard pipe size**

**sq square**

**sr steradian**

**SSF sec Saybolt Furol**

**SSU seconds Saybolt Universal (same as SUS)**

**std standardSYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS xxiii**

**SUS Saybolt Universal seconds (same as SSU)**

**SWG Standard (British) wire gage**

**T tesla**

**TAC Technical Advisory Committee on Weather Design**

**Conditions (ASHRAE)**

**tan tangent of**

**tan angle whose tangent is (see cos )**

**tanh hyperbolic tangent of**

**tanh inverse hyperbolic tangent of**

**TDH total dynamic head**

**TEL tetraethyl lead**

**temp temperature**

**THI temperature-humidity (discomfort) index**

**thp thrust horsepower**

**TNT trinitrotoluol (explosive)**

**torr mm Hg . millibars ( / ) atm**

** ( . / ) dynes per cm **

**TP total pressure**

**tph tons per hour**

**tpi turns per in**

**TR transmitter-receiver**

**Trans. Transactions**

**T.S. tensile strength; tensile stress**

**tsi tons per sq in**

**ttd terminal temperature difference**

**UHF ultra high frequency**

**UKAEA United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority**

**UL Underwriters’ Laboratory**

**ult ultimate**

**UMS universal maintenance standards**

**USAF U.S. Air Force**

**USCG U.S. Coast Guard**

**USCS U.S. Commercial Standard; U.S. Customary System**

**USDA U.S. Dept. of Agriculture**

**USFPL U.S. Forest Products Laboratory**

**USGS U.S. Geologic Survey**

**USHEW U.S. Dept. of Health, Education & Welfare**

**USN U.S. Navy**

**USP U.S. pharmacopoeia**

**USPHS U.S. Public Health Service**

**USS United States Standard**

**USSG U.S. Standard Gage**

**UTC Coordinated Universal Time**

**V volt**

**VCF visual comfort factor**

**VCI visual comfort index**

**VDI Verein Deutscher Ingenieure**

**vel velocity**

**vers versed sine of**

**vert vertical**

**VHF very high frequency**

**VI viscosity index**

**viz. videlicet (namely)**

**V.M. volatile matter, %**

**vol volume**

**VP velocity pressure**

**vs. versus**

**W watt**

**Wb weber**

**W&M Washburn & Moen wire gage**

**w.g. water gage**

**WHO World Health Organization**

**W.I. wrought iron**

**W.P.A. Western Pine Assoc.**

**wt weight**

**yd yards**

**Y.P. yield point**

**yr year(s)**

**Y.S. yield strength; yield stress**

**z atomic number, figure of merit**

**Zeit. Zeitschrift**

** mass defect**

**mc microcurie**

**, s Boltzmann constant**

**m micro ( ), as in ms**

**mm micrometre (micron) m ( mm)**

**ohm**

**s**

**MATHEMATICAL SIGNS AND SYMBOLS**

** plus (sign of addition)**

** positive**

** minus (sign of subtraction)**

** Negative**

**() plus or minus (minus or plus)**

** times, by (multiplication sign)**

** multiplied by**

**sign of division**

**/ divided by**

**: ratio sign, divided by, is to**

** equals, as (proportion)**

**less than**

** greater than**

**V much less than**

**W much greater than**

** equals**

**; identical with**

**, similar to**

**L approximately equals**

**> approximately equals, congruent**

** equal to or less than**

** equal to or greater than**

** not equal to**

**S approaches**

** varies as**

**` infinity**

**square root of**

**cube root of**

** therefore**

**y parallel to**

**() [] {} parentheses, brackets and braces; quantities enclosed by them**

**to be taken together in multiplying, dividing, etc.**

**length of line from A to B**

**p pi ( . )**

** degrees**

**r minutes**

**rr seconds**

**l angle**

**dx differential of x**

** (delta) difference**

**x increment of x**

**partial derivative of u with respect to x**

**e integral of**

**‘u/’x**

**AB**

** xxiv SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS**

**integral of, between limits a and b**

**r line integral around a closed path**

**o (sigma) summation of**

**f (x), F(x) functions of x**

**exp x ex [e . (base of natural, or Napierian, logarithms)]**

**= del or nabla, vector differential operator**

**= Laplacian operator**

**£ Laplace operational symbol**

** ba ! factorial |x| absolute value of x **

**first derivative of x with respect to time**

**second derivative of x with respect to time**

**A B vector product; magnitude of A times magnitude of B times**

**sine of the angle from A to B; AB sin**

**A B scalar product; magnitude of A times magnitude of B times**

**cosine of the angle from A to B; AB cos AB**

**Contents**

**For the detailed contents of any section consult the title page of that section.**

**Contributors ix**

**The Editors xiii**

**Preface to the Eleventh Edition xv**

**Preface to the First Edition xvii**

**Symbols and Abbreviations xix**

** . Mathematical Tables and Measuring Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Mathematical Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Measuring Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Mechanics of Solids and Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Mechanics of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Mechanics of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Thermodynamic Properties of Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Radiant Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Transmission of Heat by Conduction and Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Strength of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Mechanical Properties of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Mechanics of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Pipeline Flexure Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Nondestructive Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Experimental Stress and Strain Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Mechanics of Composite Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Materials of Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . General Properties of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Iron and Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Iron and Steel Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Nonferrous Metals and Alloys; Metallic Specialties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Paints and Protective Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Nonmetallic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Cement, Mortar, and Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – . Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Lubricants and Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Fiber Composite Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Fuels and Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Carbonization of Coal and Gas Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Combustion Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Municipal Waste Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Electric Furnaces and Ovens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Machine Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Machine Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Gearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Fluid-Film Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Bearings with Rolling Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Packings, Gaskets, and Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Pipe, Pipe Fittings, and Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Power Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Sources of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Steam Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Steam Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Power-Plant Heat Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Internal-Combustion Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Nuclear Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Hydraulic Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Materials Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Materials Holding, Feeding, and Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Lifting, Hoisting, and Elevating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Dragging, Pulling, and Pushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Loading, Carrying, and Excavating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Conveyor Moving and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Automatic Guided Vehicles and Robots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Material Storage and Warehousing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Automotive Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Railway Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Marine Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Aeronautics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Jet Propulsion and Aircraft Propellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Astronautics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Pipeline Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Containerization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Building Construction and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Industrial Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Structural Design of Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Reinforced Concrete Design and Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Air Conditioning, Heating, and Ventilating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Sound, Noise, and Ultrasonics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Manufacturing Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Foundry Practice and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

**vi CONTENTSCONTENTS vii**

** . Plastic Working of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Welding and Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Machining Processes and Machine Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Surface Texture Designation, Production, and Quality Control . . . . . . . . – **

** . Woodcutting Tools and Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Precision Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Fans, Pumps, and Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Displacement Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Centrifugal Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . High-Vacuum Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Electrical and Electronics Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Electrical Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Instruments and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Automatic Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Surveying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Industrial Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Operations Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Cost Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Engineering Statistics and Quality Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Methods Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Cost of Electric Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Human Factors and Ergonomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Automatic Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . The Regulatory Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Environmental Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Occupational Safety and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Fire Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Refrigeration, Cryogenics, and Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Mechanical Refrigeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Cryogenics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Emerging Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . An Introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Introduction to Nanotechnology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Ferroelectrics/Piezoelectrics and Shape Memory Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Introduction to the Finite-Element Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Computer-Aided Design, Computer-Aided**

**Engineering, and Variational Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Experimental Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Introduction to Biomechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Human Injury Tolerance and Anthropometric Test Devices . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Air-Inflated Fabric Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Robotics, Mechatronics, and Intelligent Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Rapid Prototyping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – **

** . Miscellany **

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**INDEX**

**Index Terms Links**

**A**

**AAR plate B equipment clearance diagram – **

**AAR plate C (equipment clearance diagram) – **

**Abaca (manila fiber) – **

**Abampere (def) – **

**Ablators (heat-resisting materials) – **

**Abrasive cutoff wheels – **

**Abrasive paper – **

**Abrasive tools (wood sanding) – **

**Abrasive wheels (see Grinding wheels)**

**Abrasives – **

**artificial – **

**coated – **

**grains for, manufacture of – **

**for grinding and polishing – **

**ABS resins: properties of (table) – **

**ABS/Nylon resins: properties of (table) – **

**Absolute-pressure gages – **

**Absolute systems (mechanics, def) – **

**Absolute temperature scale – **

**Absolute zero, inferred – **

**Absorber, in refrigeration systems – **

**Absorptance (heat, def) – **

**Absorption:**

**of gases by water – **

**of light (def) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Absorption dynamometers – **

**Absorption machines, refrigeration – **

**Absorption refrigerators – **

**Absorptivity (heat, def) – **

**Acceleration (def) – **

**angular (def) – **

**causing curvilinear motion – **

**composition of – – – **

**conversion (table) – **

**equivalents (table) – **

**of gravity – – **

**measurement of – **

**resolution of – **

**units of – **

**Acceleration resistance (train) – **

**Acceleration-time curve (kinematics) – **

**Accelerometers – **

**microelectromechanical systems as – **

**Accidents: prevention of – **

**Accounting (see Cost accounting)**

**Accumulators, hydraulic – **

**Acetal resins: properties of (table) – **

**Acetone (solvent) – **

**Acid number of lubricating oil – **

**Ackerman steering gear (automobiles) – **

**Acme screw threads – **

**Acoustic waves – **

**Acoustics, in industrial plants – **

**(See also Sound)**

**Acre (unit of area, def) – **

**Acrylic fibers – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Acrylic resins: properties of (table) – **

**Acrylonitrile resins: properties of (table) – **

**Active power (a-c circuits, def) – **

**Actuators (jacks) – **

**hydraulic – **

**ACV (air cushion vehicles) – **

**Ada (computer language) – **

**Addendum (gear teeth) – **

**Addition, arithmetical – **

**Adhesion, coefficient of (locomotives) – **

**Adhesive resins, performance of (table) – **

**Adhesives – **

**anaerobic – **

**classification of (table) – **

**elastomeric – **

**pressure-sensitive – **

**properties of (table) – **

**thermoplastic – **

**thermosetting – **

**uses of – **

**table – **

**Adiabatic expansion of gases – **

**Admiralty brass (table) – **

**Admittance (electric circuits, def) – – **

**Advance (resistor alloy) – **

**table – **

**Aerodynamics (def) – **

**axes used in – **

**coefficients in – **

**hypersonic (def) – **

**(See also Supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics)Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Aerodynamics (def) (Cont.)**

**speed in – **

**subsonic (def) – **

**(See also Airfoils)**

**supersonic (def) – **

**(See also Supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics)**

**transonic (def) – **

**Aeronautics – **

**(See also Airplanes)**

**Aerosols, particle sizes in – **

**Afterburners (jet engines) – **

**effect of – **

**Aftercondensers – **

**Agglomeration test (coal) – **

**Aggregates for concrete – **

**Aging of steel (hysteresis) – **

**after temper rolling – **

**AGMA gear standards – **

**Air:**

**ambient, quality standards for (table) – **

**composition of (table) – **

**dehumidification of – **

**by surface cooler – **

**density of (def) – **

**at altitudes (table) – **

**formula – **

**in ducts, friction in (charts) – – **

**enthalpy-pressure diagram for (chart) – **

**heat transfer coefficients to or from – **

**humidification of, spray chambers for – **

**ideal-gas, enthalpy and psi functions for (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Air: (Cont.)**

**internal energy of (table) – **

**liquefaction of – **

**moist, properties of – – **

**pressure of, at altitudes (table) – **

**solubility, in water – **

**surface conductance (table) – **

**surface resistance (table) – **

**temperature at altitudes (table) – **

**temperature-entropy chart for – **

**thermal conductivity of (table) – – **

**velocity pressure – **

**and water-vapor mixtures – **

**Air arc gouging – **

**Air beams – **

**Air cleaners, characteristics of (table) – **

**Air compression – **

**multistage: power required in – **

**theory of – **

**power required for – **

**theory of – **

**work of – **

**Air compressors:**

**centrifugal (see Centrifugal compressors)**

**efficiency of – – – **

**lubrication of – **

**oils for – **

**rotary-vane – **

**unloaders for – **

**uses for – **

**valves for – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Air conditioning – **

**absorption systems, water and lithium bromide – **

**air distribution in – **

**air infiltration (tables) – – **

**air-treatment criteria for – **

**atmospheric cooling for – **

**of automobiles – **

**chilled-water cooling for – **

**chilled-water systems, water distribution in – **

**of cold storage rooms – **

**comfort indexes for: ASHRAE comfort chart – **

**effective temperature (chart) – **

**temperature-humidity index – **

**cooling configurations for – **

**cooling load formulas for – **

**cooling loads for (table) – **

**cooling towers for – **

**direct expansion cooling for – **

**duct air velocities (table) – **

**ducts, friction of air in (charts) – – **

**ductwork for – **

**fans for – – **

**filters for – **

**table – **

**heat gain – **

**factors for (table) – **

**from appliances (table) – – **

**from computer equipment (table) – **

**from electric motors (table) – **

**from lighting fixtures (charts) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Air conditioning (Cont.)**

**from occupants (table) – **

**from office equipment (table) – **

**from people (table) – **

**from restaurant appliances (table) – **

**through roofs (tables) – – **

**through sunlit walls (table) – **

**heat rejection – **

**equipment for – **

**diagrams – **

**piping for – **

**friction losses in (charts) – – **

**of industrial plants – **

**inside design conditions (table) – **

**makeup water for – **

**moisture infiltration – **

**moisture load in – **

**nontoxic water treatment for – **

**open spray systems for – **

**outdoor air requirements (table) – **

**outside design temperatures (charts) – – **

**overall heat-transfer coefficients (table) – **

**power input to (table) – **

**processes – **

**psychrometric chart for – **

**return face air velocities (table) – **

**sprayed coil dehumidifiers for – **

**supply-air rate – **

**supply-air temperature – **

**winter water-side economizers for – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Air ejectors – **

**capacities of (table) – **

**hogging – **

**materials for – **

**performance of – **

**priming – **

**steam jet pressure for – **

**types of – **

**Air heaters, in furnaces, soot blowers for – **

**Air-inflated fabric structures – **

**air beams – **

**analytical and numerical models – **

**drop stitch fabrics for – **

**fabric effects on structural behavior – **

**fiber materials for – **

**inflation of – **

**operation of – **

**plain-woven fabrics for – **

**pressure relief valves for – **

**protective coatings for – **

**rigidification of – **

**seamless fabrics for – **

**Air meters – **

**Air motor hoists – **

**Air pollution – **

**characteristics of (chart) – **

**classification of – **

**Clean Air Acts for – **

**control of, in industries – **

**from diesel engines – **

**dispersion from stacks – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Air pollution (Cont.)**

**effects on vegetation – **

**emission standards for passenger cars**

**and light trucks (table) – **

**fans for control of – **

**federal standards for – **

**from gasoline engines – **

**from heavy-duty engines – **

**from internal-combustion engines – **

**particle sizing in – **

**from passenger vehicles – **

**from power plants – **

**principal pollutants (table) – **

**sources of – **

**domestic – **

**table – **

**industrial (table) – **

**sulfur effects – – **

**from transportation engines (table) – **

**(See also Environmental control)**

**Air preheaters (boilers) – **

**Air resistance: of automobiles – **

**Aircraft (def) – **

**Aircraft jet propulsion – **

**efficiency and power of – **

**equations, notation – **

**fuels – **

**ramjet – – **

**performance of – **

**rocket engines – **

**electric – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Aircraft jet propulsion (Cont.)**

**electromagnetic – **

**electrostatic – **

**electrothermal – **

**liquid propellants – **

**nuclear heat-transfer – **

**performance of – **

**propellant combinations (table) – **

**scramjet – **

**solid propellant – – **

**thermal air-jet systems – **

**thrust equations – **

**turbofan – **

**performance of – **

**turbojet – **

**performance of – **

**Aircraft propellers:**

**aerodynamic theories: axial-momentum – **

**blade element – **

**vortex – **

**blades – **

**construction of – **

**centrifugal loads on – **

**coefficients for – **

**power – **

**thrust – **

**torque – **

**control – **

**beta – **

**counterweights – **

**design – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Aircraft propellers: (Cont.)**

**ENT (emergency negative thrust) – **

**excitation factor – **

**fatigue strength – **

**feathering – **

**gyroscopic forces on – – **

**hubs for – **

**mechanical design – **

**natural frequencies in – **

**performance of – **

**compressibility effects – **

**reverse thrust – **

**static thrust – **

**performance characteristics of – **

**advance ratio – **

**velocity coefficient – **

**pitch change mechanism for – **

**resonance – **

**reversing – **

**slipstream contraction – **

**store damage – **

**vibratory stresses in – **

**Airflow, through orifices – **

**Airfoils – **

**aerodynamic forces on – **

**angle of attack (def) – **

**aspect ratio (def) – **

**boundary layer control – **

**camber line of – **

**characteristics of – **

**drag (def) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Airfoils (Cont.)**

**dynamic pressure (def) – **

**flaps and slots in – **

**induced drag (def) – **

**lift (def) – **

**moment (def) – **

**pressure distribution on – **

**profile drag – **

**sections, properties of (charts) – **

**stagnation point (def) – **

**stalling angle – **

**transonic – **

**wing section, selection of – **

**Airplane propellers (see Aircraft propellers)**

**Airplanes (def) – **

**aeroacoustics – **

**aerodynamic efficiency – **

**aerodynamic forces on – **

**supersonic and hypersonic – **

**banking – **

**best range speed – **

**ceiling – **

**compasses for (gyroscopic) – **

**control of – **

**dimensions of (table) – **

**drag of – – **

**(See also Airfoils; Drag)**

**dynamic stability of – **

**emissions from – **

**endurance speed – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Airplanes (def) (Cont.)**

**engines for – **

**aeroacoustics – **

**carburetors – **

**cooling – **

**high-cycle fatigue in – **

**rich-front combustors for – **

**table – **

**environmental issues – **

**flaps for, table – **

**flaps and slots for – **

**gas turbines for – **

**gyrocompasses for – **

**jet propulsion (see Aircraft jet propulsion)**

**maximum endurance – **

**maximum range – **

**minimum glide angle – **

**noise, Chapter noise regulations – **

**Chapter rule – **

**parasite drag of (def) – **

**performance of – **

**typical (table) – **

**power: available – **

**range of (table) – **

**rolling – **

**speed of (table) – **

**stability – **

**stalling angle – **

**static lateral stability – **

**static stability – **

**struts, drag of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Airplanes (def) (Cont.)**

**time to climb to altitude – **

**turbomachine noise from – **

**turn-indicator – **

**wing sweepback – **

**wings, aspect ratio – **

**drag of – **

**flaps and slots – **

**laminar flow over – **

**scale effect – **

**chart – **

**sections – **

**(See also Airfoils)**

**Airslide conveyors – **

**AJM (abrasive-jet machining) – **

**Albumin glue (table) – **

**Alclad alloys (aluminum) – **

**Alcohol – **

**air for combustion of (table) – **

**compressibility – **

**denatured – – **

**heat of combustion of (table) – **

**products of combustion of (table) – **

**solvents – **

**specific gravity and density (table) – **

**wood – – **

**Algebra, linear – **

**Algol (computer language) – **

**Alkali cleansers – **

**Alkalinity of boiler water – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**All-day efficiency (transformers, def) – **

**Allowance (def) – **

**for various types of fit – **

**table – **

**Alloys:**

**aluminum – **

**antifriction – **

**for castings – **

**copper – **

**for bearings (table) – **

**manufacturing properties of (table) – **

**creep rates in (table) – **

**fusible (table) – **

**for high temperature – **

**superalloys (tables) – **

**lead – **

**magnesium – **

**nickel – **

**nonferrous – **

**hardening – **

**heat-treatment of – **

**manufacturing properties of (table) – **

**resistivity (table) – **

**for resistor materials – **

**shape memory (see Shape memory alloys)**

**specific gravity and density (table) – **

**steel, manufacturing properties of (table) – **

**(See also Steel, alloys)**

**superplastic – **

**titanium – **

**zinc – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Alnico (magnet material) – **

**Alpha iron (def) – **

**Alpha particles, atomic – **

**Alphabets:**

**German fraktur – **

**Greek – **

**Alternating-current instruments – **

**Alternating currents (see Circuits, alternatingcurrent; Currents, alternating;**

**Electric motors; Generators)**

**Alternation, electric current (def) – **

**Alternators – **

**Altitude:**

**air volume correction factors due to (table) – **

**solar (table) – **

**variation of atmospheric pressure and temperature**

**with (table) – **

**ALU (arithmetic logic unit) – **

**Alumina brick – **

**Aluminum:**

**conductors of – – **

**current-carrying capacities for (table) – **

**table – – **

**corrosion resistance of – **

**painting and lacquering of – **

**plastic range chart for – **

**soldering of – **

**tubing of – **

**welding of – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Aluminum alloys – **

**aging – **

**annealing of – **

**anodizing treatment of – **

**castings, composition and properties of (tables) – **

**designations – **

**die-casting – **

**table – **

**extrusions – **

**foil – **

**forging of – **

**heat-treatment of – **

**tables – **

**machining of – **

**magnesium – **

**mold-casting of – **

**plates – **

**protection of – **

**riveting – **

**sheet – **

**silicon – **

**soldering of – **

**strain hardening of – **

**strength at high temperatures (table) – **

**welding of – – **

**wrought – **

**composition and properties of (table) – **

**Aluminum brass: composition**

**and properties of (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Aluminum bronze – **

**for bearings – **

**composition and properties of (table) – **

**Aluminum oxide, for wood sanding – **

**Aluminum paint – **

**Aluminum pipe (table) – **

**Alundum (abrasive) – **

**Amatol (explosive) – **

**American farm windmill – **

**American National Standard pipe threads – **

**American Standard wire gage – **

**Table – **

**American Unified screw threads – **

**American wire gage, copper wire sizes (table) – **

**Ammeters – – – **

**Ammonia:**

**pipes for, valves and fittings – **

**properties of (chart) – **

**saturated (table) – **

**as refrigerant – – **

**saturated: properties of (table) – **

**superheated: properties of (table) – **

**Ammonia absorption machines – **

**Ammonia compressors:**

**condenser pressure (table) – **

**horsepower per ton of refrigeration (table) – **

**volume of gas per ton of refrigeration (table) – **

**Ammonia dynamites – **

**Ammonia gelatins in explosives – **

**Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (explosive) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Amortisseur windings (a-c armatures) – **

**Ampere (def) – – – **

**Ampere-turn (def) – **

**Amplidyne (d-c generator) – **

**Amplification (def) – **

**Amplifiers:**

**difference – **

**differential (electronic circuit) – **

**high-gain operational – **

**instrumentation – **

**radio – **

**transistor – **

**two-stage – **

**AMS specifications, for stainless steel,**

**chemical composition (table) – **

**Analog computers – **

**Analysis:**

**dimensional – **

**of factory operations – **

**factors in – **

**Analytical geometry – **

**Anchor ring, volume and area – **

**Andt process (coke making) – **

**ANFO (explosive) – **

**Angle of attack (aerodynamics, def) – **

**induced – **

**Angle of stall (airfoils, def) – **

**Angle valves – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Angles:**

**analytical geometry formulas – **

**bisection of – **

**complementary (def) – **

**congruent (def) – **

**conversion tables for – **

**dihedral – **

**half, functions of – **

**measurement of (surveying) – **

**units for – **

**multiple, functions of – **

**negative, functions of – **

**solid – **

**steel, used as beams – **

**sum and difference of – **

**supplementary (def) – **

**trigonometric formulas – **

**Angular acceleration (def) – **

**Angular displacement (def) – **

**Angular momentum (def) – **

**Angular velocity – **

**conversion factors (table) – **

**Annealing:**

**of nonferrous metals – **

**of steel – – **

**Annual reports – **

**Annuity tables – – **

**Annulus:**

**area of – **

**number of contiguous circles in – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Anodizing – **

**Anomalistic year – **

**ANSI method of generator voltage regulation – – **

**Anthracite (see Coal, anthracite)**

**Anthropometric data (table) – **

**Anthropometric test dummies – **

**Antifreeze – **

**Antifriction alloys – **

**Antifriction curve, Schiele’s – **

**Antioch process (molding) – **

**Antirolling gyroscopes (ships) – **

**Aperiodic decay (def) – **

**Aperture, numerical – **

**API (American Petroleum Institute) scale**

**(specific gravity) conversion tables – **

**Apothecaries’liquid measure – **

**Apothecaries’weight – **

**Apparent power (a-c circuits, def) – – **

**Apron conveyors – **

**Table – **

**Aquifers, for water storage – **

**Arc furnaces – – **

**Arc welding (see Welding, arc)**

**ARCH (hydrogasification) – **

**Arch beams – **

**Arches:**

**furnace – **

**masonry, laying of – **

**Archimedean spiral – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Arcs:**

**circular, center of gravity of – **

**of contact (belts) – **

**Arcsine – **

**Arctangent – **

**Are (def) – – **

**Area, units of – **

**Area meters, fluid flow – **

**Areas:**

**centers of gravity for – – **

**conversion tables – **

**equivalent (table) – **

**measurement of – – **

**methods of calculating – – – **

**moments of inertia of – **

**plane: centers of gravity of – – **

**by graphics – – **

**moments of inertia of, by graphics – – **

**of similar figures – **

**of solids – **

**AREMA railway line clearance – **

**Arithmetic – **

**fixed point – **

**floating point – **

**laws of – **

**Arkansas oilstones – **

**Armature leakage reactance – **

**Armature reactance and resistance, a-c generators – **

**Armature reaction – – **

**Arms, flywheel – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Artificial intelligence – **

**Asbestos – **

**as brake material, friction of – **

**specific gravity and density of (table) – **

**thermal conductivity of (table) – **

**Asbestos-cement pipes – **

**ASCII codes, table – **

**Ash:**

**bituminous – **

**coal – **

**tables – – **

**combustibles in – **

**deposits – **

**eastern – **

**furnace fouling by – **

**fusibility – **

**table – **

**lignitic – **

**reflectivity of – **

**Ash conveyors, pneumatic – **

**Ashlar masonry (table) – **

**ASHRAE comfort chart – **

**ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) – **

**ASME specifications, for stainless steel (table) – **

**Aspect ratio (aerodynamics, def) – **

**Asphalt – **

**roofing – **

**Asphaltum, specific gravity and density (table) – **

**Assay ton (unit of weight, def) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**ASTM specifications:**

**for alloy-steel castings (table) – **

**for brick (table) – **

**for cement – – **

**for chains (table) – – **

**high-test – **

**proof-coil – **

**transport – **

**for commercial zinc (table) – **

**for copper wire (table) – **

**for fire resistance – **

**for gypsum plaster – **

**for Portland cement (table) – **

**for stainless steel, chemical composition (table) – **

**mechanical properties (table) – **

**for standard sieves**

**(proportioning concrete, table) – **

**for steel – **

**table – **

**structural – – **

**for locomotives (table) – **

**for ships (table) – **

**for steel castings – **

**Astroid – **

**Astronautics – **

**(See also Space)**

**Asymptote:**

**of hyperbola – **

**of tractrix – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Atmosphere:**

**control of, in industrial furnaces – **

**impurities in (chart) – **

**international standard (table) – **

**of planets (table) – **

**protective gas (heat treating, table) – **

**standard (COESA, def) – **

**table – **

**upper, data on (COESA) – **

**variation with altitude (table) – **

**Atmospheric corrosion – **

**Atom (def) – – **

**Atomic energy:**

**fusion systems – **

**(See also Power plants, nuclear)**

**Atomic number (def) – **

**of elements (table) – **

**of metals (table) – – **

**Atomic power (see Power plants, nuclear)**

**Atomic reactors (see Reactors)**

**Atomic weights:**

**of elements (table) – **

**of metals (table) – – **

**Attemperation of steam – **

**Attenuation (automatic control, def) – **

**of sound – **

**Attraction, laws of – **

**Audible frequency range (sound) – **

**Auscoke (BHP) – Index Terms Links**

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**Austenite (def) – – – – **

**grain size – – **

**influence of alloys on (table) – **

**Authority:**

**Autofacturing – **

**material feeding – **

**measurement – **

**micron – **

**nano – **

**packaging – **

**sensing – **

**sorting – **

**transferring – **

**Autogiros (def) – **

**Autoignition temperatures (gaseous fuels) – **

**Automated storage and retrieval**

**systems (materials handling) – **

**Automatic control:**

**actuators for – **

**basic system – **

**block-diagrams for – – **

**algebra – **

**representation – **

**closed-loop – **

**block-diagrams for – **

**commands – **

**compensation: derivative – **

**error – **

**input – **

**output – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Automatic control: (Cont.)**

**integral – **

**error – **

**definition of terms – **

**error coefficients – **

**final control elements for – **

**frequency response – **

**equations for common elements (table) – **

**graphical display – **

**Bode diagrams – **

**Nyquist plots – **

**polar plots – **

**linear quadratic regulators – **

**performance index for – **

**LQG/LTR systems – **

**command following in – **

**compensator design procedure for – **

**control systems analysis for – **

**controllability of – **

**detectability of – **

**example of – **

**LQG controller design for – **

**LQG/LTR controller design for – **

**multiplicative uncertainty of – **

**noise rejection in – **

**observability of – **

**performance robustness of – **

**PI controller design for – **

**precompensator design for – **

**robustness of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Automatic control: (Cont.)**

**stability robustness of – **

**stabilizability of – **

**modes vs. process characteristics (table) – **

**nomenclature – **

**peak overshoot – **

**peak time – **

**pneumatic systems – – **

**process characteristics for (table) – **

**rise time – **

**robustness (def) – **

**properties – **

**sampled-data systems – **

**stability of – **

**signal flow representations – **

**stability and performance of – **

**gain margin (def) – **

**Nyquist stability criterion – **

**phase margin (def) – **

**Routh’s stability criterion – **

**steady-state performance – **

**time constants in – **

**transient analysis of system – **

**overshoot – **

**transient frequency – **

**viscous-damped – **

**z transformation – **

**Automatic control systems (def) – **

**Automatic controllers (def) – **

**Automatic guided vehicles – **

**Automatic pilot (gyroscope) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Automatic vehicles (materials handling) – – **

**Automation (def) – **

**intelligent – **

**Automobile engines – – **

**in buses – **

**compression – **

**compression ratio (tables) – **

**cooling – – – **

**cylinders – – **

**firing orders – **

**foreign – **

**table – **

**ignition – – **

**lubrication of – **

**passenger-car data – **

**pollution from – **

**power density (chart) – **

**valve timing – **

**Automobile safety, human injury tolerance related to – **

**tables – **

**Automobiles – **

**acceleration – **

**air conditioning for – **

**antilock brakes for – **

**body construction – **

**brake fade in – **

**brake linings for – **

**brakes – **

**caliper-disk – **

**drums – **

**hydraulic – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Automobiles (Cont.)**

**internal-expanding – **

**parking – **

**pedal pressure for – **

**power – **

**self-energizing – **

**service – **

**shoes – **

**split systems – **

**braking of, reaction time in – **

**characteristics purchased – **

**coil springs for – **

**combined fuel economy – **

**constant-velocity joints for – **

**cooling – **

**corporate average fuel economy – **

**differentials for, limited slip – **

**drag coefficients for (chart) – **

**drivelines for – **

**engines (see Automobile engines)**

** / fuel economy – **

**foreign – **

**four-wheel drive for – **

**front suspensions for – **

**front-wheel drive for – **

**fuel consumption of – **

**gear ratios for – **

**heating for – **

**highway driving schedule – **

**kingpins for – Index Terms Links**

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**Automobiles (Cont.)**

**materials recycled from – **

**materials used in (table) – **

**McPherson struts in – **

**microprocessors in – **

**miles driven – **

**performance – **

**rear axles – **

**differentials for – **

**semifloating – **

**rear suspensions – **

**registration in the United States – **

**resistance, air – **

**rolling resistance versus tire inflation pressure (chart) – **

**Rzeppa joints for – **

**shock absorbers for – **

**sprung weight of – **

**starting and lighting systems – **

**steering – **

**Ackermann – **

**power – **

**oil pumps for – **

**steering arms for – **

**stopping distances for – **

**tires for – **

**(See also Tires)**

**torsion bars for – **

**traction control for – **

**traction required in – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Automobiles (Cont.)**

**transmissions – **

**automatic – **

**continuously variable – **

**fluid couplings – **

**friction clutches – **

**manual – **

**gear ratios – **

**synchromesh – **

**torque converter – **

**tripod joints for – **

**trucks (see Trucks)**

**unsprung weight of – **

**urban driving schedule – **

**uses of – **

**ventilation – **

**wheel alignment – **

**camber (def) – **

**caster (def) – **

**toe-in (def) – **

**wheels for – **

**Autotransformers – **

**for squirrel-cage motors – **

**Availability (thermodynamics) – **

**Available heat (def) – **

**in steam engine cycle – **

**Aviation fuels – **

**Avogadro’s number (def) – **

**Avoirdupois weight – **

**AWG (American Wire Gauge) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**AWS specifications, for stainless steel,**

**chemical composition (table) – **

**Axial fans – **

**characteristic curves – **

**efficiency of (chart) – **

**formulas – **

**performance curves for – – **

**Axial-flow pumps – – **

**Axis:**

**of inertia, principal (def) – **

**of oscillation – **

**Axles, of automobiles – **

**Azimuth (def) – **

**back (def) – **

**solar (table) – **

**B**

**Babbitt linings in large bearings – **

**Babbitt metal (table) – **

**Babcock coefficient of friction (steam flow) – **

**Backhoes, loaders with – **

**Bagasse, as fuel – **

**Bainite (def) – **

**Balance:**

**dynamic – – **

**standing – **

**static – **

**Balance sheets (business accounting) – Index Terms Links**

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**Balances:**

**equal arm – **

**spring – **

**torsion – **

**Balancing – **

**of machines, rotating – – **

**steam turbines – **

**Ball bearings (see Bearings, rolling contact)**

**Ball-mill grindability test for coal – **

**Ball screw actuators (jacks) – **

**Ball screws – **

**Ball valves (pump) – **

**Ballasts:**

**for fluorescent lamps – **

**instant start – **

**rapid start – **

**Balsa, as insulation – – **

**Banana oil – **

**Band brakes – **

**friction of – **

**Band clutches – **

**Band saws, metal – **

**Bar codes – **

**Code – **

**Code One – **

**Code – **

**Code PDF – **

**Code K – **

**Code – **

**Code – **

**Data Matrix – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Bar codes (Cont.)**

**interleaved -of- – **

**scanners for – **

** -of- – **

**U.P.C. – **

**Barium titanate (ferroelectrics) – **

**Barn (unit of nuclear cross-section, def) – **

**Barometers – **

**mercury – **

**Barometric condensers – **

**Barrel, standard (def) – **

**BATEA (best available technology**

**economically achievable) – **

**Batteries – **

**dry – **

**block assembly – **

**effect of temperature – **

**efficiency of – **

**flashlight – **

**radio B – **

**Ruben-cell – **

**electrodes – **

**electromotive force of – **

**Exide Ironclad – **

**ignition system – **

**lead – **

**polarization – **

**poles – **

**radio C – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Batteries (Cont.)**

**storage – **

**capacity of (table) – **

**care of – – **

**charging – **

**Edison – – **

**efficiency of – **

**for mine locomotives – **

**Nicad – – **

**pasted-plate type – **

**Planté – **

**portable – **

**rechargeable – **

**removal from service – **

**specific gravity for electrolyte – **

**stationary – **

**voltage of – **

**Baumé scale (specific gravity), conversion tables – **

**Bauschinger effect – **

**Beam and crank mechanisms – **

**Beam lengths:**

**mean (radiation) – – **

**table – **

**Beams – **

**angles used as – **

**bending moment – **

**cantilever (def) – **

**connections in steel-framed structures – **

**constrained – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Beams (Cont.)**

**continuous – **

**uniformly loaded (table) – **

**curved, strength of – **

**deflection of – – **

**Castigliano’s theorem – – **

**curve for – – **

**diagram – **

**formulas – **

**as function of stress – **

**graphical method – **

**Maxwell’s theorem – **

**design of – **

**factors governing – **

**elastic curve – **

**I (see I beams)**

**internal moment beyond elastic limit – **

**internal resilience, formula – **

**loads and reactions – **

**diagram – **

**oblique – **

**rolling or moving – **

**moment and shear diagrams for – – **

**moments of inertia of various sections (tables) – **

**neutral axis in (def) – **

**neutral plane and line of (def) – **

**radii of gyration of various sections (tables) – **

**rectangular, uniformly loaded, safe loads (table) – **

**reinforced-concrete – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Beams (Cont.)**

**resilience – **

**per unit volume (table) – **

**section modulus (def) – **

**tables – **

**sections, properties of (tables) – **

**shear in – **

**shear diagram – **

**simple (def) – **

**slope diagram – **

**steel, deflections (tables) – **

**maximum safe load on – **

**table – **

**proportions of – **

**safe loads – – **

**table – **

**short, calculation of – **

**supports for – **

**web connections for – **

**stiffness of – – **

**strength of (formula) – **

**theory of flexure in – **

**uniform cross-section: bending moments (table) – **

**vertical shear (table) – **

**uniform strength – **

**table – – **

**vibration – **

**wooden – – **

**properties of (table) – **

**safe loads (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Bearing, determination of (in surveying) – **

**Bearing metals – **

**aluminum alloys – **

**babbitt (table) – **

**copper-base (table) – **

**metal-powder-sintered, oil-impregnated (tables) – **

**miscellaneous – **

**porous – **

**(See also Babbitt; Brass; Bronze)**

**Bearing pressures of soils and rock (table) – **

**Bearings – – **

**ball – **

**(See also Bearings, rolling contact)**

**for centrifugal pumps – **

**closures for – **

**conical, friction – **

**efficiencies of – **

**friction in – – **

**gas-lubricated – **

**compressibility parameter – **

**thrust – – **

**whirl stability of – **

**guide – **

**journal – **

**allowable mean pressures – **

**table – **

**babbitt linings – **

**thickness – **

**bushings – **

**clearance – **

**elements of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Bearings (Cont.)**

**film thickness in – **

**friction – **

**variation with clearance – **

**graphite-lubricated – **

**heat dissipation from – **

**length-diameter ratios – **

**load distribution – **

**lubrication – **

**mean pressures (table) – **

**oil grooves – **

**for various load directions – **

**oilless – **

**porous-metal – **

**propeller shaft – **

**seals – **

**types of – **

**Kingsbury thrust – **

**friction – **

**lubrication – **

**complete – **

**failure – **

**film thickness – **

**hydrostatic oil lift – **

**minimum oil feed – **

**mixed – **

**pressure feed – **

**semifluid – **

**starting and stopping – **

**wicks – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Bearings (Cont.)**

**materials for, copper base (table) – **

**(See also Bearing metals)**

**Michell – **

**mine car – **

**mounting – **

**needle – **

**oilers for – **

**for oscillatory motion – **

**plain – **

**porous – – **

**roller – **

**railway, resistance of – **

**(See also Bearings, rolling contact)**

**rolling contact – **

**AFBMA standards – **

**angular-contact – **

**attachments to shafts – **

**ball and roller – **

**capacity – **

**closures – **

**components – **

**cages – **

**rings – **

**rolling elements – **

**design life in various applications (table) – **

**double-row – **

**equivalent loads for – **

**fits (table) – **

**friction – **

**grease for – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Bearings (Cont.)**

**life adjustment factors – **

**load ratings – **

**table – **

**locking collars for – **

**lubrication of – **

**tables – **

**maximum capacity – **

**mountings – **

**in pillow blocks – **

**radial – **

**rated life (def) – **

**sealed – **

**selection procedure for – – **

**speed limits for – **

**split – **

**tapered-roller – **

**thrust bearings – – **

**types of – **

**sealed (rolling contact) – **

**shielded (rolling contact) – **

**silver lined – **

**sintered, iron-base (table) – **

**sliding – **

**step, friction – **

**thrust – – – – **

**ball – **

**capacities of (table) – **

**film thickness – **

**friction – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Bearings (Cont.)**

**friction coefficient – **

**gas-lubricated – – **

**grooves – **

**hydrostatic step – **

**Kingsbury – **

**roller – **

**rolling contact – – **

**segmental, pivoted – **

**Bêché pneumatic forge hammer – **

**Bed moisture (coal) – **

**Belleville springs – **

**Belleville washers – **

**Bellows gages – **

**Bellows gas meter – **

**Belts – **

**arc of contact – **

**conveyor – **

**drives – **

**arrangements – **

**efficiency – **

**friction – **

**idler pulleys – **

**power – **

**flat, selection of – **

**high-strength – **

**joints – **

**leather – **

**strength of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Belts (Cont.)**

**lengths: open and crossed – **

**formulas – **

**graphical methods of determining – **

**power transmission by – – **

**rubber – **

**minimum pulley diameters for (table) – **

**power ratings (tables) – – **

**slack removal – – **

**tension in – **

**tighteners for – – – **

**V (see V-belts)**

**Bench mark (surveying, def) – **

**Bending:**

**elastic limit in – **

**of metals – **

**allowance for – **

**loads for – **

**machines for – – **

**theory of (beams) – – **

**and torsion of shafts – **

**Bending moment of beams – **

**Bendix automobile brakes – **

**Bendix-Weiss universal joint – **

**Bends:**

**pipe – **

**for rope – **

**Benzene, as solvent – **

**(See also Hydrocarbons)Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Benzol (solvent) – **

**Bergbau-Forschung process (coke making) – **

**Berne convention (copyrights) – **

**Bernoulli distribution – **

**Bernoulli function – **

**Bernoulli’s differential equation – **

**Bernoulli’s equation (hydraulics) – – **

**Beryllium – **

**Bessel’s equation – **

**Bessel’s function – **

**Beta decay – **

**Beta function – **

**Beta rays – **

**Bevel gears (see Gears, bevel)**

**Beveloid gears – **

**Bidding procedures – **

**Bifilar pendulums – **

**Binary numbers – **

**Binders, core – **

**Binding energy (nuclear) – **

**Binomial coefficients – **

**tables – **

**Binomial distribution – – – **

**Binomial theorem – **

**Bioactive (biomaterials, def) – **

**Biocompatibility (biomaterials, def) – **

**Biogas, as fuel – **

**Bioinert (biomaterials, def) – **

**Biomass, energy from – **

**Biomass fuels – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Biomaterials (def) – **

**bioactive – **

**biocompatibility of – **

**bioinert – **

**bioresorbable – **

**implants – **

**prosthetic heart valves – **

**stents – **

**toxicity of – **

**Biomechanics (def) – **

**anthropometric data (table) – **

**anthropometric test dummies – **

**of articular cartilage – **

**of bone – **

**of cervical spine – **

**of elbows – **

**glossary of directional terms – **

**of hips – **

**human strength (fig) – **

**of joints – **

**of knees – **

**of lumbar spine – **

**of muscles – **

**occupational – **

**prostheses and implants – **

**of shoulders – **

**of spine – **

**of tendons and ligaments – **

**BioMEMS – – **

**Bioresorbable (biomaterials, def) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Biosphere (def) – **

**Bipropellants (rocket fuel) – **

**Birefringement materials – **

**Birmingham wire and sheet-metal gages – **

**Bisection:**

**of angles – **

**of lines – **

**Bisphenol resins: properties of (table) – **

**Bit (computers) – **

**Bituminous coal (see Coal, bituminous)**

**Black-surface enclosures (radiant-heat) – **

**Blackbody (def) – **

**Blades, fan, centrifugal – **

**Blasius equation (friction-drag-coefficient) – **

**Blast furnace (def) – **

**Blast-furnace gas:**

**cleaning of – – **

**flame temperatures (table) – **

**Blasting gelatin – **

**Bleeding cycle (turbines) – **

**Blind rivets – **

**Blocks, concrete – **

**pulley – **

**Blockwood (def) – **

**Blowers, for draft – **

**for superchargers – **

**for ventilation – **

**(See also Centrifugal compressors; Fans)**

**Bluetooth (IEEE . wireless communication protocol) – **

**Board measure (def) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Boats, maximum safe power for – **

**BOD (biological oxygen demand) – **

**Bode diagrams – **

**for controllers – **

**description of – **

**Body axes, airplane – **

**Body, human, anthropometric data (table) – **

**mass fraction and center of (fig, table) – **

**proportions (fig) – **

**Bohr theory of atoms – **

**Boiler furnaces:**

**combustion in – **

**controls – **

**design and construction of – **

**draft losses in – **

**heat transfer – **

**heat transmission – **

**mechanical draft – **

**pulverized-coal: firing – **

**stokers – **

**walls – **

**water-cooled – **

**Boilers:**

**acid cleaning of – **

**air preheaters for – **

**carbon-monoxide fired – **

**care of – **

**chemical cleaning of – **

**circulation in – **

**natural – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Boilers: (Cont.)**

**codes for – **

**combined circulation – – **

**condensate polishing in – **

**controls for – **

**corner-fired – **

**corrosion in – – **

**draft loss through – **

**dry storage of – **

**economizers for – **

**efficiency of – **

**emergency operation of – **

**environmental controls – **

**dry scrubbing – **

**electrostatic precipitators – **

**fabric filters – **

**flue gas desulfurization – **

**mechanical collectors – **

**oxides of nitrogen – **

**particulate control – **

**selective catalytic reduction – **

**spray dryer absorption – **

**sulfur dioxide – **

**wet scrubbing – **

**exhaust gas – **

**external cleaning – **

**feedwater (see Feedwater)**

**fireside corrosion in – **

**forced-circulation – – **

**furnace (see Boiler furnaces)Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Boilers: (Cont.)**

**heat balance – **

**heat losses – **

**high-temperature-water – **

**inspection and maintenance – **

**normal operation – **

**nuclear – **

**codes and specifications for – **

**heat transfer in – **

**PWR system – **

**once-through type – – **

**package – **

**performance of, acceptance tests – **

**component tests – **

**draft loss – **

**guarantees – **

**maximum continuous rating – **

**thermal losses – **

**process recovery – **

**radiant – **

**rating (def) – **

**safety interlocks – **

**start-up – **

**steam separation in – **

**supercritical – **

**superheaters for – **

**tubes for: film coefficients for – **

**radiation factors for rows of (chart) – **

**standard dimensions (table) – **

**types of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Boilers: (Cont.)**

**waste-heat – **

**water for (see Feedwater)**

**water-tube – **

**Boiling points:**

**of the elements (table) – – **

**of hydrocarbons (tables) – – **

**of metals (table) – – **

**of various substances – – – **

**Bolometer – **

**Bolted joints, design of – **

**Bolts:**

**carriage – **

**drift, pulling resistance – **

**heads for, standard dimensions (table) – – **

**high-strength: direct tension indicators for – **

**materials for – **

**ISO metric (table) – **

**strength of – **

**and nuts, thread standards – **

**preload-indicating – **

**proof loads for – **

**proof strength of – **

**for steel-framed structures – **

**stress due to tightening – **

**tension due to tightening nuts on – **

**threads for, ANSI metric (table) – – **

**for timber trusses – **

**table – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Bone:**

**apparent density of – **

**biomechanics of – **

**composition of – **

**cortical – **

**mechanical properties of – **

**table – **

**remodeling of – **

**trabecular – **

**Boolean algebra:**

**in circuit analysis – **

**laws of (table) – **

**Boom trucks – **

**Borers, wood – **

**Boring machines – **

**Boring mills – **

**Boron – **

**Boron carbide (abrasive) – **

**Boron nitride (abrasive) – **

**Borozon (boron carbide), as abrasive – **

**Bosch fuel-injection pumps – **

**Boundary layer (def) – **

**in aerodynamics – **

**in fluid flow – **

**Boundary layer control (BLC) – **

**Boundary layer flow (fluid dynamics) – **

**Bourdon pressure gages – **

**Boxboard – **

**BPCTCA (best practical control technology**

**currently available) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Brakes:**

**automobile and truck – **

**band – **

**cone – **

**disk – **

**dynamometers – **

**eddy-current – **

**dynamometer – **

**electric – **

**fan – **

**friction – – **

**horsepower absorbed by – **

**for hoisting machinery – **

**hydraulic (automobile) – **

**internal – **

**multidisk – **

**prony – **

**railway – – – **

**rim – **

**vacuum – **

**Braking:**

**of railway trains – – – **

**regenerative (def) – **

**Brale (hardness-testing device) – **

**Brass:**

**composition and properties of (tables) – **

**leaded – **

**table – **

**machinability of – **

**naval (table) – **

**pipe (tables) – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Brass: (Cont.)**

**plastic range chart for – **

**rolled, mechanical properties of (table) – **

**strength at high temperatures – **

**(See also Copper alloys)**

**Brass-aluminum alloys for condenser tubes – **

**Brayton cycle – – – – **

**in gas turbines – **

**Braze welding – **

**Brazing – **

**filler metals for (table) – **

**furnace – **

**induction – **

**torch – **

**Brick – **

**ANSI/ASTM specifications (table) – **

**cement – **

**chrome – **

**common – **

**red – **

**facing – **

**fire (see Firebrick)**

**grades (table) – **

**high-alumina – **

**magnesite – **

**manufacture of – **

**masonry: specific gravity and density of (table) – **

**strength of – **

**table – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Brick (Cont.)**

**paving – **

**prefabricated panels of – **

**properties of (table) – **

**sand-lime – **

**silica – **

**silicon carbide – **

**specialty – **

**Brickwork:**

**lateral support – **

**laying and bonding – **

**strength of – **

**Brine coolers – **

**double-pipe – **

**shell-and-tube – **

**Brinell hardness number (def) – **

**for metals (table) – **

**Brinell hardness test – – **

**Brines:**

**circulation of – **

**properties of (tables) – **

**for refrigerating plants – **

**Briquettes, for coke ovens – **

**British thermal units (Btu) – – – **

**mechanical equivalent – – **

**British unit of refrigeration (def) – **

**Brittleness, impact tests for – **

**Broaches – **

**speeds and feeds for – **

**Broaching – **

**Broaching machines – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Bronze – – **

**aluminum (table) – **

**for bearings – **

**cupronickels – – **

**tables – **

**as electrical conductor – **

**manganese – **

**phosphor – **

**table – **

**silicon – **

**table – **

**strength at high temperatures (table) – **

**tin – **

**tables – **

**Brown and Sharpe wire gage: scheme of – **

**table – **

**(See also American wire gage)**

**Brown coat (plastering) – **

**Btu (see British thermal units)**

**Bucket carriers – **

**(See also Conveyors)**

**Bucket elevators – **

**casings – **

**Buckets:**

**dragline: scraper – **

**self-filling – **

**grab – **

**electrohydraulic – **

**for impulse hydraulic turbines – **

**orange-peel – **

**for steam turbines – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Buckingham’s II theorem (dimensional analysis) – **

**Buckling, of columns – **

**Budgets – – **

**Buffing – **

**of plastics – **

**Buhrstones – **

**Building blocks – **

**Building construction – – **

**fire-resisting – **

**foundations – **

**industrial – **

**materials (see Building materials)**

**partitions: sound-adsorption coefficients (table) – **

**sound-transmission loss (table) – **

**reinforced-concrete (see Reinforced concrete)**

**steel (see Steel-framed structures)**

**steel for, allowable stresses in (tables) – **

**structural design – **

**Building materials:**

**fire resistance of – – **

**specific gravity and density of (table) – **

**thermal conductivity of (tables) – – – **

**Building stone – **

**specific gravity and density of (table) – **

**Buildings:**

**closed, wind forces on – **

**earthquake forces in – **

**exits and fire escapes – **

**fire protection – **

**heating (see Heating)**

**industrial (see Industrial plants)Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Buildings: (Cont.)**

**safety provisions – **

**ventilation (see Ventilation)**

**wind pressure on – **

**Bulk flo conveyor – **

**Bulk modulus of elasticity (def) – – **

**of metals (table) – **

**of various liquids (table) – **

**Bulldozers – **

**crawler type – **

**wheel type – **

**Bumper code (space vehicle meteoroid risk assessment) – **

**Buoyancy – **

**center of – **

**for ships (def) – **

**Burners – **

**air-atomized – **

**for combustion furnaces – **

**corner-fired – **

**gas – **

**oil – **

**pulverized coal – **

**primary air for – **

**secondary air for – **

**Bus bars for switchboards – **

**Buses, engines in – **

**(See also Automobiles)**

**Bushel, U.S. and imperial (def) – – **

**Bushings, dimensions of (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Butane:**

**in LPG (table) – **

**properties of (table) – – **

**as refrigerant – **

**table – **

**Butterfly valves for hydraulic turbines – **

**Butyl acetate, uses of – **

**Butyl alcohol – **

**Butyl rubber – **

**BWG (Birmingham wire gage) – **

**Bypass engines (turbofan engines) – – **

**Byte (computers) – **

**C**

**C (computer language) – **

**Cable length (nautical unit) – **

**Cable tramways (see Cableways)**

**Cables:**

**aluminum, electrical properties of (table) – **

**copper (table) – – **

**resistance and reactance of (table) – **

**electric: insulation for – – – **

**paper for – **

**underground power – **

**carrying capacity (tables) – **

**nonmetallic sheathed (interior wiring) – **

**service entrance (interior wiring) – – **

**Cableways:**

**deflection – **

**factor of safety – **

**hoisting and conveying – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Cableways: (Cont.)**

**slackline – **

**speeds and loads – **

**supporting towers – **

**tramways – **

**cables and traction ropes – **

**loading and discharge terminals – **

**power required – **

**rope, stresses in – **

**transporting – **

**types of – **

**CAD (computer-aided design) – **

**CAD/CAM – – **

**Cadmium – **

**CAE (computer-aided engineering) – **

**CAFE (corporate average fuel economy) – – **

**Caisson method for foundations – **

**Calcium-carbide furnace (electric) – **

**Calcium chloride:**

**brine, properties of (tables) – **

**as freezing preventive – **

**Calculus – **

**rules for differentiation – **

**table of integrals – **

**Calendars – **

**Calipers – **

**Calorie, IT (def) – **

**Calorific value (see Heat value)Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Calorimeters:**

**separating – **

**steam – **

**throttling – **

**Calsum bronze, as electrical conductor – **

**Camber line, of airplane wing section – **

**Campbell diagram – **

**Cams – **

**design of – **

**diagrams – **

**pitch line – **

**Candela (unit of luminous intensity, def) – – – **

**Cantilever beams (def) – **

**(See also Beams)**

**Capacitance, electrical, unit of (def) – **

**Capacitances:**

**of capacitors – **

**in parallel – **

**in series – **

**Capacitive circuit – **

**Capacitive reactance (def) – – – **

**Capacitor motors – **

**Capacitors – **

**capacitance of – **

**synchronous – **

**Capacity and volume equivalents (tables) – – **

**Capillarity, in tubes (chart) – **

**Capillary action – **

**in tubes (chart) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Car dumps:**

**cross-over – **

**rotary, gravity – **

**power – **

**unit-train – **

**Car positioners (railroad) – **

**Carat, metric (def) – **

**Carbide, tungsten – **

**Carbides:**

**cemented, for tools – **

**composition, properties and uses of (table) – **

**Carbolon (abrasive) – **

**Carbon:**

**air required for combustion – **

**heat of combustion of (table) – **

**in tool steel – **

**Carbon dioxide:**

**dissociation of – **

**emissivity (table) – **

**measurement of – **

**production of – **

**properties of (tables) – – **

**as refrigerant – **

**table – **

**solid, as refrigerant – **

**Carbon equivalent (cast iron, def) – **

**Carbon monoxide:**

**flame temperature and dissociation (table) – **

**measurement of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Carbon nanotubes – **

**(See also Nanotechnology, nanotubes)**

**Carbon-residue test for lubricating oils – **

**Carbon resistors – **

**Carbon steel (see Steel, carbon)**

**Carbon tetrachloride, as solvent – **

**Carbonic acid (see Carbon dioxide)**

**Carbonization of coal – **

**apparatus for – **

**briquettes for – **

**coal blending in – **

**coal-chemical recovery in – **

**heat-balances (table) – **

**coals for – **

**coking process – **

**coking rates in – **

**gas yield (table) – **

**variations during (table) – **

**heat required for – **

**high-temperature: yields from – **

**table – **

**pilot scale tests for – **

**plastic zone – **

**processes – **

**temperature effects during – **

**gradients in (diagram) – **

**thermal efficiency of – **

**Carborundum (abrasive) – **

**Carburetors – **

**electronic – **

**Carburizing of steel – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Cardan universal joints – **

**Cardboard – **

**Cardioids – **

**Carnot cycle – – **

**Carrene (refrigerant) – **

**Carriage bolts – **

**Carrier wave (television) – **

**Carriers:**

**open-top – **

**pivoted-bucket – **

**V-bucket – **

**capacities and weights (table) – **

**Cars:**

**box-body dump – **

**gable-bottom – **

**hopper-bottom – **

**industrial – **

**mine – **

**friction resistance (table) – **

**railway – – **

**for containers – **

**roller bearing resistance – **

**wheels and axles for – **

**rocker side-dump – **

**scoop-dump – **

**shakers for – **

**unloading machinery for – **

**Cartilage, biomechanics of – **

**properties of (table) – **

**Cartridge brass (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Casein in glues – **

**Casings, for centrifugal fans – **

**Cast iron:**

**alloys, composition and mechanical properties of (tables) – **

**carbon in – **

**classification of – **

**columns (tables) – – **

**composition of – – **

**corrosion of – **

**cutting speeds (lathe, table) – **

**definition of – – **

**ductile – – **

**gray, mechanical properties of – **

**table – **

**malleable – **

**mechanical properties of – **

**tables – **

**nodular – **

**pipe (see Pipe, cast-iron)**

**shrinkage of – **

**strength of (tables) – **

**at high temperature (table) – **

**tapping depth – **

**white (def) – **

**(See also Castings)**

**Cast steel:**

**properties of (charts) – **

**strength of at high temperatures (table) – **

**Castable mixes for refractories – **

**Castigliano’s theorem (beam deflections) – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Casting:**

**of aluminum-base alloys – **

**cold-chamber machines for – **

**of copper-base alloys – **

**gooseneck machines for – **

**low pressure – **

**methods, design and cost features (table) – **

**pressure – **

**piston machines for – **

**sand – – **

**basic steps – **

**patterns – **

**processes – **

**by slush process – **

**of steel: melting practice – **

**with steel molds – **

**Castings:**

**alloys for – **

**aluminum (table) – **

**austempered ductile iron – **

**austenitic ductile iron, ASTM specifications for – **

**table – **

**austenitic gray iron, ASTM specifications for (table) – **

**cast iron, specialty – **

**compacted graphite iron – **

**copper – **

**corrosion resistant, ACI designations for (table) – **

**designs for molding – **

**die – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Castings: (Cont.)**

**ductile iron, ASTM specifications for (table) – **

**mechanical properties of (table) – **

**tensile requirements for (table) – **

**gray iron, allowances for – **

**composition and mechanical properties of – **

**heat resistant, ACI designations for (table) – **

**inspection of – – **

**iron – – **

**allowances for – **

**magnesium alloy – **

**malleable-iron – **

**composition and mechanical properties of – **

**Ni-resist, corrosion resistance of (table) – **

**oxidation resistance of (table) – **

**sand-blast cleaning of – **

**steel – – **

**allowances for – **

**allowances for machine finish – **

**alloy – **

**ASTM specifications for (table) – **

**ASTM requirements for (table) – **

**ASTM specifications for (table) – **

**classification of – **

**composition of – **

**corrosion resistance of – **

**design of – **

**dimensional tolerances for (table) – **

**ductility – **

**endurance limit – **

**heat resistance of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Castings: (Cont.)**

**impact resistance of – **

**machinability of – **

**table – **

**machine finish allowances for – **

**table – **

**minimum thicknesses for – **

**properties of – – **

**charts – **

**shrinkage allowance for – **

**specifications for – **

**uses of – **

**wear resistance of – **

**weight range – **

**welding of – **

**white iron, ASTM specifications for (table) – **

**(See also Foundries; Molding)**

**Catamarans – **

**Catenary – **

**Cauchy-Euler equidimensional equation – **

**Cauchy number – **

**Cavitation, in displacement pumps – **

**effects of – **

**in screw propellers – **

**Cavitation limits of hydraulic turbines – **

**CBN (cubic boron nitride), as abrasive – **

**for cutting tools – **

**CD (compact disk) – **

**Ceiling (airplanes) – **

**Cell phones – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Cells:**

**lead, voltages of – **

**wet – **

**(See also Batteries)**

**Cellulose acetate butyrate resins: properties of**

**(table) – **

**Cellulosic resins: properties of (table) – **

**Celsius, conversion to Kelvin (eq) – **

**Cement – **

**autoclave soundness test for – **

**bricks – **

**compressive strength of (table) – **

**high-early-strength – **

**insulating – **

**for masonry – **

**plaster – **

**portland – **

**air-entraining – **

**ASTM specifications for (table) – **

**blast-furnace slag in – **

**high-early-strength – **

**low-heat – **

**modified – **

**regulated-set – **

**shrinkage-compensated – **

**specific gravity and density of (table) – **

**strength of (table) – **

**sulfate-resisting – **

**white – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Cement (Cont.)**

**pozzolan – **

**sand for, tests for – **

**setting time – **

**surfaces, painting of – **

**tests for – **

**types and kinds of – **

**waterproofed – **

**Cement-lined pipe – **

**Cement plants: pollution from – **

**Cemented-carbide tools – **

**Cemented-carbides – **

**corrosion resistance of – **

**design considerations for – **

**inserts of – **

**mechanical properties of – **

**micrograin – **

**Cementite (def) – **

**Cental (unit of weight, def) – **

**Center:**

**of buoyancy – **

**of curvature – **

**of gravity – – **

**by experiment – **

**of lines – **

**of plane areas – – **

**by graphics – – **

**of solids – **

**of mass – **

**of percussion – **

**Centesimal measure of angles – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Centigrade, conversion to Fahrenheit – **

**(See also Celsius)**

**Centipoise (unit of viscosity, def) – **

**Centistoke (unit of kinematic viscosity) – **

**Central heating (see Heating)**

**Centrifugal casting – **

**of iron pipe – **

**Centrifugal compressors – **

**axial thrust in – **

**efficiency of – **

**fluid flow in – **

**motors for – **

**Centrifugal fans – **

**for air conditioning – **

**fan laws for (table) – **

**applications of – **

**blade forms – **

**blowback in – **

**capacity of – **

**casings for – **

**characteristics of – – **

**charts – – **

**compressibility factor (def) – **

**cross-flow – **

**details of – **

**efficiency of – **

**fluid flow in – **

**formulas – **

**head (def) – **

**impeller types – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Centrifugal fans (Cont.)**

**laws of – **

**mixed-flow – **

**motors for – **

**parallel operation of – **

**performance of – **

**performance curves for – – **

**power output (def) – **

**pressures in (def) – **

**puffing in – **

**pulsation in – **

**relative characteristics of (table) – **

**series operation of – **

**sound power in – **

**stability of – **

**static pressure in – **

**system characteristics of – **

**system matching – **

**testing of – **

**Centrifugal force (def) – **

**Centrifugal pumps – **

**application of – **

**axial-flow – – **

**axial thrust in – **

**balance drums and disks for – – **

**balancing holes for – **

**bearings for – **

**casings – **

**cavitation limits – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Centrifugal pumps (Cont.)**

**characteristic curves – – **

**influence of fluid properties on – **

**influence of viscosity on – **

**couplings for – **

**critical speeds of – **

**diffuser type – **

**double seals for – **

**effect of speed change – **

**efficiency of (chart) – – – – **

**fluid flow in – **

**head-capacity curves (charts) – – **

**hydraulic balancing devices – **

**hydraulic performance of – **

**impellers (def) – **

**shapes for (chart) – **

**unbalanced forces on – **

**velocity diagrams for – **

**installation of – **

**lantern rings for – **

**lattice-effect coefficient (chart) – **

**maintenance of – – **

**materials for – **

**table – **

**mechanical construction – **

**mechanical seals for – **

**mixed-flow – **

**motors for – **

**mountings for – **

**multistage – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Centrifugal pumps (Cont.)**

**names of parts for (table) – **

**nomenclature of – **

**NPSH (def) – **

**required for – **

**operation of – **

**packing for – **

**parallel operation of – **

**parts of, recommended names of (table) – **

**performance of – **

**priming of – **

**recirculation in – **

**seal cages for – **

**sealless – **

**magnet-drive for – **

**series operation of – **

**shaft sleeves for – **

**shafts for – **

**similarity laws for – **

**specific speed of (def) – **

**stuffing boxes for – **

**suction specific speed – **

**system friction losses in – **

**system-head curves for – **

**theory of – **

**vertical end-suction – **

**vertical-shaft construction – **

**volutes – **

**water-seal packing for – **

**wearing rings for – **

**wet-pit – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Centripetal force (def) – **

**Centrode (def) – **

**Centroids (def) – **

**of lines – **

**of plane areas – **

**of any quadrilateral – **

**of solids – **

**Ceramic products – **

**Ceramics – **

**manufacture of – **

**properties of – **

**tool inserts of – **

**CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response**

**Compensation and Liability Act) – **

**Cermets – **

**Cetane index (fuels, def) – **

**Cetane number (fuels, def) – **

**CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) chemicals – **

**CFD (computational fluid dynamics) – **

**(See also Fluid dynamics, computational)**

**CGS system of units – **

**Chain (unit of length, def) – **

**Chain blocks:**

**differential – **

**triplex – – **

**Chain conveyors – **

**(See also Conveyors, bucket)**

**Chain drives – **

**inverted-tooth (silent) – **

**length of chain in – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Chain drives (Cont.)**

**power ratings – **

**table – **

**roller – **

**Chain-grate stokers – **

**Chain hoists – **

**data for (table) – – **

**Chains – **

**alloy, data on (tables) – – **

**ASTM specifications for (table) – – **

**conveyor – **

**end fittings for – **

**Grade (proof coil) – **

**Grade (high test) – **

**Grade (transport) – **

**grades of – **

**high-test, ASTM specifications for (table) – **

**master links for – **

**master rings for – **

**NACM specifications for (tables) – – **

**power transmission – **

**proof coil, ASTM specifications for (table) – **

**roller – **

**dimensions and speeds (table) – **

**length calculations – **

**multiple-strand – **

**power ratings (table) – **

**service factors (table) – **

**sprocket wheels for – **

**diameter formulas – **

**teeth – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Chains (Cont.)**

**silent – **

**power ratings – **

**tables – – **

**service factors (table) – **

**sling – **

**special – **

**strength of – **

**tables – – **

**transport, ASTM Specifications for (table) – **

**welded-link – **

**wheel – **

**working loads (tables) – – **

**Channels:**

**open (hydraulic) – **

**roughness coefficients (table) – **

**Chaos (automatic control) – **

**Characteristic curves:**

**of fans – – **

**of pumps – – **

**Charcoal, as fuel – **

**Charpy impact test – – **

**Chattering, of magnets – **

**Chebyshev polynomials – **

**Chelating agents (cleaners) – **

**Chemical compounds (def) – **

**calculations of – **

**Chemical elements (def) – **

**table – **

**Chemical fire extinguishers – – **

**Chemical processes: corrosion in – Index Terms Links**

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**Chemical symbols (table) – **

**Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) – **

**Chemistry – **

**Chézy formula (hydraulics) – **

**Chi-square distribution (statistics, table) – – **

**Chimneys:**

**compression at base – **

**draft – **

**gases (see Flue gas)**

**(See also Stacks)**

**Chip breakers – **

**Chips, from cutting tools – – **

**Chrome brick – **

**Chromium – **

**in tool steel – **

**Chromizing – – **

**of steel – – **

**Chutes – **

**for bulk materials – **

**for lumpy materials – **

**spiral – **

**for unit loads – **

**CIM (computer integrated manufacturing) – **

**Cinder and fly ash – – **

**Cippoletti trapezoidal weir – **

**Circles:**

**angles in – **

**area of – **

**circumference of – **

**constructions of – – **

**equations of (analytic geometry) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Circles: (Cont.)**

**involute of – **

**segments of (tables) – – **

**theorems on – **

**Circuit breakers – – – **

**air-blast – **

**Circuits (electric) – **

**alternating-current: four-phase – **

**interior wiring – **

**parallel – **

**polyphase power: advantages of – **

**measurement of – **

**quarter-phase – **

**solution of problems – **

**three-phase – – **

**two-phase – **

**voltage drop – **

**Mershon diagram – **

**wiring calculations for – **

**branch, voltage drop – – **

**capacitive, reactance of – **

**carrying capacity of conductors (tables) – – **

**critical damping resistance of – **

**dielectric – **

**direct-current, wiring calculations – **

**discrete component – **

**effective resistance – **

**impedance of – **

**inductive – **

**time constant – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Circuits (electric) (Cont.)**

**inductive reactance of – **

**integrated – **

**linear ramp generator – **

**loop – **

**magnetic – **

**multivibrator – **

**natural frequency – – **

**network – **

**parallel – – **

**phase difference – **

**resonance – **

**sample and hold – **

**series – – **

**series-parallel – **

**street-lighting – **

**three-wire: a-c – – **

**d-c – **

**resistance and reactance (tables) – – **

**Circular arcs (see Circles)**

**Circular cutters – **

**Circular inch (def) – **

**Circular measure – **

**of angles – **

**tables – **

**Circular mil (def) – – **

**Circular pitch (gears, def) – **

**Circular saws – **

**Circulation (aerodynamics, def) – **

**Clad steels – **

**Cladding, by rolling – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Clairaut, differential equation of – **

**Clapeyron equation – **

**Claude’s system of liquefying air – **

**Clay for firebricks – **

**Clean Air Acts – **

**Clean areas (def) – **

**protocols – **

**Clean rooms – **

**classes of – **

**table – **

**protocols – **

**Cleaners, ultrasonic – **

**noise from – **

**Cleaning, critical – **

**testing – **

**gross – **

**testing – **

**methods of – **

**with carbon dioxide – **

**by manual washing – **

**by mechanical blasting – **

**with ultrasonics – **

**by vapor degreasing – **

**precision – **

**testing – **

**regulatory considerations in – **

**sonic – – **

**Cleanliness – **

**levels of – **

**Cleansers – **

**Clearance in steam engines – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Climb of airplanes – **

**Clock motors – **

**Closed system (thermodynamics, def) – **

**Cloud point (petroleum oils, def) – **

**Cloudburst hardness test – **

**Clouds (particles in suspension, def) – **

**of large black particles, radiation from – **

**Clutches – **

**allowable pressures in (table) – **

**cone – **

**disk – **

**for automobiles – **

**dynamatic, for conveyors – **

**friction – **

**for automobiles – **

**coefficients of (table) – **

**jaw – **

**multiple-disk (automobile) – **

**overrunning – **

**positive – **

**rim – **

**CM (chemical machining) – **

**CMOS (complementary metal-oxide**

**semiconductor) – – **

**CMRR (common mode rejection ratio) – **

**CNC (computer numerical control) – **

**Coach screws (table) – **

**uses of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Coal (def) – **

**analyses (tables) – **

**proximate – – **

**ultimate – **

**anthracite (def) – **

**ash in – – **

**composition of (table) – **

**fusibility – **

**table – **

**bituminous – – **

**bulk density of – **

**caking (def) – **

**calorific value – **

**Dulong’s formula for – **

**Parr formulas for – **

**tables – **

**carbonization (see Carbonization of coal)**

**classification of – **

**tables – **

**cleaning – **

**coking characteristics of – **

**coking process – **

**combustion of – **

**spontaneous – **

**consumption of (table) – **

**density and specific gravity of – **

**firing in boiler furnaces – **

**fixed carbon in – **

**free-swelling – **

**free-swelling index for – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Coal (def) (Cont.)**

**for gas manufacture (table) – **

**gasification of – **

**grindability of – – **

**tests – **

**gross calorific value (def) – **

**heat value (see Coal, calorific value)**

**for industrial heating – **

**lignitic (def) – **

**analyses of (tables) – **

**meta-anthracite – **

**mineral-matter-free basis of classifying – **

**mining – **

**moisture in – **

**net calorific value (def) – **

**piled, specific gravity and density of (table) – **

**preparation of – **

**production of – **

**proximate analyses of (def) – – **

**tables – – **

**pulverized, air supply for burning – **

**burners for – **

**fineness of – **

**pulverizing of – **

**rank (def) – **

**mined in various states (table) – **

**tables – **

**reserves – **

**sampling – **

**semianthracite (def) – **

**separators for – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Coal (def) (Cont.)**

**slurry pipeline – **

**specific gravity of – **

**table – **

**specifications for – **

**spontaneous combustion of – **

**storage – **

**subbituminous – **

**tables – **

**sulfur in – **

**tables – **

**sulfur removal from – **

**transportation – **

**ultimate analysis of: methods – **

**table – **

**volatile matter in – **

**tables – – **

**Coal-chemical ovens – **

**Coal gas, flame temperatures (table) – **

**Coated carbides, as cutting tools – **

**Coating thickness, measurement of – **

**Cobalt, in tool steel – **

**Cocks – **

**Code (bar code) – **

**Code One (bar code) – **

**Code (bar code) – **

**Code PDF (bar code) – **

**Code K (bar code) – **

**Code (bar code) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Coefficients:**

**of area expansion – **

**binomial – **

**of contraction – **

**of discharge for liquids through orifices – – **

**of excess air in combustion (def) – **

**of expansion (def) – **

**at low temperatures – **

**film – **

**of form (ships) – **

**of friction – – **

**in metalworking – **

**table – **

**Joule-Thomson – – **

**of performance (def) – – **

**of restitution – **

**of rigidity (def) – **

**Steinmetz (table) – **

**of thermal expansion of metals (tables) – – – **

** – **

**of transmission, through light-transmitting**

**partitions (table) – **

**through skylights (table) – **

**through windows (table) – **

**of velocity – **

**for steam – **

**COESA atmosphere – **

**COGAS (combined gas-turbine and steam-turbine,**

**ships) – **

**Cohesion of liquids – **

**Coils, pipe – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Coining (metal squeezing) – **

**Coke – **

**analyses of (table) – **

**blast-furnace – **

**foundry – **

**high-temperature – **

**low-temperature – **

**medium-temperature – **

**petroleum – **

**pitch – **

**specific gravity and density of (table) – **

**Coke-oven gas (table) – **

**Coke ovens – **

**briquettes for – **

**heat balances of (table) – **

**pollution controls for – **

**preheated coal for – **

**Coking properties of coal – **

**Tests – **

**Cold-air refrigerating machines – **

**Cold-diffuser conditioning of storage rooms – **

**Cold forging of metals – **

**Cold storage – **

**insulation requirements – **

**lockers – **

**product data (table) – **

**rooms: air conditioning – **

**piping – **

**temperatures – **

**vapor barriers for – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Cold-working of metals – **

**nonferrous metals – **

**Colebrook equation for friction – – **

**Collapsing pressure of tubes, formula – **

**Collimators – **

**Color, codes, in industrial plants – **

**designation of – **

**use, in industrial plants – **

**Color-measurement systems – **

**Color scale for temperatures of iron and steel – **

**Color television – **

**Color test for lubricating oils – **

**Color vision – **

**Colorimeters – **

**Colors, for electrical wiring – **

**for identifying piping – **

**Colpitts oscillator – **

**Columbium – **

**Columns:**

**cast-iron – **

**strength of (tables) – – **

**classification (long and short) – **

**eccentrically loaded, stresses in – **

**ends, forms of – **

**long: critical load – **

**Euler’s formula – **

**slenderness ratio – **

**strength of (table) – **

**reinforced-concrete – **

**round-ended, strength of, Euler’s formula (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Columns: (Cont.)**

**short (table) – **

**formulas – **

**steel: allowable unit stresses (tables) – – **

**pipe – **

**concrete-filled – **

**proportions of – **

**strength of (tables) – – **

**timber – **

**wooden – **

**working stresses (table) – **

**wrought-iron pipe, strength of (tables) – – **

**Combinations and permutations – **

**Combined-cycle turbines – **

**Combined flexure and longitudinal force – **

**and torsion – – **

**Combined stresses – **

**Combustion – **

**air required by gaseous fuels – **

**in boiler furnaces – **

**of coal – **

**spontaneous – **

**control of, in boilers, automatic – **

**dissociation of gases – **

**equations – **

**excess air for (charts) – **

**flame temperatures (table) – **

**of gaseous fuels – **

**products (table) – **

**temperature (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Combustion (Cont.)**

**of gases: air required for – **

**products – **

**heat of formation (def) – **

**heat value of fuels – **

**heats of (def) – **

**table – **

**incomplete, loss due to – – – **

**of liquid fuels – **

**products of – – **

**radiation from – – **

**table – **

**of solid fuels – **

**air required – **

**excess air for (charts) – **

**temperatures attained in – **

**volume contraction due to – **

**Combustion chambers:**

**for internal-combustion engines – **

**axial swirl in – **

**fast-burn – **

**pent-roof – **

**long, radiation in – **

**partially stirred: radiation in – **

**Combustion furnaces (see Furnaces)**

**Combustion knock – – **

**Combustion turbines (see Gas turbines)**

**Come-alongs – **

**Comet, properties of (table) – **

**Comfort conditions (table) – **

**Comfort indexes – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Communications channels, bandwidth of – **

**Communications networks – **

**layers for – – **

**standards for – **

**Commutating-pole motors, d-c – **

**Commutation in d-c generators and motors – – **

**Commutator motors, a-c – **

**Compensator (transformer) – **

**starting, a-c motor – **

**Compactors, for earthmoving – **

**sheepsfoot – **

**Compiler – **

**Complex conjugate (def) – **

**Complex numbers (def) – **

**Composite properties (fiber composites, def) – **

**Composites: fiber (see Fiber composites)**

**Composition A (explosive) – **

**Composition B (explosive) – **

**Compound, chemical – **

**calculation of composition – **

**Compound interest (tables) – – **

**Compound motors, electric – **

**Compound-wound generators – **

**Compressed air, for industrial plants – **

**Compressed-air machinery:**

**lubrication of – **

**(See also Air compressors; Centrifugal**

**compressors)**

**Compressed-air machines, for refrigeration – **

**Compressibility of liquids – **

**table – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Compressible fluids, flow of – **

**Compression:**

**of air (see Air compression)**

**of saturated and superheated vapors – – **

**Compression couplings – **

**Compression-ignition (engines) – **

**Compression machines, vapor, theory of – **

**Compression ratios (internal-combustion engines,**

**def) – **

**permissible – **

**Compression testing – **

**Compressors:**

**accessories for – **

**adiabatic analysis of – **

**air (see Air compressors)**

**ammonia – **

**axial, motors for – **

**centrifugal (see Centrifugal compressors)**

**cylinders – **

**cooling of – **

**dual – **

**dynamic versus positive-displacement – **

**efficiencies – – **

**for gas turbines – **

**kinetic – **

**lubrication – **

**motors for – – **

**multiple effect – **

**multistage sizing – **

**non-lubricated cylinders for – **

**orbiting-scroll – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Compressors: (Cont.)**

**piston rings for – **

**piston-rod packing for – **

**polytropic process in – **

**real gas effects in – **

**reciprocating – – **

**reciprocation, motors for – **

**refrigeration – **

**relief valves for – **

**rolling-piston – **

**rotary, dry-lobe – **

**single-screw – **

**twin-screw – **

**rotary vane – **

**screw – **

**standard conditions for – **

**surging in – **

**trochoidal – **

**valves for – **

**volumetric efficiency of – **

**Wankel – **

**wet compression – **

**Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) – – **

**(See also Fluid dynamics, computational)**

**Computer-aided design (CAD) – – **

**dynamic analysis – **

**engineering analysis – **

**experimental testing – **

**finite-element analysis – **

**kinematics in – **

**parametric design systems – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Computer-aided design (CAD) (Cont.)**

**rapid prototyping – **

**static analysis – **

**synthesis in – **

**variational design applications – **

**variational design systems – **

**virtual reality – **

**Computer-aided engineering (CAE) – **

**Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) – **

**Computers:**

**analog – **

**applications of – **

**arithmetic in – **

**compilers for – **

**digital – **

**components for – **

**input to – – **

**languages for, problem-oriented – **

**procedure-oriented – **

**letters in, representation of – **

**mathematical programming with – **

**memory – **

**numbers in, representation of – – **

**operating systems for – **

**operation of – **

**output from – **

**personal – **

**programming languages for – – **

**programs for – **

**simulation with – **

**software for – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Computers: (Cont.)**

**speed of – **

**tapes for – **

**timesharing in – **

**words in (def) – **

**Concrete – **

**accelerators for – **

**admixtures – **

**aggregates for – **

**air-entrained – **

**air-entraining agents for – **

**blast-furnace slag for – **

**clay in sand for – **

**compaction of – **

**consistency of – **

**curing of – **

**deformation properties of – **

**dry rodded weight – **

**effect of freezing on – **

**effect of oils and acids on – **

**effect of sea water on – **

**fineness modulus of (def) – **

**fly ash as additive for – **

**forms for – **

**heavyweight aggregates for – **

**lightweight aggregates for – **

**masonry, specific gravity and density (table) – **

**for masonry units – **

**materials for, per cubic yard (table) – **

**mica in sand for – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Concrete (Cont.)**

**mixes for, for small jobs – **

**table – **

**mixing – **

**painting of – **

**piles – – **

**pipe – **

**placement of – **

**proportioning – **

**quality control – **

**ready-mixed – **

**reinforced (see Reinforced concrete)**

**retarders for – **

**sand for – **

**seawater used for – **

**silica fume for – **

**slump test for – **

**table – **

**strength of – **

**variation with age (table) – **

**transverse strength of – **

**water for – **

**water and air requirements for (tables) – – **

**water content (tables) – – **

**water reducers for – **

**watertightness – **

**weight of – **

**Concrete blocks – – **

**Concrete mixers – **

**Condensate polishing (steam generation) – – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Condensate pumps – **

**Condensation – **

**Condensers:**

**circulating water, United States**

**temperatures (map) – **

**cooling water, air in (table) – **

**direct-contact, low-level – **

**electrical (see Capacitors)**

**evaporative – **

**refrigeration – **

**double-pipe – **

**evaporative – **

**steam – **

**air-cooled – **

**air ejectors for – **

**two-stage – **

**barometric – **

**deaeration of – **

**direct-contact – **

**ejectors for – **

**flow-induced vibrations in – **

**movements in – **

**noncondensibles, removal of – **

**pressure and circulating-water temperatures for (table) – **

**surface-type – **

**calculations – **

**of size – **

**circulating-water pumps for – **

**cleanliness factors for – **

**condensate pumps for – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Condensers: (Cont.)**

**configurations – **

**expansion in – **

**inlet-water-temperature**

**correction factors (table) – **

**material and gage factor for (table) – **

**performance curves – **

**proportions of (table) – **

**sizing – **

**tube-bundles for – **

**tube characteristics (table) – **

**tubes: cleanliness – – **

**heat-transfer rates – **

**water boxes for – **

**water velocities in – **

**steam tables for (tables) – **

**tube selection for – **

**(See also Cooling towers)**

**Condensing water, cooling of – **

**Conductance:**

**a-c (def) – **

**electrical (def) – **

**Conductances:**

**thermal – **

**conversion table – **

**Conduction:**

**and convection – – **

**heat, analysis using finite-element method – **

**heat transmission by – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Conductivity:**

**electrical (def) – **

**thermal (tables) – – **

**conversion table – **

**of insulation (tables) – **

**of liquids and gases (table) – **

**in materials for low temperatures (table) – **

**of metals (tables) – – **

**of miscellaneous solids (table) – **

**(See also Heat transmission)**

**Conductors, electric – **

**aluminum (table) – **

**copper alloys for (table) – **

**current-carrying capacities (table) – **

**economical cross sections – **

**estimating resistances and weights – **

**materials for – **

**properties of metals and alloys (table) – **

**specific resistance of (table) – **

**temperature coefficients of resistance of (def) – **

**table – **

**types and applications of (table) – **

**(See also Cables)**

**Cone pulleys – **

**Cones, surface and volume of – **

**Conical pendulum – **

**Conradson carbon-residue test for lubricating oils – **

**Conservation:**

**of energy – – – – **

** – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Conservation: (Cont.)**

**of mass – – **

**of matter – **

**of momentum – – **

**Consolidation Coal process (coke making) – **

**Constant-entropy expansion:**

**of gases – **

**of vapors – **

**Constant-pressure expansion:**

**of gases – **

**of vapors – **

**Constant-temperature expansion:**

**of gases – **

**of vapors – **

**Constant-velocity joints – **

**Constant-volume expansion:**

**of gases – **

**of vapors – **

**Constrained beams – **

**Construction (see Building construction)**

**Constructions, geometrical – **

**Consumers, power costs to (table) – **

**Containerization, packaging for – **

**Containers – **

**condensation in – **

**freight cars for – **

**handling equipment for – **

**owners of – **

**refrigerated – **

**ships for – **

**sizes of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Containers (Cont.)**

**specifications for – **

**terminals for – **

**types of – **

**Contaminants:**

**in drinking water: limits of (table) – **

**in water: removal processes for (table) – **

**Continuity equation (in fluid flow) – – **

**Continuous beams – **

**Continuous improvement (quality control) – **

**Contour lines (maps, def) – **

**Contour mapping (surveying) – **

**Contracts – **

**Control:**

**automatic (see Automatic control)**

**of material flow – **

**Control action (automatic control, def) – **

**Control charts (quality control) – – – **

**c charts for – **

**p charts for – **

**R charts for – **

**X bar charts for – **

**Control systems:**

**adaptive (def) – **

**frequency-response equations for (table) – **

**hydraulic – **

**Controllable-pitch propellers:**

**airplane – **

**marine – **

**Controllers, Bode plots for – **

**electronic – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Convection:**

**coefficients of – **

**and conduction – – **

**heat transmission by – **

**natural – **

**Convers-Labarre method (pile spacing) – **

**Conversion, of mass to energy – **

**Conversion equations, for kinematic viscosity – **

**Conversion tables:**

**for accelerations – – **

**for angular measure: decimals of degrees,**

**minutes, and seconds – **

**velocity – **

**for areas – **

**for conductance, thermal – **

**for conductivity, thermal – **

**for density – – – **

**for energy – **

**for flow of heat – **

**for heat – **

**for length – – – **

**for mass – **

**for power – – **

**for pressure – **

**for specific gravity and density, degrees API and**

**Baumé – – **

**for velocity – **

**for volume – – – **

**for weight – **

**for work – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Converters:**

**analog-to-digital – **

**digital-to-analog – **

**phase – **

**synchronous – **

**switchboard equipment for – **

**Conveying:**

**bucket – **

**(See also Conveyors, bucket)**

**cableways – **

**(See also Cableways; Conveyors)**

**Conveyors:**

**apron – **

**table – **

**in assembly operations – **

**belt – **

**arrangements – – **

**belts for – **

**capacities of (table) – **

**changing direction of materials on – **

**diverters for – **

**drive calculations – **

**drives for – **

**electromagnetic separators for – **

**feeders – **

**horsepower required for – **

**idler pulleys for – **

**intersections for – **

**life of – **

**magnetic pulleys for – **

**maximum slope (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Conveyors: (Cont.)**

**portable – **

**pulleys for – – **

**sectional – **

**shuttle – **

**sliding – **

**slope for various materials (table) – **

**speed (table) – **

**take-ups – **

**trippers – – **

**width required for lumps (table) – **

**bucket – **

**open-top – **

**Peck carrier – **

**pivoted – **

**capacities (table) – **

**V-bucket – **

**capacities and weights (table) – **

**Bulk flo – **

**carrying – **

**continuous-flow – **

**drag-chain – **

**drives for – **

**feeders for – **

**flight – **

**arrangements for – **

**scraper type – **

**suspended-chain type of – **

**suspended-flight type of – **

**gravity roller – **

**hydraulic – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Conveyors: (Cont.)**

**noncarrying – **

**oscillating – **

**overhead – **

**components of – – **

**control – **

**drop-lift – **

**power-and-free – – **

**powered – **

**safety guards – **

**switching – – **

**controls – **

**track for – **

**transfer devices – **

**trolleys – **

**turns – **

**for plant uses (table) – **

**platform – **

**pneumatic – **

**reciprocating plate feeder for – **

**Redler – **

**ribbon – **

**roller – **

**runaround – **

**scraper – **

**screw – **

**cut-flight – **

**paddle – **

**power required – **

**short-pitch – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Conveyors: (Cont.)**

**speeds and capacities (tables) – **

**variable-pitch – **

**spiral – **

**speeds and capacities of (table) – **

**suction for – **

**trolley – **

**vertical – **

**vertical interfloor – **

**vibrating feeders for – **

**wheel – **

**Convolution: of functions (def) – **

**Convolution integrals (vibration) – **

**Coolants (cutting fluids) – **

**Coolers:**

**for air conditioning systems – **

**brine – **

**capacity of (table) – **

**heat-transfer coefficients (table) – **

**Cooling:**

**effect of throttling – **

**of internal-combustion engines – **

**thermoelectric – **

**Cooling ponds – **

**for thermal pollution reduction – **

**Cooling sprays – **

**Cooling towers – – **

**for air conditioning systems – **

**approach (def) – **

**cooling range of (def) – **

**corrosion in – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Cooling towers (Cont.)**

**cost evaluation – **

**drift in – **

**dry – **

**height of – **

**hyperbolic – **

**induced-draft – **

**makeup for – **

**materials for – **

**mechanical-draft in – **

**performance of (curve) – **

**performance calculations for – **

**for thermal pollution reduction – **

**wet-bulb temperatures (map) – **

**where used – **

**Cooling water systems, corrosion in – **

**Coordinates:**

**polar – **

**rectangular – **

**transformation of – **

**COP (coefficient of performance, def) – **

**Copes (molding) – – **

**Copper – **

**alloys (see Copper alloys)**

**for bus bars – **

**cable, resistance and reactance of (table) – **

**conductors, current-carrying capacities (table) – **

**oxygen-free – **

**resistivity of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Copper (Cont.)**

**tough-pitch – **

**tubing – **

**welding of – – **

**Copper alloys – **

**for bearings – **

**table – **

**brazing of – **

**castings, composition and properties of (table) – **

**distribution of (table) – **

**classification of – **

**table – **

**copper-aluminum, plastic range chart for – **

**for copper-base castings – **

**properties of (table) – **

**copper-nickel (tables) – **

**copper-silicon (tables) – **

**copper-tin – **

**copper-zinc – **

**corrosion resistance of – **

**effects of temperature on – **

**electrical conductivities of – **

**for electrical conductors (tables) – – **

**extruded – **

**fabrication of – **

**heat treating of – **

**machining of – – **

**mechanical properties of – **

**processing of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Copper alloys (Cont.)**

**soldering of – **

**fluxes for – **

**strength of (tables) – **

**temper designation codes for (table) – **

**thermal conductivities of – **

**turning of – **

**welding of – – **

**wrought, composition and properties of (table) – **

**(See also Brass; Bronze)**

**Copper-nickels – – **

**Copper pipe – **

**Copper tubing – **

**Copper wire:**

**alloys for (table) – **

**ASTM specifications for (table) – **

**insulation for – **

**reactance (tables) – – **

**resistance (tables) – – – – **

** – **

**temperature coefficient of – **

**weight (table) – **

**Coppers – – **

**Copperweld (electrical conductor) – **

**Copy (printing):**

**Copyrights – **

**Cord (lumber measure, def) – – **

**Cordage – **

**Core binders – **

**Core blowers – **

**Core boxes – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Core driers – **

**Core molding – **

**Core ovens – **

**Core sands – **

**Coremaking methods – **

**Cores (def) – **

**Coriolis acceleration – **

**Cork, specific gravity and density of (table) – **

**Corkboard, as cryogenic insulation – **

**Corkscrew rule (magnetism) – **

**Corner test (statistics) – **

**Corona (electrical discharge) – **

**Corporation, annual reports for – **

**Corrosion – **

**with anodic protection – **

**in boilers – **

**cathodic inhibitors for – **

**with cathodic protection – **

**caustic – **

**as caustic gouging – **

**by cavitation – **

**chemical – **

**coatings for – **

**conversion coatings – **

**crevice – **

**by dealloying – **

**by dezincification – **

**as ductile gouging – **

**economic impact of – **

**effects of galvanic metals on – **

**effects on safety – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Corrosion (Cont.)**

**electrochemical – **

**Ellingham diagrams for – **

**by environmentally induced cracking – **

**erosion (def) – **

**factors influencing – **

**cold-working – **

**concentration cells – **

**dissimilar electrodes – **

**ennoblement – **

**environment – **

**freshwater – **

**hard water – **

**heat treatment – **

**high-purity water – **

**inclusions – **

**microfouling organisms – – **

**open circuit potential – **

**residual stresses – **

**seawater – **

**soft water – **

**soil corrosivity – **

**soil resistivity – **

**sulfate-reducing bacteria – **

**temperature – **

**thermal cycling – **

**thermogalvanic cells – **

**time of wetness – **

**welding – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Corrosion (Cont.)**

**fatigue – **

**feedwater treatment against – **

**fretting – **

**galvanic – **

**gasket – **

**Gibbs free energy in – **

**graphite – **

**with graphitization – **

**of gray cast iron – **

**high-temperature – **

**hydrogen embrittlement in – **

**hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in – **

**hydrogen interactions in – **

**by impingement attack – **

**inhibitors – **

**intergranular – **

**kinetics of – **

**activation polarization in – **

**active/passive metals in – **

**concentration polarization in – **

**equilibrium potential in – **

**mixed polarization in – **

**passive films in – **

**passivity in – **

**polarization in – **

**protective films in – **

**resistance polarization in – **

**as knife-line attack – **

**liquid-metal embrittlement in – **

**microbiologically-influenced – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Corrosion (Cont.)**

**Nernst equation for – **

**nonabsorbent gaskets to prevent – **

**organic inhibitors for – **

**oxygen scavengers in – **

**passivators – **

**as pitting – **

**pitting factors for – **

**potential-pH plots in – **

**Pourbaix diagrams for – **

**precipitators for – **

**prevention of – **

**protective coatings against – **

**solid-metal-induced embrittlement in – **

**in steam generating systems – **

**components – **

**table – **

**in steam turbines – **

**by stray-current electrolysis – **

**by stray-currents – **

**stress, cracking – **

**as surface carburization – **

**testing – **

**using corrosion coupons for – **

**electrochemical techniques for – **

**standardized methods for – **

**thermodynamics of – **

**types of – **

**underdeposit – **

**as uniform attack – **

**as wick boiling – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Corrosion coupons – **

**Corrosion fatigue of metals – **

**Corrosion precipitators – **

**Corrugated paper – **

**Corrugated sheets, for building walls – – **

**Corundum (abrasive) – **

**Cosecant (trigonometry) – **

**Cosine (trigonometry) – **

**Cosines, law of – **

**Cost accounting, accrual basis – **

**activity based – **

**break-even – **

**budgeting control systems in – – **

**cash basis – **

**cost management by – **

**direct costing methods for – **

**factory overheads in – **

**labor – **

**materials – **

**methods of – **

**process cost method of – **

**for product costing – **

**standard costs – – **

**transaction costing in – **

**transfer pricing by – **

**types of systems for – – **

**Cost analysis – **

**Costs:**

**elements of – **

**fixed, characteristics of – **

**of labor – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Costs: (Cont.)**

**of materials – **

**variable, characteristics of – **

**Cotangent (trigonometry) – **

**Cotter pins – **

**Cotton, mercerized – **

**Cotton fibers (tables) – – **

**Coulomb (def) – **

**Counters (event measurement) – **

**electric – **

**electronic – **

**mechanical – **

**pickups for – **

**Counterweights for elevators – **

**Couple (mechanics, def) – **

**Couples:**

**composition of – **

**displacement of – **

**moment of – **

**rotation moments of – **

**Coupling coefficient (electric circuits) – **

**Couplings:**

**clutch (see Clutches)**

**compression – **

**constant velocity – **

**fire-hose: ANSI (table) – **

**screw threads for – **

**flanged-face – **

**flexible – **

**chain – **

**Falk Steelflex – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Couplings: (Cont.)**

**Fast – **

**Oldham – **

**Waldron – **

**Fluid – **

**for automobiles – **

**torque capacity (eq) – **

**torque converter – **

**ribbed clamp – **

**rigid – **

**rubber – **

**sleeve (pipe) – **

**slider, double – **

**universal, Hooke’s joint – **

**viscous – **

**CPM (critical path method) – **

**CPU (central processing unit) – **

**Cracked gasoline – **

**Cramer equation for pollution calculations – **

**Cranes:**

**capacities of (table) – **

**carrier-mounted – **

**crawler-mounted – **

**derricks – **

**efficiency of – **

**gantry – **

**hand-power – **

**hooks – **

**industrial (table) – **

**jib – **

**lattice boom – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Cranes: (Cont.)**

**with luffing jib – **

**mobile – **

**mobile tower – **

**motors for – **

**overhead – **

**classes of – **

**special purpose – **

**power shovels as – **

**runways for, lateral forces on – **

**ringer – **

**rough terrain – **

**Sky Horse – **

**superlift – **

**telescoping boom – – **

**traveling – **

**classes of – **

**double-girder – **

**electric – **

**single-girder – **

**truck – **

**Crank mechanism – **

**Crankshafts – – **

**flywheels for – – **

**forces and torques on – **

**(See also Shafts)Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Crash test dummies (automotive safety) – **

**Creep (def) – **

**of low-chromium steel (table) – **

**of metals (def) – – **

**testing – **

**of zinc and zinc alloys – **

**Creep rates:**

**of iron (table) – **

**of metals and alloys (table) – **

**of steel (table, chart) – – **

**Crescent beams – **

**CRG (catalytic-rich gas) – **

**Critical cooling rate (steel) – **

**Critical damping resistance – **

**Critical data for various gases (tables) – – **

**Critical flow pressure, in gas or vapor flow – **

**Critical path method of scheduling – – **

**Critical points:**

**of the elements (table) – – **

**of various substances (table) – **

**Critical pressure (def) – **

**Critical speed – **

**Critical state for gases (tables) – – **

**Critical temperature (def) – **

**Critical temperatures:**

**of the elements (table) – – **

**of iron (def) – **

**of various substances (table) – **

**Crocus (abrasive) – **

**Cross product (mathematics, def) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Crossover frequency (control theory) – **

**Crowding (metalworking) – **

**Crushed steel (abrasive) – **

**Cryogenic pumps – **

**Cryogenic refrigerators – **

**Cryogenics – **

**applications of – **

**cryogen hazards – **

**definition of – **

**equipment materials – – **

**stress analysis – **

**gas liquefaction for – **

**instruments for – **

**insulation for – **

**aluminum powder as – **

**balsa wood as – **

**corkboard as – **

**selection of – **

**level measurements – **

**by capacitance gage – **

**by weighing – **

**pulse-tube refrigerators for – **

**steels for service in – **

**temperature measurements – **

**thermoacoustic refrigerators for – **

**vent systems for – **

**Cryogens:**

**burns from – **

**compressibility of – **

**liquid density, quantum-mechanical correlation – **

**properties of (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Cryogens: (Cont.)**

**specific heat (chart) – **

**thermal conductivity – **

**thermal-expansion coefficient – **

**vapor pressure (chart) – **

**viscosity – **

**volumetric latent heats (table) – **

**Crystalline alumina (abrasive) – **

**Crystolon (abrasive) – **

**Crystoplastic (def) – **

**Cube, surface and volume of – **

**Cubic measure, conversion tables – **

**Cubical expansion, coefficient of (def) – **

**Cupolas – **

**Cupronickel – **

**tables – **

**Curie temperature (ferroelectrics) – – **

**Curl, vector – **

**Current regulators (automobiles) – **

**Current transformers – **

**Currents:**

**alternating – **

**active or energy (def) – **

**circuits (see Circuits, alternating-current)**

**reactive or wattless (def) – **

**waves: average value – **

**effective value – **

**form factor – **

**phasor representation – **

**vector representation – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Currents: (Cont.)**

**electric, unit of (def) – **

**heat developed by – **

**wattless – **

**(See also Circuits; Electric motors)**

**Curvature, radius and center of – **

**Curve resistance (train) – **

**Curved beams – **

**eccentrically curved (table) – **

**Curves, railway, radii of – **

**Curvilinear motion – – **

**Cut and fill:**

**defining limits of – **

**determining land area for – **

**establishing boundaries for – **

**Cutters:**

**circular – **

**milling – **

**Cutting:**

**with laser beams – **

**thermal – **

**oxyfuel – **

**plasma arc – **

**(See also Metal cutting)**

**Cutting fluids (machining) – **

**Cutting-off machines (metals) – **

**Cutting oils – **

**Cutting processes – **

**gears – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Cutting tools:**

**action of – **

**applications of, materials for (table) – **

**back rake of – **

**broaches – **

**carbide – **

**ceramic – **

**cermets – **

**chip formation by – **

**cutting angle of – **

**cutting ratios for – **

**diamond – **

**drills, troubleshooting of (table) – **

**fluids for – **

**hardness vs. temperature (chart) – **

**for lathes: life of – **

**power requirements of – **

**shapes for – **

**troubleshooting of (table) – **

**materials for – **

**characteristics of (tables) – – **

**milling machines – **

**feeds and speeds for (table) – **

**troubleshooting of (table) – **

**nomenclature of – – **

**nonferrous – **

**nose radius of – **

**planers – **

**rake angle of – – **

**reamers – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Cutting tools: (Cont.)**

**relief angle of – – **

**shapers – **

**shapes of – **

**shear angles for – **

**shear plane of – **

**shear strain in – **

**side-cutting edge angle – **

**side rake of – **

**steel – **

**surface finish by – **

**threading – **

**tool condition monitoring – **

**tool temperatures in – **

**tungsten carbide – **

**classification of (table) – **

**wear of – **

**wear notches in – **

**wood – **

**(See also Machine tools)**

**CVD (chemical vapor deposition) – **

**Cyaniding (heat-treatment) – **

**Cycle:**

**alternating-current (def) – **

**ideal gas – **

**for perfect gases – **

**steam – – **

**bleeding – **

**Rankine – – **

**reheating – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Cycloid – **

**Cyclone furnaces – **

**Cyclone separators – **

**for dust exhaust systems – **

**Cylinder-boring machines – **

**Cylinder grinders – **

**Cylinders:**

**air resistance of (table) – **

**of automobile engines – **

**collapsing pressure – **

**hollow, volume of – **

**of internal-combustion engines – **

**oval hollow, strength of – **

**rolling down a plane – **

**shrink-fit effects – **

**of steam engines, jackets, effect on economy – **

**stiffening rings for – **

**surface and volume of – **

**thick-walled – **

**thin-walled – **

**D**

**Dacron rope – **

**D’Alembert forces (def) – **

**Dalton’s law for gases – – **

**Dampers, viscous – **

**Damping:**

**in automatic control (def) – **

**critical – **

**friction – **

**hysteretic – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Damping: (Cont.)**

**structural – **

**of vibrations – – **

**viscous (automatic control) – **

**Damping ratio (automatic control, def) – **

**Darcy formula in pipeline flow – **

**Darlington connection (electronic circuit) – – **

**Darrieus wind rotor – – **

**D’Arsonval galvanometer – **

**Dashpot – **

**Data-flow diagrams – – **

**Data logging – **

**Data Matrix (bar code) – **

**Databases, for computers – – **

**Day (def) – **

**Dead-weight gage tester – **

**Deaeration: of feedwater – – **

**Deaerators – – **

**corrosion of – **

**Deburring – **

**Decimal equivalents (table) – **

**Decision making, cost accounting to support – **

**Declination, solar, annual variation (table) – **

**Dedendum (gear teeth) – **

**Deep drawing (metalworking) – **

**Definite integrals – **

**Deflection:**

**angular, under torsion (table) – **

**of beams (see Beams, deflection of)Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Defoamants, in engine oil – **

**Deformation (def) – **

**plastic flow theory – **

**of spheres and cylinders under compression – **

**Degreasing, vapor – **

**Degree (circular measure, def) – **

**Degrees:**

**API (table) – **

**Baumé (table) – **

**Dehumidification of air – **

**(See also Air conditioning)**

**Delco-Remy distributors – **

**Delta connections, three-phase circuits – **

**Delta iron (def) – **

**Demodulation of radio waves – **

**De Morgan’s theorem (Boolean algebra) – **

**Denier (unit of fineness of fibers) – **

**Density (def) – **

**of air (formula) – **

**conversion table – **

**equivalents (table) – **

**of metals (tables) – – – – **

** – **

**of various substances (table) – **

**of water (tables) – – **

**Depreciation of power equipment – **

**Derivative compensation (automatic control) – **

**Derivatives:**

**calculus – – **

**partial – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Derricks – **

**guy – **

**self-slewing – **

**Design stresses (mechanics) – **

**Desktop publishing – **

**Detergents – **

**Determinants – **

**Detonation (see Knock)**

**Deuterium as cryogen – **

**Deviation, in automatic control (def) – **

**Dew point – – **

**Dew point method of humidity measurement – **

**Dewpoint recorders – **

**Dextrin baked cores – **

**Diametral pitch (gears, def) – **

**Diamond (abrasive) – – – **

**Diamond cutting tools – **

**Diamond-pyramid hardness (def) – **

**Diaphragm gages – **

**Diaphragms to replace packing – **

**Diatomaceous silica (abrasive) – **

**Die blocks:**

**materials for – **

**proportions of – **

**Die casting – **

**alloys for, zinc-base (table) – **

**machines for – **

**Dielectric (def) – **

**Dielectric circuit – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Dielectric constant (def) – **

**of insulating materials (table) – **

**Dielectric heating – – **

**Dielectrics – **

**Dieline (refrigerant) – **

**Dies:**

**clearances required in – **

**resistance to shearing in (table) – **

**threading – **

**Diesel cycle – – – **

**Diesel-electric drives:**

**locomotive – **

**table – **

**Diesel engines:**

**analysis of engine process – **

**combustion chambers – **

**cooling systems for – **

**cycle for – – – **

**efficiency of: indicated – **

**theoretical – **

**volumetric – **

**emissions control strategies – **

**exhaust temperatures – **

**exhaust treatments – **

**fuel injection in – **

**nozzles for – **

**fuel lines for – **

**fuel sprays – **

**fuels for – **

**table – **

**(See also Diesel fuels)Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Diesel engines: (Cont.)**

**governing of – **

**intake manifolds for – **

**locomotive (see Locomotives, diesel-electric)**

**lubrication of – **

**marine – **

**data on (tables) – – **

**medium-size (table) – **

**pollution from – **

**pump injection – **

**stationary – **

**data on (table) – **

**supercharging – **

**for tractors – **

**for trucks and buses – **

**Diesel fuels – – – **

**additives – **

**distillation curves – **

**grades – **

**specifications for (table) – **

**Differential calculus – **

**Differential chain block – **

**Differential equations:**

**homogeneous – **

**Laplace transforms – **

**partial – **

**solutions of – – **

**Differential transformer pick-ups – **

**Differentials:**

**in automobiles – **

**calculus – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Differentiation: rules for – **

**Digital image correlation (stress analysis) – **

**Dihedral (def) – **

**Dimensional analysis – **

**theorems – **

**Dimensionless numbers – **

**Dimensions:**

**of common variables (table) – **

**of a quantity (def) – **

**Dings magnetic separators – **

**Diode (electronics) – **

**free-wheeling – **

**Dip brazing – **

**Dipole function – **

**Dirac delta function – **

**Direct-current circuits, wiring calculations for – **

**(See also Generators, direct-current)**

**Direct-current instruments – **

**Direct energy conversion:**

**fuel cells – **

**notable surface of action in – **

**magnetohydrodynamic generation – **

**photovoltaic generation – **

**thermionic generation – **

**Fermi level – **

**work-function barrier – **

**thermoelectric generation – **

**figure of merit for – **

**Direct tooling – **

**Direct view factors (radiation, def) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Directrix:**

**of catenary – **

**of ellipse – **

**of hyperbola – **

**of parabola – **

**Discharge coefficients for flow of liquids – – – **

**Discounted cash flow – **

**Disk brakes – – **

**Disk clutches – – **

**Disks:**

**air resistance of (table) – **

**computer – – **

**controllers for – **

**nutating, liquid-meter – **

**rotating: with central hole – **

**Dispersants: in engine oil – **

**Dispersion (optical) – **

**Displacement:**

**motions – **

**of ships (def) – **

**Display technology – **

**Displays (radar) – **

**Dissociation:**

**in combustion of gases – **

**of gaseous fuels and explosion temperatures (table) – **

**Distance:**

**measurement of – **

**analytic geometry formulas for – **

**in surveying – – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Distillation of crude oils (chart) – **

**Distribution systems, electric**

**(see Electric power distribution)**

**Distributions (probability) – – **

**Distributors (electric ignition) – **

**Disturbance (automatic control, def) – **

**Divergence:**

**of nozzles for steam flow – **

**vector – **

**Divergence theorem – **

**Diverters, for belt conveyors – **

**Division, arithmetical – **

**DMA (direct memory access) controller – **

**DME (direct measuring equipment) – **

**Docking, of space craft – **

**Docks, loading, design of – **

**Dodecahedron – **

**Dolomite, composition of – **

**Domain (algebra, def) – **

**Domestic refrigerating machines – **

**Doors, coefficients of heat transmission through (table) – **

**for industrial plants – **

**Dot product (mathematics, def) – **

**Draft:**

**forced – **

**induced – **

**natural – **

**of ships (def) – **

**stack effect (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Draft loss (def) – **

**Draft tubes (hydraulic turbines) – **

**Drafting, geometrical constructions in – – **

**Drag (aerodynamics):**

**coefficients of, for various bodies – **

**in hydraulics – – **

**induced – – **

**parasite – **

**profile – **

**supersonic (see Supersonic and hypersonic**

**aerodynamics)**

**of various bodies (table) – **

**of wings – **

**Drag coefficients (table) – **

**Drag forces – **

**Drag-free satellites – **

**Drag-link mechanisms – **

**Dragline buckets:**

**scraper – **

**self-filling – **

**Dragline excavators – – – **

**Drags (molding) – – **

**Drain pipe (table) – **

**Drainage fittings – **

**Dram or drachm:**

**apothecaries’liquid measure (def) – **

**apothecaries’weight (def) – **

**avoirdupois weight (def) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Drawbar horsepower, of locomotives – **

**Drawing of metals – **

**pressure in – **

**various shapes – **

**work done in – **

**Dredges:**

**commercial – **

**diesel – **

**digging ladders for – – **

**elevator – **

**hydraulic – **

**placer – **

**Driers, for paint – **

**(See also Evaporators)**

**Drift bolts, pulling resistance of – **

**Drilling – **

**various metals (table) – **

**of plastics – **

**Drilling machines – **

**sizes of – **

**Drills:**

**for pipe taps (table) – **

**sizes of (table) – **

**tap, sizes of (table) – **

**troubleshooting of (table) – **

**twist – **

**sizes of (table) – **

**Drop-forge dies – **

**Drop forging – **

**Drop hammers – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Drop-weight test – **

**Dropping point (greases) – **

**Drums:**

**for hoisting: rope for – **

**for wire rope, minimum groove dimensions for (table) – **

**ratios for – **

**Dry batteries (see Batteries, dry)**

**Dry-bulb temperature (def) – – **

**Dry cells – **

**Dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) – **

**Dry measure – **

**DSP (digital signal processor) – **

**Dual (linear programming) – **

**Dual-fuel engines – **

**advantages – **

**Ductile cast iron (def) – – **

**Ducts:**

**air friction in (charts) – – **

**air velocities in (table) – **

**design of – **

**equal friction method for – **

**static regain method for – **

**noise in – **

**pressure loss in – **

**return face velocities (table) – **

**Dulong and Petit’s rule (specific heat) – **

**Dulong’s formula (calorific value of coal) – **

**Dumbwaiters – **

**Dump trucks – **

**Duralumin, creep rates for – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Dust (def) – – – **

**explosive, characteristics of (table) – **

**removal of, by mechanical separators – **

**screen scale for (table) – **

**size of particles in – – **

**velocity of settling (chart) – **

**Dust explosions:**

**building design to prevent – **

**characteristics of (table) – **

**composition of atmosphere and dust in – **

**concentration of dust in – **

**definition of – **

**effects of inerts on – **

**explosibility index of (def) – **

**factors affecting – – **

**fineness of dust in – **

**ignition sources – – **

**ignition temperatures for – **

**inerted atmosphere to prevent – **

**maximum pressure in – **

**minimum concentrations for – **

**minimum energy to ignite – **

**oxygen concentrations for – **

**particles in, sizes of – **

**surface area of – **

**pressure-rise rates – **

**prevention of – **

**relative hazards – **

**relief venting for – **

**turbulence in – **

**of various materials (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Dynamic balance – **

**Dynamic braking:**

**of locomotives – – **

**of transit cars – – **

**Dynamic electricity (def) – **

**Dynamic similarity (models) – – **

**Dynamic unbalance (def) – **

**Dynamics – **

**of fluids – **

**(See also Fluid dynamics)**

**Dynamites – **

**ammonia – **

**ammonia gelatin – **

**gelatin – **

**straight – **

**Dynamometers – **

**Dyne (def) – **

**E**

**E-Gas (gasification) – – **

**E transformer – – **

**Earth:**

**packed and loose, specific**

**gravity and density of (table) – **

**Earthmoving equipment – **

**Earthquake forces in buildings – **

**Earthquakes – **

**design for – **

**EBM (electron-beam machining) – **

**Eccentric angle in ellipse – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Eccentric loads:**

**on circular rings – **

**on cylinders – **

**on short blocks – **

**on various cross sections – **

**Eccentricity:**

**of ellipse – **

**of hyperbola – **

**ECDG (electrochemical discharge grinding) – **

**ECG (electrochemical grinding) – **

**Ecology (def) – **

**(See also Environmental control)**

**Economic lot size – **

**Economizers – **

**corrosion in – **

**size of – **

**types of – **

**Ecosystems – **

**Eddy-current brakes – – **

**Eddy-current losses – **

**Eddy-current testing of materials – **

**EDG (electric-discharge grinding) – **

**Edison storage cell – – **

**EDM (electric-discharge machining) – **

**(electronic distance meter) – **

**EDS (Exxon donor solvent) – **

**EER (energy efficiency ratio, def) – **

**EFD (experimental fluid dynamics) – **

**(See also Fluid dynamics, experimental)**

**Effective temperatures (wind chill, table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Efficiency:**

**of Carnot cycle – **

**of machine elements (table) – **

**Eigenvalues – **

**Eigenvectors – **

**Ejectors:**

**air (see Air ejectors)**

**Elastic constants of metals (table) – **

**Elastic limit (def) – – **

**in flexure – **

**proportional (def) – **

**Elastic solid (def) – **

**Elasticity (def) – **

**modulus of (def) – **

**for metals (tables) – – – **

**theory of – **

**Elastomers (rubberlike substances) – **

**comparative properties of (table) – **

**properties of, at low temperatures – **

**Elbow, human, biomechanics of – **

**loads on – **

**Electric apparatus:**

**symbols for – **

**(See also Electric instruments)**

**Electric-arc welding (see Welding)**

**Electric brakes – **

**Electric circuits (see Circuits)**

**Electric conductivity – **

**Electric current (see Current)**

**Electric-discharge machining of metals – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Electric energy:**

**measurement of – **

**units of (def) – **

**Electric equipment, safety devices for – **

**Electric-furnace steel (def) – **

**Electric furnaces:**

**arc – **

**arcs in – **

**charges – **

**electrode consumption – **

**ladle – **

**rating and sizes of (table) – **

**refractories for – **

**regulation characteristics of (chart) – **

**single-phase – **

**submerged-arc – **

**temperature in – **

**three-phase – **

**atmosphere: artificial – **

**natural – **

**dielectric heating – **

**energy consumption of (table) – **

**high-temperature, resistors for – **

**induction – – **

**core-type – **

**coreless – **

**frequency for – **

**operation – **

**sizes of (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Electric furnaces: (Cont.)**

**induction heating for – **

**power requirements for (table) – **

**for refining steel – **

**resistance – – **

**with fixed or movable electrodes – **

**uses of – **

**resistor – **

**bath heating – **

**heating chamber – **

**high-temperature – **

**losses from – **

**operating efficiency – **

**ovens – **

**resistors for – – **

**sizes of – **

**temperature regulation of – **

**for tempering – **

**ventilation of – **

**types of – **

**Electric generators (see Generators)**

**Electric ignition systems (see Ignition systems)**

**Electric instruments – – **

**alternating-current – **

**direct-current – **

**high-voltage – **

**impedance bridges – **

**transformers for – **

**Electric lamps – **

**Electric locomotives – **

**(See also Locomotives)Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Electric measurements – **

**Electric meters – **

**Electric motors:**

**adjustable bases for – **

**alternating-current: branch-circuit maximum**

**ratings (table) – **

**brushless – **

**capacitor – **

**commutator – **

**computer control of – **

**heat gain from (table) – **

**induction – **

**breakdown torque – **

**efficiency of (table) – **

**polyphase – **

**power and weight (table) – **

**power factor (table) – **

**resistor starters for – **

**rotors – **

**single-phase – **

**starting – **

**speed control – **

**squirrel-cage – **

**starting compensator – **

**switchboard equipment – **

**wiring calculations – **

**as induction generator – **

**industrial applications – **

**laminated pole – **

**round-rotor – **

**salient-pole – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Electric motors: (Cont.)**

**single phasing of – **

**slip-ring – **

**synchronous – **

**performance of (table) – **

**power and weight of (table) – **

**synchronous induction – **

**synchronous reluctance – **

**turbine – **

**application of – **

**branch-circuit protection for – **

**direct-current – **

**armature reaction – – **

**commutating pole – – **

**commutation – **

**compound, performance of (table) – **

**computer control of – **

**cumulative compound – **

**full-load currents (table) – **

**fundamental equations – **

**industrial applications – **

**series – **

**speed control – – **

**shunt – **

**armature resistance control – **

**control by changing impressed voltage – **

**field-current control – **

**speed control – – **

**stabilizing windings for – **

**starters – **

**speed and torque characteristics (chart) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Electric motors: (Cont.)**

**industrial applications – **

**insulation for (table) – **

**insulation classes for – **

**locked-rotor indicating code for – **

**table – **

**nameplate information on – **

**overload protection of – **

**protective device settings for (table) – **

**rating of – **

**running overload protection for – **

**selection of – **

**service factors for – **

**speed control of – – **

**by multivoltage method – **

**regulation of (def) – **

**traction – **

**Ward-Leonard – **

**squirrel-cage, locked-rotor indicator code for – **

**temperature ratings for – **

**universal – **

**Electric power (def) – **

**active (def) – **

**apparent (def) – **

**cost of – **

**formulas – **

**measurement of – **

**reactive (def) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Electric power distribution:**

**circuits – **

**feeders and mains – **

**networks, a-c – **

**service wires – **

**systems – **

**three-wire: a-c – **

**d-c – **

**wire resistance and reactance (tables) – – **

**wiring calculations – **

**Electric power plants (see Power plants)**

**Electric power transmission – **

**corona in – **

**d-c, high-voltage – **

**lines: Mershon diagram – **

**overhead, reactance of (table) – – **

**voltage drop in – **

**symmetrical system – **

**underground cables – **

**ampacities (table) – **

**Electric resistor materials – **

**table – **

**Electric steel – **

**Electric switchboards – **

**Electric switches – **

**Electric vehicles, storage batteries for – **

**Electric waves:**

**average value – **

**form factor – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Electric welding (see Welding)**

**Electric wiring (see Wiring)**

**Electrical conductors:**

**ampacities of (table) – **

**circuit-breakers for – **

**for equipment grounding – **

**fuses for – **

**protection of – **

**types of (table) – **

**Electrical engineering – **

**Electrical machinery, symbols for – **

**Electrical resistivity of metals (table) – – **

**Electrical symbols (table) – – **

**Electrical transmission systems – **

**Electrical units – **

**table – **

**Electricity:**

**dynamic (def) – **

**static (def) – **

**Electrochemical machining – **

**Electrodynamometer – **

**Electrohydraulic forming – **

**Electrolux Servel process of refrigeration – **

**Electrolytic cells (def) – **

**reference electrodes for – **

**standard hydrogen electrodes for – **

**Electrolytic iron: properties and uses of – **

**Electromagnetic forming (metalworking) – **

**Electromagnetic spectrum (chart) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Electromagnets – – **

**alternating-current – **

**exciting coils for – **

**heating of – **

**lifting – **

**polyphase – **

**sparking of – **

**tractive – – **

**wire for – **

**Electromotive force:**

**induced, direction of – **

**unit of – **

**Electron (def) – – **

**Electron capture (def) – **

**Electron tubes – **

**Electronic components – **

**Electronic voltmeters – **

**Electronics, industrial – **

**Electroplating – **

**in semiconductor manufacturing – **

**Electrostatic precipitators (boilers) – **

**Electrotype metal (table) – **

**Elementary substance (def) – **

**Elements:**

**chemical (def, table) – **

**periodic table of – **

**physical properties of (table) – – **

**Elevator dredges – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Elevators:**

**automatic control of – **

**belt-and-bucket – **

**bucket – **

**capacity of (table) – **

**casings – **

**continuous – **

**gravity discharge – **

**power requirements for – **

**supercapacity – **

**car mileage of – **

**controls for – – **

**counterweights for – **

**dispatch systems for – **

**drives for – **

**flight times for – **

**gearless – – **

**high-rise – **

**hydraulic – **

**load ratings for – **

**low-rise – **

**medium-rise – **

**motors for – – **

**power consumption and efficiency of – **

**traction-type – **

**Ellingham diagrams (corrosion) – **

**Ellipses:**

**area and perimeter of – **

**properties of – **

**quadrant, center of gravity of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Ellipsoid, volume of – **

**Elliptic integrals – **

**Elliptic differential equations – **

**Elongation due to tension (table) – **

**Embossing of metals – **

**Emery (abrasive) – **

**Emery wheels (see Grinding wheels)**

**Emissions:**

**engine design conditions to reduce – **

**engine operating conditions to reduce – **

**exhaust treatments to reduce – **

**from internal-combustion engines – **

**Emissivity (radiant heat, def) – **

**of carbon dioxide (table) – **

**gas – **

**of various surfaces (table) – – **

**of water vapor (table) – **

**Emittance (radiant heat, def) – **

**Employees, of engineers – **

**Empty set (def) – **

**Emulsions, cutting fluid (machining) – **

**Enamel coatings – **

**Energy (def) – – **

**atomic (see Atomic energy)**

**conservation of – – – **

**thermodynamics – **

**conversion table for – **

**electric (see Electric energy)**

**free (def) – **

**Helmholtz (def) – **

**internal: of ideal gas – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Energy (def) (Cont.)**

**kinetic (def) – **

**law of conservation of – – – **

**mass equivalence of (formula) – **

**of moving fluid – **

**nuclear (see Atomic energy)**

**potential (def) – **

**solar (see Solar energy)**

**Energy conversion:**

**direct (see Direct energy conversion; Energy converters)**

**to mass (formula) – **

**Energy converters – **

**bioenergetic – **

**EHD water drop – **

**electrohydrodynamic – **

**electrokinetic – **

**electron convection – **

**ferroelectric – **

**ferromagnetic – **

**magnetostrictive – **

**magnetothermoelectric – **

**Nernst effect – **

**particle-collecting – **

**photoelectromagnetic – **

**photogalvanic – **

**piezoelectric – **

**pyroelectric – **

**superconducting – **

**thermophotovoltaic – **

**Van der Graaff – **

**water drop – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Energy equivalents (table) – **

**Energy sources:**

**from biomass – **

**geothermal (see Geothermal power)**

**heat of the seas – **

**hydroelectric – **

**reserves – **

**coal – **

**natural gas – **

**nuclear – **

**petroleum – **

**shale oil – **

**tar sands – **

**solar (see Solar energy)**

**from thorium – **

**from uranium – **

**from vegetation – **

**from waves – **

**from wind – **

**Engineering employees – **

**Engineering licenses – **

**Engineering statistics – **

**Engineer’s liability insurance – **

**Engines:**

**airplane (see Airplanes, engines)**

**automobile (see Automobile engines)**

**balancing of – **

**cycles for: internal combustion – **

**steam – – **

**diesel (see Diesel engines)Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Engines: (Cont.)**

**hot-air – **

**internal-combustion**

**(see Internal-combustion engines)**

**jet (see Aircraft jet propulsion)**

**marine (see Marine engines)**

**reciprocating, balancing of – **

**steam (see Steam engines)**

**Ennoblement (corrosion) – **

**Enthalpy (def) – **

**of gases – **

**table – **

**for ideal-gas air (table) – **

**of ideal gases – **

**Enthalpy-pressure diagram, for air (chart) – **

**(See also Pressure-enthalpy chart)**

**Entropy (def) – **

**of ideal gas – **

**Environmental control – **

**air- and gas-cleaning devices for (table) – **

**air-cleaning apparatus for – **

**air pollution: sources of – **

**tables – **

**condenser water cooling – **

**construction projects, considerations for – **

**cost-benefit calculations for – **

**cyclone separators for – **

**federal legislation on: air pollution – **

**water pollution – – **

**industrial discharge permits – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Environmental control (Cont.)**

**national policy – **

**process selection for – **

**purposes of – **

**of radioactive waste – **

**recycling – **

**scrubbers for – **

**size of airborne particles (chart) – **

**standards for industrial discharges (table) – **

**of sulfur gases and particulates – **

**sulfur oxides removal for – **

**thermal discharges – **

**in various industries – **

**waste disposal – **

**wastewater – **

**Environmental releases, radioactive – **

**EOQ (economic order quantity, inventory control) – **

**Epicyclic gear trains – **

**Epicycloid – **

**Epitrochoid – **

**Epoxy resins: properties of (table) – **

**EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) – **

**Equations:**

**Cauchy-Euler equidimensional – **

**for circle – **

**differential – – **

**linear – – **

**methods of solving – **

**for ellipse – **

**linear – **

**of hyperbola – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Equations: (Cont.)**

**of parabola – **

**simultaneous – **

**of state (thermodynamics) – – **

**of a straight line – **

**Equilibrium (mechanics, def) – **

**forces, in mechanics – **

**laws of, in mechanics – **

**Equilibrium diagram, iron-iron carbide (chart) – **

**Erg (def) – **

**Error:**

**absolute and relative – **

**in automatic control (def) – **

**in measurement – **

**Error compensation (automatic control) – **

**Escalators – **

**Esters (solvents) – **

**Etching, in semiconductor manufacturing – **

**Ethane: as refrigerant – **

**Ethanol – **

**Ethyl alcohol, as solvent – **

**Ethyl cellulose resins: properties of (table) – **

**Ethyl chloride, thermal properties of – – **

**Ethylene glycol (antifreeze), properties of – **

**Ethylene and polyethylene copolymer resins:**

**properties of (table) – **

**Euler method – **

**Euler number – **

**Euler’s equations of motion – **

**Euler’s formula for long columns – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Eutectoid (steel) – **

**Evaporative condensers – – **

**Evaporative cooling of condenser water – **

**Evaporators:**

**heat transmission in, maximum (table) – **

**refrigeration – **

**vapor binding in – **

**Everdur – **

**Evolute of a curve (def) – **

**Excavating machines – **

**Excavation, volume computation in – **

**Excavators – **

**dragline – **

**Excess air for combustion (charts) – **

**coefficient of – **

**Exchangers, heat (see Heat exchangers)**

**Exciters, switchboard equipment for – **

**Exergy (def) – **

**Exfoliation, of aluminum – **

**Exhaust gas:**

**analysis of (chart) – **

**apparatus for – **

**Exhaust systems, fans for – **

**Exide ironclad battery – **

**Exitance (def) – **

**Expansion:**

**of bodies by heat – **

**coefficients of (table) – – **

**of petroleum products (table) – **

**in compound engines – **

**of functions in series – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Expansion: (Cont.)**

**of gases (formulas) – – **

**of pipelines, stresses due to – **

**of saturated and superheated vapors (formulas) – – **

**thermal, coefficients of (def) – **

**Expansion ratio, effect on engine economy – **

**Expected value (def) – **

**Expenses:**

**fixed, characteristics of – **

**variable, characteristics of – **

**Experimental fluid dynamics (EFD) – **

**(See also Fluid dynamics, experimental)**

**Explosion welding – **

**Explosions:**

**detonation rates of (table) – **

**of dusts (see Dust explosions)**

**in internal-combustion engines – **

**Explosive D – **

**table – **

**Explosive forming – **

**Explosives – **

**ballistic mortar strength of – **

**deflagrating (def) – **

**detonating (def) – **

**dynamite – **

**emulsions – **

**military – **

**table – **

**permissible in mines – **

**sensitivity of – **

**water-based – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Exponential series – **

**Exponential smoothing (forecasting) – **

**Exponents (algebra, def) – **

**Extraction turbines – **

**Extrusion of metals – **

**Eyebolts – **

**proportions and strength of (table) – **

**EZPass (radio-frequency identification system) – **

**F**

**F distribution (statistics, table) – **

**f number (optics) – **

**Fabric structures, air-inflated**

**(see Air-inflated fabric structures)**

**Fabrics – **

**impregnated, for insulation – **

**Face brick – **

**Factories (see Industrial plants)**

**Factory accounts (see Cost accounting)**

**Fahrenheit:**

**conversion to Celsius (eq) – **

**conversion to Rankine (eq) – **

**Failure, theories of – **

**Falk flexible couplings – **

**False position (root finding) – **

**Fans:**

**axial-flow – **

**centrifugal (see Centrifugal fans)**

**classification of – **

**forced-draft – **

**induced-draft – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Fans: (Cont.)**

**jet – **

**laws for – **

**laws of – **

**propeller – **

**(See also Blowers)**

**Farad (capacitance, def) – **

**Fast flexible couplings – **

**Fast Fourier transform – **

**Fasteners, aluminum, properties of (table) – **

**Fathom (def) – **

**Fatigue:**

**endurance limit in (table) – **

**of metals – **

**effects of corrosion on – **

**effects of notches on – **

**effects of overstressing and understressing on – **

**Fatigue failure – **

**of shafts – **

**Fatigue limit (def) – **

**Faure storage battery – **

**Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) – – **

**Feedback loop (automatic control) – **

**Feeder panels, equipment for – **

**Feeders:**

**belt conveyor – **

**of electric distribution systems – **

**for conveyors – **

**Feeding devices, for conveyors – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Feedwater:**

**alkalinity – **

**amines for – **

**ammonia in – **

**blowdown – **

**combined water treatment for – **

**corrosion by – **

**deaeration of – **

**evaporation – **

**filtering – **

**heating, regenerative (turbines) – **

**impurities in – **

**effect in boiler – **

**limits, ABMA (table) – **

**oxygen removal – – **

**oxygen scavengers for – **

**oxygenated treatment for – **

**pH – **

**phosphate treatment of – **

**polishing of – **

**purification of – **

**scale from – **

**sludge – **

**softening – **

**thermal deaerators for – **

**treatment of – **

**amines, use of – **

**cation exchange – **

**chemical – **

**demineralization – **

**hardness elimination – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Feedwater: (Cont.)**

**of raw water – **

**solids removal – **

**Feedwater heaters:**

**condensing – **

**deaerators – **

**spray-type – **

**tray-type – **

**desuperheating section – **

**drain-cooling section – **

**friction loss (table) – **

**heat-transfer rates – **

**high-pressure – **

**length of – **

**low-pressure – **

**materials for – **

**open-feed – **

**performance calculations – **

**pressure drop in – **

**regenerative cycle for – **

**tube-wall thickness (table) – **

**types of – **

**vent condensers for – **

**Felts – **

**roofing – **

**Ferrite (def) – **

**Ferroalloy furnace (electric) – **

**Ferroelectric crystals – – **

**Table – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Ferroelectrics – **

**electromechanical coupling behavior of – **

**glossary of terms in – **

**hysteresis loop in – **

**piezoelectricity in – **

**FET (field effect transistor) – **

**FHB (fluid-bed hydrogenization) – **

**Fiber composites – – **

**advanced – **

**anisotropic behavior of – – **

**classical lamination theory – – **

**design of – **

**failure of – – **

**fibers in – **

**properties of (tables) – – – **

**glass-polymer, properties of (table) – **

**graphite-polymer, properties of (table) – **

**homogenization of – **

**laminates – – – **

**balanced – **

**cross-ply – **

**deformations of – **

**engineering properties of – **

**macromechanics of – **

**stack sequence in – – **

**stress analysis of – **

**symmetric – **

**manufacture of – **

**matrices for – **

**mechanics of – **

**micromechanical models (def) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Fiber composites (Cont.)**

**micromechanics of a layer – **

**orthotropic behavior of – – **

**rule-of-mixtures model – **

**smearing of – **

**for space applications – **

**stress-strain behavior of a layer – **

**volume fraction (def) – **

**Fiber optics – **

**Fiberglass – **

**Fibers:**

**animal – **

**for cordage – **

**creep of – **

**denier (unit of fineness) – **

**elastic properties (table) – **

**glass – **

**tables – – **

**heat endurance – **

**identification of – **

**inorganic – **

**nylon – **

**tables – – **

**properties of (tables) – – **

**rayon – **

**synthetic – **

**Teflon – **

**vegetable – **

**zirconia – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Fibonacci series – **

**Field buses (information transmission) – **

**Field of force – **

**Field intensity (magnetic, def) – **

**Film coefficients – **

**for boiling liquids – – **

**combined convection and radiation – **

**condensing vapors – **

**extended surfaces – – **

**factors influencing – **

**forced-circulation evaporators – **

**for gases – – **

**heat transmission (def) – – **

**for high-velocity gases – – **

**laminar flow – **

**natural convection – **

**over tubes – – **

**turbulent flow – – **

**Filmogen (paint, def) – **

**Filters, capacitor – **

**Filtration of sound – **

**Fineness modulus (concrete, def) – **

**Finish shearing – **

**Finite-difference methods, in torsion calculations – **

**Finite-element analysis – **

**Finite-element methods – **

**basic concepts in – **

**closed-form solution – **

**Galerkin method – **

**for heat conduction analysis – **

**potential energy formulation – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Finite-element methods (Cont.)**

**for space-vehicle analysis – **

**for torsion calculations – **

**for truss analysis – **

**Finite element methods, for vibration analysis – – **

**FIR (finite impulse response) – **

**Fire extinguishing, hand apparatus for – **

**Fire hose – **

**couplings for: ANSI (table) – **

**screw threads – **

**Fire point of oil (def) – **

**Fire protection – – **

**building construction for – **

**hose for (see Fire hose)**

**hydrants for – **

**for industrial plants – **

**information sources on – **

**by isolation – **

**loss limitation in – **

**pumps for – **

**resistant materials for – **

**sprinkler equipment for – **

**standpipes for – **

**with temporary heating – **

**with temporary storage – **

**underground piping for – **

**water supply for – **

**Fire pumps – **

**Fire resistance of building materials – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Firebrick – – **

**coatings for – **

**heat losses and heat-storage capacity of (table) – **

**manufacture of – **

**mortars for – **

**plastics and ramming mixtures for – **

**selection of – **

**shapes and sizes of – **

**table – **

**(See also Refractories)**

**Fireclay refractories – **

**table – **

**Fires, from dusts, combating of – **

**Fischer-Tropsch process – **

**Fission of nuclei (see Nuclear fission)**

**Fits – **

**allowances and tolerances – **

**classification of – **

**force – **

**international, tolerances for (table) – **

**limits for (table) – **

**locational interference – **

**metric – **

**preferred (table) – **

**press – **

**pressures in (charts) – **

**pressures required in making – **

**stresses due to – **

**torsional holding of – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Fits (Cont.)**

**running, allowances for (table) – **

**shrink: allowances for (table) – **

**stresses due to – **

**transition – – **

**Fittings, pipe (see Pipe fittings)**

**Fitts’law (task performance) – **

**Flakeboard – **

**Flame propagation in gaseous fuels – **

**Flame radiation – **

**Flame speed, in internal combustion engines – **

**Flame temperatures, of gaseous fuels (table) – **

**Flame travel, in internal-combustion engines – **

**Flammability of fuels:**

**gaseous – **

**table – **

**limits of (table) – **

**LeChatelier’s equation for – **

**Flanged-face couplings – **

**Flanged fittings:**

**cast-iron – **

**steel – **

**Flanges:**

**cast-iron – **

**steel – **

**unions – **

**Flash intercoolers, for refrigeration systems – **

**Flash point, of lubricating oils (def) – **

**Flasks (molding) – – **

**Flats, of bolts and nuts (table) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Flax, properties of (tables) – – **

**Flexible metal hose and tubing – **

**Flexure, theory of (beams) – **

**Flight (see Aerodynamics)**

**Flight conveyors – **

**Flip-flop (electronic circuit) – **

**JK circuit – **

**Float (scheduling) – **

**Float glass – **

**Floors:**

**earthquake-resistant – **

**industrial plant – **

**loads on – **

**plank, safe load on, and deflection (table) – **

**reinforced-concrete – **

**safety provisions for – **

**trusses for – **

**chart – **

**wood – **

**joists for – **

**wood-block – **

**Flotation – **

**Flow:**

**of air: measurement of – **

**in pipes – **

**in pneumatic conveyors – **

**coefficients of friction – **

**of compressible fluids – – – – **

** – **

**through nozzles – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Flow: (Cont.)**

**through orifices – – – **

**in pipes – **

**friction loss – **

**of cryogens, measurement of – **

**of gases: fundamental equations – **

**measurement of – **

**of heat – **

**conversion table for – **

**(See also Heat transmission)**

**of liquids: dimensional analysis of – **

**laminar – – – **

**measurement of (see Flow meters)**

**through orifices – – **

**in pipes – **

**turbulent – – – **

**(See also Flow, of water)**

**of materials, in plants – **

**(See also Materials handling)**

**of metal at high temperatures (creep) – **

**of steam: through labyrinth packings – **

**through nozzles – **

**through orifices – **

**in pipes – **

**friction loss due to – **

**resistance of fittings to – **

**saturated – **

**of water: measurement of (see Flow meters)**

**through notches – – **

**through nozzles – – **

**in open channels – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**in pipes – **

**Chézy equation for – **

**Manning formula for – **

**in streams: estimation by surveying – **

**venturi meter for – **

**over weirs – – **

**Flow analysis, of materials in plants – **

**Flowcharts – **

**Flowers: effects of sulfur dioxide on (table) – **

**Flow meters – – – **

**Coanda effect – **

**Coriolis mass – **

**Doppler – **

**fluidic – **

**magmeter – **

**paddlewheel – **

**propeller – **

**sonar – **

**thermal dispersion – **

**transit-time – **

**ultrasonic – **

**vortex-shedding – **

**Flue gas:**

**analysis of – – **

**apparatus for – **

**heat loss in – **

**Flue gas desulfurization (steam generation) – **

**Fluid couplings (see Couplings)Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Fluid dynamics – **

**computational – **

**boundary layer flow – **

**governing equations of – **

**irrotational flow – **

**Kelvin’s theorem – **

**Navier-Stokes flow – **

**vorticity – **

**experimental – **

**classification of measurements – **

**general requirements of – **

**hot-wire probes – **

**laser doppler anemometry – – **

**laser speckle strophometry – **

**micro and nano sensors – **

**molecular tagging velocimetry – **

**multisensor probes – **

**nuclear magnetic resonance – **

**particle image velocimetry – – – **

**planar doppler velocimetry – **

**pressure measurements – **

**pressure-sensitive paint – **

**quantum dot nanoparticles – **

**temperature measurements – **

**temperature-sensitive paint – **

**thermal anemometry – **

**velocity measurements – **

**vorticity measurements – **

**Fluid kinematics – **

**Fluid statics – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Fluid volume, measurement of – **

**Fluidized beds, in furnaces – – **

**Fluids (def) – **

**coefficients of friction (formulas) – **

**flow (see Flow)**

**general properties of – **

**ideal (def) – **

**for machining – **

**measurement of – **

**(See also Flow meters)**

**Newtonian (def) – **

**non-Newtonian (def) – **

**throttling of – – **

**Fluorescent lamps – **

**Fluoroplastic resins: properties of (table) – **

**Flux density (magnetic, def) – **

**Fly ash, sintering of – **

**Flywheel effect (def) – **

**Flywheels:**

**arms, design of – **

**high-speed, stresses in rims – **

**rims – **

**split-rim – **

**stresses in – **

**weight determination – **

**Wittenbauer’s analysis – **

**FMC coke process – **

**Focal length of lenses – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Focus:**

**of ellipses – **

**of hyperbola – **

**of parabola – **

**Foil, laminated – **

**Follow boards (mold making) – **

**Food-board – **

**Foot (def) – **

**Footings:**

**for foundations – **

**reinforced-concrete – **

**Force (def) – **

**centrifugal – **

**centripetal – **

**components of – – **

**composition of – **

**definition of units – **

**equilibrium of – **

**external and internal (def) – **

**field of – **

**intensity of (def) – **

**fundamental equation of – **

**line of (def) – **

**supporting – **

**unbalanced – **

**units of – – **

**Force fits – **

**Force polygon – **

**Forced-circulation boilers – – **

**Forced draft – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Forces:**

**on irregular surfaces (mechanics) – **

**in mechanical linkages – **

**resultant of – **

**system of, in equilibrium – **

**Forecasting – **

**double exponential smoothing – **

**moving average – **

**seasonality in – **

**time series for – **

**Forging, of metals – **

**Forging dies – **

**Forging hammers – – **

**Forging steel (table) – **

**uses of – **

**Fork trucks – **

**Form factor, a-c waves – **

**Formation, heats of (def) – **

**Formcoke (coke making) – **

**Forms, for reinforced concrete – **

**Forsterite (refractory) – **

**Fortran – **

**Forward path (automatic control, def) – **

**Fossil fuels, reserves of – **

**Foucault-current losses – **

**Fouling index, of coal – **

**Foundations:**

**bearing pressure on soils – **

**caisson methods for – **

**deep – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Foundations: (Cont.)**

**excavation, computations in – **

**footings for – **

**pile – **

**setting stakes for – **

**spread (reinforced-concrete columns) – **

**Foundries – **

**casting inspection in – – **

**cleaning equipment for castings in – **

**melting processes used in – **

**molding equipment for – **

**(See also Castings; Molding)**

**Four-cycle engines – **

**advantages – **

**Fourier coefficients – **

**Fourier integral equation – **

**Fourier series – **

**Fourier transform – **

**Fourier’s law (heat conduction) – **

**FPGA (field-programmable gate array) – **

**Fractions, decimal values (table) – **

**Fracture:**

**at low stress – **

**under tension and compression – **

**Fracture mechanics – **

**Fracture stress (def) – **

**Frame of reference (mechanics, def) – **

**Framed structures, steel (see Steel-framed structures)**

**Francis turbines – – **

**Free energy (thermodynamics) – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Free-swelling index test for coal – – **

**Freezing points:**

**of the elements (table) – – **

**of various substances (table) – **

**Freezing preventives – **

**Freight cars – **

**axles for – **

**coupler cushioning for – **

**design of – **

**dimensions of – **

**discharge gates for – **

**lading restraints for – **

**suspensions for – – **

**train resistance – **

**wheels for – **

**Freon (See also Refrigerant)**

**Freon : pressure-enthalpy chart for – **

**Frequency:**

**a-c (def) – – **

**natural – – **

**Frequency bands (tables) – **

**Frequency modulation (radio) – **

**Frequency response:**

**of automatic controls – **

**graphical display – **

**Fresh air requirements for various locations (table) – **

**Friction:**

**coefficients of (def) – **

**clutches (table) – **

**fluid flow in pipes – **

**journal bearings – – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Friction: (Cont.)**

**rolling (table) – **

**static and sliding (def) – **

**tables – **

**tables – **

**thrust bearings – – **

**for various materials – **

**dry (def) – **

**effect of sliding velocity on – **

**of liquids in pipes – **

**of machine elements – **

**rolling (def) – **

**skin (aerodynamics) – **

**of steam engines – **

**Friction brakes, horsepower absorbed by – **

**Friction clutches (automobile) – **

**Friction factors for pipes (liquid flow) – **

**Friction head (liquid) – **

**Friction loss in pipe fittings (table) – **

**Friction sawing (metal) – **

**Frigorie, European unit of refrigeration (def) – **

**Fringes (optics) – **

**Froude’s law (ship resistance) – **

**Froude number – – – – **

** – **

**Frustum, of cone or pyramid, volume of – **

**Fuel cells – – – **

**Fuel injection:**

**for diesel engines – **

**fuel lines for – **

**nozzles for – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Fuel injection: (Cont.)**

**pump injection systems – **

**pumps for – **

**system characteristics – **

**for spark ignition engines – **

**central – **

**injector pulse – **

**port – **

**speed-density controls for – **

**systems – – **

**Fuel oils:**

**analyses of (table) – **

**API and specific gravity of (tables) – – **

**combustion in boiler furnaces – **

**crude – **

**flash point of – **

**grades of – **

**heat of vaporization of – **

**table – **

**heat values (tables) – – **

**pour point of – **

**specific heat of – **

**(See also Fuels, liquid)**

**Fuels – – – – **

** – **

**alternative – **

**autoignition temperatures – **

**aviation turbine – **

**table – **

**biomass – **

**for boilers – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Fuels (Cont.)**

**briquettes – **

**by-product (table) – **

**combustion of (see Combustion)**

**consumption of (automobiles) – **

**cost, in power plants – **

**diesel – **

**table – **

**(See also Diesel fuels)**

**flame speed in – **

**fossil, reserves of – **

**for gas turbines, grades of – **

**gaseous – **

**analysis of – – **

**combustion of – – **

**air required – **

**table – **

**in boiler furnaces – **

**dissociation in – **

**table – **

**products of (table) – **

**temperature – **

**volume contraction – **

**composition of (table) – **

**flame propagation – **

**flammability – **

**table – **

**heat value (table) – **

**for industrial heating – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Fuels (Cont.)**

**odorization of – **

**physical constants of – **

**specifications for – **

**heat value (def) – – **

**high and low (def) – **

**heats of formation – **

**for industrial heating – **

**for internal-combustion engines – – **

**table – **

**jet – **

**table – **

**knock rating – **

**knock suppressors (table) – **

**liquid – **

**combustion of – – **

**air required (table) – **

**products of (table) – **

**heat values (tables) – – **

**for industrial heating – **

**molecular weight (table) – **

**properties of – **

**volatility of (def) – **

**nuclear (see Nuclear fuels)**

**oils (see Fuel oils)**

**peat – **

**products of combustion of (table) – **

**rocket – Index Terms Links**

**This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.**

**Fuels (Cont.)**

**solid, combustion of – **

**air required for – **

**products of – **

**specific gravity and density of (table) – **

**synthetic – **

**liquefaction of – **

**from coal – **

**wood – **

**Full annealing (def) – **

**Fuller-Kinyon system – **

**Fumes (def) – **

**Functions:**

**algebraic (def) – **

**gamma – – **

**hyperbolic (tables) – **

**series for – **

**implicit – **

**trigonometric – **

**series for – **

**of two or more variables – **

**Fungible-service pipelines – **

**Furan resins: properties of (table) – **

**Furlong (unit of length, def) – **

**Furnace brazing – **

**Furnaces:**

**arches for – **

**boiler (see Boiler furnaces)**

**combustion
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