Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers

Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers
اسم المؤلف
EUGENE A. AVALLONE, ALI M. SADEGH
التاريخ
15 مايو 2021
المشاهدات
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Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers
Revised by a staff of specialists
EUGENE A. AVALLONE Editor
Consulting Engineer; Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Emeritus
The City College of the City University of New York
THEODORE BAUMEISTER III Editor
Retired Consultant, Information Systems Department
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.
ALI M. SADEGH Editor
Consulting Engineer; Professor of Mechanical Engineering
The City College of the City University of New York
xix
For symbols of chemical elements, see Sec. ; for abbreviations applying to metric weights
and measures and SI units, Sec. ; SI unit prefixes are listed on p. – .
Pairs of parentheses, brackets, etc., are frequently used in this work to indicate corresponding values. For example, the statement that “the cost per kW of a , -kW plant is
$ ; of a , -kW plant, $ ; and of an , -kW plant, $ ,” is condensed as follows:
The cost per kW of a , ( , ) [ , ]-kW plant is $ ( ) [ ].
In the citation of references readers should always attempt to consult the latest edition of
referenced publications.
Symbols and Abbreviations
A or Å Angstrom unit  m; .  in
A mass number  N  Z; ampere
AA arithmetical average
AAA Am. Automobile Assoc.
AAMA American Automobile Manufacturers’ Assoc.
AAR Assoc. of Am. Railroads
AAS Am. Astronautical Soc.
ABAI Am. Boiler & Affiliated Industries
abs absolute
a.c. aerodynamic center
a-c, ac alternating current
ACI Am. Concrete Inst.
ACM Assoc. for Computing Machinery
ACRMA Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Manufacturers Assoc.
ACS Am. Chemical Soc.
ACSR aluminum cable steel-reinforced
ACV air cushion vehicle
A.D. anno Domini (in the year of our Lord)
AEC Atomic Energy Commission (U.S.)
a-f, af audio frequency
AFBMA Anti-friction Bearings Manufacturers’ Assoc.
AFS Am. Foundrymen’s Soc.
AGA Am. Gas Assoc.
AGMA Am. Gear Manufacturers’ Assoc.
ahp air horsepower
AIChE Am. Inst. of Chemical Engineers
AIEE Am. Inst. of Electrical Engineers (see IEEE)
AIME Am. Inst. of Mining Engineers
AIP Am. Inst. of Physics
AISC American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.
AISE Am. Iron & Steel Engineers
AISI Am. Iron and Steel Inst.
Al. Assn. Aluminum Association
a.m. ante meridiem (before noon)
a-m, am amplitude modulation
Am. Mach. Am. Machinist (New York)
AMA Acoustical Materials Assoc.
AMCA Air Moving & Conditioning Assoc., Inc.
amu atomic mass unit
AN ammonium nitrate (explosive); Army-Navy Specification
AN-FO ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (explosive)
ANC Army-Navy Civil Aeronautics Committee
ANS Am. Nuclear Soc.
ANSI American National Standards Institute
antilog antilogarithm of
API Am. Petroleum Inst.
approx approximately
APWA Am. Public Works Assoc.
AREA Am. Railroad Eng. Assoc.
ARI Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Inst.
ARS Am. Rocket Soc.
ASCE Am. Soc. of Civil Engineers
ASHRAE Am. Soc. of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning
Engineers
ASLE Am. Soc. of Lubricating Engineers
ASM Am. Soc. of Metals
ASME Am. Soc. of Mechanical Engineers
ASST Am. Soc. of Steel Treating
ASTM Am. Soc. for Testing and Materials
ASTME Am. Soc. of Tool & Manufacturing Engineers
atm atmosphere
Auto. Ind. Automotive Industries (New York)
avdp avoirdupois
avg, ave average
AWG Am. Wire Gage
AWPA Am. Wood Preservation Assoc.
AWS American Welding Soc.
AWWA American Water Works Assoc.
b barns
bar barometer
B&S Brown & Sharp (gage); Beams and Stringers
bbl barrels
B.C. before Christ
B.C.C. body centered cubic
Bé Baumé (degrees)
B.G. Birmingham gage (hoop and sheet)
bgd billions of gallons per day
BHN Brinnell Hardness Number
bhp brake horsepower
BLC boundary layer control
B.M. board measure; bench mark
bmep brake mean effective pressure
B of M, Bureau of Mines
BuMinesxx SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
BOD biochemical oxygen demand
bp boiling point
Bq bequerel
bsfc brake specific fuel consumption
BSI British Standards Inst.
Btu British thermal units
Btub, Btu/h Btu per hr
bu bushels
Bull. Bulletin
Buweaps Bureau of Weapons, U.S. Navy
BWG Birmingham wire gage
c velocity of light
C degrees Celsius (centigrade)
C coulomb
CAB Civil Aeronautics Board
CAGI Compressed Air & Gas Inst.
cal calories
C-B-R chemical, biological & radiological (filters)
CBS Columbia Broadcasting System
cc, cm cubic centimetres
CCR critical compression ratio
c to c center to center
cd candela
c.f. centrifugal force
cf. confer (compare)
cfh, ft /h cubic feet per hour
cfm, ft /min cubic feet per minute
C.F.R. Cooperative Fuel Research
cfs, ft /s cubic feet per second
cg center of gravity
cgs centimetre-gram-second
Chm. Eng. Chemical Eng’g (New York)
chu centrigrade heat unit
C.I. cast iron
cir circular
cir mil circular mils
cm centimetres
CME Chartered Mech. Engr. (IMechE)
C.N. cetane number
coef coefficient
COESA U.S. Committee on Extension to the Standard Atmosphere
col column
colog cologarithm of
const constant
cos cosine of
cos angle whose cosine is, inverse cosine of
cosh hyperbolic cosine of
cosh inverse hyperbolic cosine of
cot cotangent of
cot angle whose cotangent is (see cos )
coth hyperbolic cotangent of
coth inverse hyperbolic cotangent of
covers coversed sine of
c.p. circular pitch; center of pressure
cp candle power
cp coef of performance
CP chemically pure
CPH close packed hexagonal
cpm cycles per minute
cycles/min
cps, cycles/s cycles per second
CSA Canadian Standards Assoc.
csc cosecant of
csc angle whose cosecant is (see cos )
csch hyperbolic cosecant of
csch inverse hyperbolic cosecant of
cu cubic
cyl cylinder
db, dB decibel
d-c, dc direct current
def definition
deg degrees
diam. (dia) diameter
DO dissolved oxygen
D
O deuterium (heavy water)
d.p. double pole
DP Diametral pitch
DPH diamond pyramid hardness
DST daylight saving time
d tons breaking strength, d  chain wire diam. in.
DX direct expansion
e base of Napierian logarithmic system ( . )
EAP equivalent air pressure
EDR equivalent direct radiation
EEI Edison Electric Inst.
eff efficiency
e.g. exempli gratia (for example)
ehp effective horsepower
EHV extra high voltage
El. Wld. Electrical World (New York)
elec electric
elong elongation
emf electromotive force
Engg. Engineering (London)
Engr. The Engineer (London)
ENT emergency negative thrust
EP extreme pressure (lubricant)
ERDA Energy Research & Development Administration (successor
to AEC; see also NRC)
Eq. equation
est estimated
etc. et cetera (and so forth)
et seq. et sequens (and the following)
eV electron volts
evap evaporation
exp exponential function of
exsec exterior secant of
ext external
F degrees Fahrenheit
F farad
FAA Federal Aviation Agency
F.C. fixed carbon, %
FCC Federal Communications Commission; Federal Constructive
Council
F.C.C. face-centered-cubic (alloys)
ff. following (pages)
fhp friction horsepower
Fig. figure
F.I.T. Federal income tax
f-m, fm frequency modulation
F.O.B. free on board (cars)
FP fore perpendicular
FPC Federal Power Commission
fpm, ft/min feet per minute
fps foot-pound-second system
ft/s feet per second
F.S. Federal Specifications
FSB Federal Specifications Board
fsp fiber saturation point
ft feet
fc foot candles
fL foot lamberts
ftlb foot-pounds
g acceleration due to gravity
g grams
gal gallonsSYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS xxi
gc gigacycles per second
GCA ground-controlled approach
gcal gram-calories
gd Gudermannian of
G.E. General Electric Co.
GEM ground effect machine
GFI gullet feed index
G.M. General Motors Co.
GMT Greenwich Mean Time
GNP gross national product
gpcd gallons per capita day
gpd gallons per day, grams per denier
gpm, gal/min gallons per minute
gps, gal/s gallons per second
gpt grams per tex
H henry
h Planck’s constant  .  org-sec
Planck’s constant,  h/ 
HEPA high efficiency particulate matter
h-f, hf high frequency
hhv high heat value
horiz horizontal
hp horsepower
h-p high-pressure
HPAC Heating, Piping, & Air Conditioning (Chicago)
hp  hr horsepower-hour
hr, h hours
HSS high speed steel
H.T. heat-treated
HTHW high temperature hot water
Hz hertz  cycle/s (cps)
IACS International Annealed Copper Standard
IAeS Institute of Aerospace Sciences
ibid. ibidem (in the same place)
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
ICC Interstate Commerce Commission
ICE Inst. of Civil Engineers
ICI International Commission on Illumination
I.C.T. International Critical Tables
I.D., ID inside diameter
i.e. id est (that is)
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE Inst. of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (successor
to AIEE, q.v.)
IES Illuminating Engineering Soc.
i-f, if intermediate frequency
IGT Inst. of Gas Technology
ihp indicated horsepower
IMechE Inst. of Mechanical Engineers
imep indicated mean effective pressure
Imp Imperial
in., in inches
in  lb, inch-pounds
in  lb
INA Inst. of Naval Architects
Ind. & Eng. Industrial & Eng’g Chemistry (Easton, PA)
Chem.
int internal
i-p, ip intermediate pressure
ipm, in/min inches per minute
ipr inches per revolution
IPS iron pipe size
IRE Inst. of Radio Engineers (see IEEE)
IRS Internal Revenue Service
ISO International Organization for Standardization
isoth isothermal
ISTM International Soc. for Testing Materials
IUPAC International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry
h h
J joule
J&P joists and planks
Jour. Journal
JP jet propulsion fuel
k isentropic exponent; conductivity
K degrees Kelvin (Celsius abs)
K Knudsen number
kB kilo Btu ( Btu)
kc kilocycles
kcps kilocycles per second
kg kilograms
kg  cal kilogram-calories
kg  m kilogram-metres
kip lb or kilo-pound
kips thousands of pounds
km kilometres
kmc kilomegacycles per second
kmcps kilomegacycles per second
kpsi thousands of pounds per sq in
ksi one kip per sq in, psi (lb/in )
kts knots
kVA kilovolt-amperes
kW kilowatts
kWh kilowatt-hours
L lamberts
l, L litres
£ Laplace operational symbol
lb pounds
L.B.P. length between perpendiculars
lhv low heat value
lim limit
lin linear
ln Napierian logarithm of
loc. cit. loco citato (place already cited)
log common logarithm of
LOX liquid oxygen explosive
l-p, lp low pressure
LPG liquified petroleum gas
lpw, lm/W lumens per watt
lx lux
L.W.L. load water line
lm lumen
m metres
M thousand; Mach number; moisture, %
mA milliamperes
Machy. Machinery (New York)
max maximum
MBh thousands of Btu per hr
mc megacycles per second
m.c. moisture content
Mcf thousand cubic feet
mcps megacycles per second
Mech. Eng. Mechanical Eng’g (ASME)
mep mean effective pressure
METO maximum, except during take-off
me V million electron volts
MF maintenance factor
mhc mean horizontal candles
mi mile
MIL-STD U.S. Military Standard
min minutes; minimum
mip mean indicated pressure
MKS metre-kilogram-second system
MKSA metre-kilogram-second-ampere system
mL millilamberts
ml, mL millilitre  . cm
mlhc mean lower hemispherical candles
mm millimetresxxii SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
mm-free mineral matter free
mmf magnetomotive force
mol mole
mp melting point
MPC maximum permissible concentration
mph, mi/h miles per hour
MRT mean radiant temperature
ms manuscript; milliseconds
msc mean spherical candles
MSS Manufacturers Standardization Soc. of the Valve & Fittings
Industry
mu micron, micro
MW megawatts
MW day megawatt day
MWT mean water temperature
n polytropic exponent
N number (in mathematical tables)
N number of neutrons; newton
N
s specific speed
NA not available
NAA National Assoc. of Accountants
NACA National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (see NASA)
NACM National Assoc. of Chain Manufacturers
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
nat. natural
NBC National Broadcasting Company
NBFU National Board of Fire Underwriters
NBS National Bureau of Standards (see NIST)
NCN nitrocarbonitrate (explosive)
NDHA National District Hearing Assoc.
NEC® National Electric Code® (National Electrical Code® and NEC®
are registered trademarks of the National Fire Protection
Association, Inc., Quincy, MA.)
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Assoc.
NFPA National Fire Protection Assoc.
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NLGI National Lubricating Grease Institute
nm nautical miles
No. (Nos.) number(s)
NPSH net positive suction head
NRC Nuclear Regulator Commission (successor to AEC; see also
ERDA)
NTP normal temperature and pressure
O.D., OD outside diameter (pipes)
O.H. open-hearth (steel)
O.N. octane number
op. cit. opere citato (work already cited)
OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Administration
OSW Office of Saline Water
OTS Office of Technical Services, U.S. Dept. of Commerce
oz ounces
p. (pp.) page (pages)
Pa pascal
P.C. propulsive coefficient
PE polyethylene
PEG polyethylene glycol
P.E.L. proportional elastic limit
PETN an explosive
pf power factor
PFI Pipe Fabrication Inst.
PIV peak inverse voltage
p.m. post meridiem (after noon)
PM preventive maintenance
P.N. performance number
ppb parts per billion
PPI plan position indicator
ppm parts per million
press pressure
Proc. Proceedings
PSD power spectral density, g /cps
psi, lb/in lb per sq in
psia lb per sq in. abs
psig lb per sq in. gage
pt point; pint
PVC polyvinyl chloride
Q Btu
qt quarts
q.v. quod vide (which see)
r roentgens
R gas constant
R deg Rankine (Fahrenheit abs); Reynolds number
rad radius; radiation absorbed dose; radian
RBE see rem
R-C resistor-capacitor
RCA Radio Corporation of America
R&D research and development
RDX cyclonite, a military explosive
rem Roentgen equivalent man (formerly RBE)
rev revolutions
r-f, rf radio frequency
RMA Rubber Manufacturers Assoc.
rms square root of mean square
rpm, r/min revolutions per minute
rps, r/s revolutions per second
RSHF room sensible heat factor
ry. railway
s entropy
s seconds
S sulfur, %; siemens
SAE Soc. of Automotive Engineers
sat saturated
SBI steel Boiler Inst.
scfm standard cu ft per min
SCR silicon controlled rectifier
sec secant of
sec– angle whose secant is (see cos– )
Sec. Section
sech hyperbolic secant of
sech– inverse hyperbolic secant of
segm segment
SE No. steam emulsion number
SEI Structural Engineering Institute
sfc specific fuel consumption, lb per hphr
sfm, sfpm surface feet per minute
shp shaft horsepower
SI International System of Units (Le Systéme International
d’Unites)
sin sine of
sin– angle whose sine is (see cos– )
sinh hyperbolic sine of
sinh– inverse hyperbolic sine of
SME Society of Manufacturing Engineers (successor
to ASTME)
SNAME Soc. of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
SP static pressure
sp specific
specif specification
sp gr specific gravity
sp ht specific heat
spp species unspecified (botanical)
SPS standard pipe size
sq square
sr steradian
SSF sec Saybolt Furol
SSU seconds Saybolt Universal (same as SUS)
std standardSYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS xxiii
SUS Saybolt Universal seconds (same as SSU)
SWG Standard (British) wire gage
T tesla
TAC Technical Advisory Committee on Weather Design
Conditions (ASHRAE)
tan tangent of
tan angle whose tangent is (see cos )
tanh hyperbolic tangent of
tanh inverse hyperbolic tangent of
TDH total dynamic head
TEL tetraethyl lead
temp temperature
THI temperature-humidity (discomfort) index
thp thrust horsepower
TNT trinitrotoluol (explosive)
torr  mm Hg  . millibars ( / ) atm
 ( . / ) dynes per cm
TP total pressure
tph tons per hour
tpi turns per in
TR transmitter-receiver
Trans. Transactions
T.S. tensile strength; tensile stress
tsi tons per sq in
ttd terminal temperature difference
UHF ultra high frequency
UKAEA United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
UL Underwriters’ Laboratory
ult ultimate
UMS universal maintenance standards
USAF U.S. Air Force
USCG U.S. Coast Guard
USCS U.S. Commercial Standard; U.S. Customary System
USDA U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
USFPL U.S. Forest Products Laboratory
USGS U.S. Geologic Survey
USHEW U.S. Dept. of Health, Education & Welfare
USN U.S. Navy
USP U.S. pharmacopoeia
USPHS U.S. Public Health Service
USS United States Standard
USSG U.S. Standard Gage
UTC Coordinated Universal Time
V volt
VCF visual comfort factor
VCI visual comfort index
VDI Verein Deutscher Ingenieure
vel velocity
vers versed sine of
vert vertical
VHF very high frequency
VI viscosity index
viz. videlicet (namely)
V.M. volatile matter, %
vol volume
VP velocity pressure
vs. versus
W watt
Wb weber
W&M Washburn & Moen wire gage
w.g. water gage
WHO World Health Organization
W.I. wrought iron
W.P.A. Western Pine Assoc.
wt weight
yd yards
Y.P. yield point
yr year(s)
Y.S. yield strength; yield stress
z atomic number, figure of merit
Zeit. Zeitschrift
 mass defect
mc microcurie
, s Boltzmann constant
m micro ( ), as in ms
mm micrometre (micron)  m ( mm)
ohm
s
MATHEMATICAL SIGNS AND SYMBOLS
 plus (sign of addition)
 positive
minus (sign of subtraction)
Negative
( ) plus or minus (minus or plus)
 times, by (multiplication sign)
 multiplied by
sign of division
/ divided by
: ratio sign, divided by, is to
 equals, as (proportion)
less than
 greater than
V much less than
W much greater than
 equals
; identical with
, similar to
L approximately equals
> approximately equals, congruent
 equal to or less than
 equal to or greater than
 not equal to
S approaches
 varies as
` infinity
square root of
cube root of
therefore
y parallel to
() [] {} parentheses, brackets and braces; quantities enclosed by them
to be taken together in multiplying, dividing, etc.
length of line from A to B
p pi ( . )
 degrees
r minutes
rr seconds
l angle
dx differential of x
 (delta) difference
x increment of x
partial derivative of u with respect to x
e integral of
‘u/’x
AB
xxiv SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
integral of, between limits a and b
r line integral around a closed path
o (sigma) summation of
f (x), F(x) functions of x
exp x  ex [e  . (base of natural, or Napierian, logarithms)]
= del or nabla, vector differential operator
= Laplacian operator
£ Laplace operational symbol
ba ! factorial |x| absolute value of  x  
first derivative of x with respect to time
second derivative of x with respect to time
A  B vector product; magnitude of A times magnitude of B times
sine of the angle from A to B; AB sin
A  B scalar product; magnitude of A times magnitude of B times
cosine of the angle from A to B; AB cos AB
Contents
For the detailed contents of any section consult the title page of that section.
Contributors ix
The Editors xiii
Preface to the Eleventh Edition xv
Preface to the First Edition xvii
Symbols and Abbreviations xix
. Mathematical Tables and Measuring Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Mathematical Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Measuring Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Mechanics of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Mechanics of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Thermodynamic Properties of Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Radiant Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Transmission of Heat by Conduction and Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Strength of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Mechanical Properties of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Mechanics of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Pipeline Flexure Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Nondestructive Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Experimental Stress and Strain Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Mechanics of Composite Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Materials of Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. General Properties of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Iron and Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Iron and Steel Castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Nonferrous Metals and Alloys; Metallic Specialties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Paints and Protective Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Nonmetallic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Cement, Mortar, and Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – . Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Lubricants and Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Fiber Composite Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Fuels and Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Carbonization of Coal and Gas Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Combustion Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Municipal Waste Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Electric Furnaces and Ovens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Machine Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Machine Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Gearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Fluid-Film Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Bearings with Rolling Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Packings, Gaskets, and Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Pipe, Pipe Fittings, and Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Power Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Sources of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Steam Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Steam Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Power-Plant Heat Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Internal-Combustion Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Nuclear Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Hydraulic Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Materials Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Materials Holding, Feeding, and Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Lifting, Hoisting, and Elevating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Dragging, Pulling, and Pushing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Loading, Carrying, and Excavating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Conveyor Moving and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Automatic Guided Vehicles and Robots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Material Storage and Warehousing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Automotive Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Railway Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Marine Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Aeronautics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Jet Propulsion and Aircraft Propellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Astronautics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Pipeline Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Containerization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Building Construction and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Industrial Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Structural Design of Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Reinforced Concrete Design and Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Ventilating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Sound, Noise, and Ultrasonics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Manufacturing Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Foundry Practice and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
vi CONTENTSCONTENTS vii
. Plastic Working of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Welding and Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Machining Processes and Machine Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Surface Texture Designation, Production, and Quality Control . . . . . . . . –
. Woodcutting Tools and Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Precision Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Fans, Pumps, and Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Displacement Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Centrifugal Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. High-Vacuum Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Electrical and Electronics Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Electrical Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Instruments and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Automatic Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Surveying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Industrial Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Operations Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Cost Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Engineering Statistics and Quality Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Methods Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Cost of Electric Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Human Factors and Ergonomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Automatic Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. The Regulatory Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Environmental Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Occupational Safety and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Fire Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Refrigeration, Cryogenics, and Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Mechanical Refrigeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Cryogenics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Emerging Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. An Introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) . . . . . . . . . –
. Introduction to Nanotechnology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Ferroelectrics/Piezoelectrics and Shape Memory Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Introduction to the Finite-Element Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Computer-Aided Design, Computer-Aided
Engineering, and Variational Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Experimental Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Introduction to Biomechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Human Injury Tolerance and Anthropometric Test Devices . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Air-Inflated Fabric Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Robotics, Mechatronics, and Intelligent Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Rapid Prototyping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –
. Miscellany
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INDEX
Index Terms Links
A
AAR plate B equipment clearance diagram –
AAR plate C (equipment clearance diagram) –
Abaca (manila fiber) –
Abampere (def) –
Ablators (heat-resisting materials) –
Abrasive cutoff wheels –
Abrasive paper –
Abrasive tools (wood sanding) –
Abrasive wheels (see Grinding wheels)
Abrasives –
artificial –
coated –
grains for, manufacture of –
for grinding and polishing –
ABS resins: properties of (table) –
ABS/Nylon resins: properties of (table) –
Absolute-pressure gages –
Absolute systems (mechanics, def) –
Absolute temperature scale –
Absolute zero, inferred –
Absorber, in refrigeration systems –
Absorptance (heat, def) –
Absorption:
of gases by water –
of light (def) – Index Terms Links
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Absorption dynamometers –
Absorption machines, refrigeration –
Absorption refrigerators –
Absorptivity (heat, def) –
Acceleration (def) –
angular (def) –
causing curvilinear motion –
composition of – – –
conversion (table) –
equivalents (table) –
of gravity – –
measurement of –
resolution of –
units of –
Acceleration resistance (train) –
Acceleration-time curve (kinematics) –
Accelerometers –
microelectromechanical systems as –
Accidents: prevention of –
Accounting (see Cost accounting)
Accumulators, hydraulic –
Acetal resins: properties of (table) –
Acetone (solvent) –
Acid number of lubricating oil –
Ackerman steering gear (automobiles) –
Acme screw threads –
Acoustic waves –
Acoustics, in industrial plants –
(See also Sound)
Acre (unit of area, def) –
Acrylic fibers – Index Terms Links
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Acrylic resins: properties of (table) –
Acrylonitrile resins: properties of (table) –
Active power (a-c circuits, def) –
Actuators (jacks) –
hydraulic –
ACV (air cushion vehicles) –
Ada (computer language) –
Addendum (gear teeth) –
Addition, arithmetical –
Adhesion, coefficient of (locomotives) –
Adhesive resins, performance of (table) –
Adhesives –
anaerobic –
classification of (table) –
elastomeric –
pressure-sensitive –
properties of (table) –
thermoplastic –
thermosetting –
uses of –
table –
Adiabatic expansion of gases –
Admiralty brass (table) –
Admittance (electric circuits, def) – –
Advance (resistor alloy) –
table –
Aerodynamics (def) –
axes used in –
coefficients in –
hypersonic (def) –
(See also Supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics)Index Terms Links
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Aerodynamics (def) (Cont.)
speed in –
subsonic (def) –
(See also Airfoils)
supersonic (def) –
(See also Supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics)
transonic (def) –
Aeronautics –
(See also Airplanes)
Aerosols, particle sizes in –
Afterburners (jet engines) –
effect of –
Aftercondensers –
Agglomeration test (coal) –
Aggregates for concrete –
Aging of steel (hysteresis) –
after temper rolling –
AGMA gear standards –
Air:
ambient, quality standards for (table) –
composition of (table) –
dehumidification of –
by surface cooler –
density of (def) –
at altitudes (table) –
formula –
in ducts, friction in (charts) – –
enthalpy-pressure diagram for (chart) –
heat transfer coefficients to or from –
humidification of, spray chambers for –
ideal-gas, enthalpy and psi functions for (table) – Index Terms Links
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Air: (Cont.)
internal energy of (table) –
liquefaction of –
moist, properties of – –
pressure of, at altitudes (table) –
solubility, in water –
surface conductance (table) –
surface resistance (table) –
temperature at altitudes (table) –
temperature-entropy chart for –
thermal conductivity of (table) – –
velocity pressure –
and water-vapor mixtures –
Air arc gouging –
Air beams –
Air cleaners, characteristics of (table) –
Air compression –
multistage: power required in –
theory of –
power required for –
theory of –
work of –
Air compressors:
centrifugal (see Centrifugal compressors)
efficiency of – – –
lubrication of –
oils for –
rotary-vane –
unloaders for –
uses for –
valves for – Index Terms Links
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Air conditioning –
absorption systems, water and lithium bromide –
air distribution in –
air infiltration (tables) – –
air-treatment criteria for –
atmospheric cooling for –
of automobiles –
chilled-water cooling for –
chilled-water systems, water distribution in –
of cold storage rooms –
comfort indexes for: ASHRAE comfort chart –
effective temperature (chart) –
temperature-humidity index –
cooling configurations for –
cooling load formulas for –
cooling loads for (table) –
cooling towers for –
direct expansion cooling for –
duct air velocities (table) –
ducts, friction of air in (charts) – –
ductwork for –
fans for – –
filters for –
table –
heat gain –
factors for (table) –
from appliances (table) – –
from computer equipment (table) –
from electric motors (table) –
from lighting fixtures (charts) – Index Terms Links
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Air conditioning (Cont.)
from occupants (table) –
from office equipment (table) –
from people (table) –
from restaurant appliances (table) –
through roofs (tables) – –
through sunlit walls (table) –
heat rejection –
equipment for –
diagrams –
piping for –
friction losses in (charts) – –
of industrial plants –
inside design conditions (table) –
makeup water for –
moisture infiltration –
moisture load in –
nontoxic water treatment for –
open spray systems for –
outdoor air requirements (table) –
outside design temperatures (charts) – –
overall heat-transfer coefficients (table) –
power input to (table) –
processes –
psychrometric chart for –
return face air velocities (table) –
sprayed coil dehumidifiers for –
supply-air rate –
supply-air temperature –
winter water-side economizers for – Index Terms Links
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Air ejectors –
capacities of (table) –
hogging –
materials for –
performance of –
priming –
steam jet pressure for –
types of –
Air heaters, in furnaces, soot blowers for –
Air-inflated fabric structures –
air beams –
analytical and numerical models –
drop stitch fabrics for –
fabric effects on structural behavior –
fiber materials for –
inflation of –
operation of –
plain-woven fabrics for –
pressure relief valves for –
protective coatings for –
rigidification of –
seamless fabrics for –
Air meters –
Air motor hoists –
Air pollution –
characteristics of (chart) –
classification of –
Clean Air Acts for –
control of, in industries –
from diesel engines –
dispersion from stacks – – Index Terms Links
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Air pollution (Cont.)
effects on vegetation –
emission standards for passenger cars
and light trucks (table) –
fans for control of –
federal standards for –
from gasoline engines –
from heavy-duty engines –
from internal-combustion engines –
particle sizing in –
from passenger vehicles –
from power plants –
principal pollutants (table) –
sources of –
domestic –
table –
industrial (table) –
sulfur effects – –
from transportation engines (table) –
(See also Environmental control)
Air preheaters (boilers) –
Air resistance: of automobiles –
Aircraft (def) –
Aircraft jet propulsion –
efficiency and power of –
equations, notation –
fuels –
ramjet – –
performance of –
rocket engines –
electric – – Index Terms Links
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Aircraft jet propulsion (Cont.)
electromagnetic –
electrostatic –
electrothermal –
liquid propellants –
nuclear heat-transfer –
performance of –
propellant combinations (table) –
scramjet –
solid propellant – –
thermal air-jet systems –
thrust equations –
turbofan –
performance of –
turbojet –
performance of –
Aircraft propellers:
aerodynamic theories: axial-momentum –
blade element –
vortex –
blades –
construction of –
centrifugal loads on –
coefficients for –
power –
thrust –
torque –
control –
beta –
counterweights –
design – Index Terms Links
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Aircraft propellers: (Cont.)
ENT (emergency negative thrust) –
excitation factor –
fatigue strength –
feathering –
gyroscopic forces on – –
hubs for –
mechanical design –
natural frequencies in –
performance of –
compressibility effects –
reverse thrust –
static thrust –
performance characteristics of –
advance ratio –
velocity coefficient –
pitch change mechanism for –
resonance –
reversing –
slipstream contraction –
store damage –
vibratory stresses in –
Airflow, through orifices –
Airfoils –
aerodynamic forces on –
angle of attack (def) –
aspect ratio (def) –
boundary layer control –
camber line of –
characteristics of –
drag (def) – Index Terms Links
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Airfoils (Cont.)
dynamic pressure (def) –
flaps and slots in –
induced drag (def) –
lift (def) –
moment (def) –
pressure distribution on –
profile drag –
sections, properties of (charts) –
stagnation point (def) –
stalling angle –
transonic –
wing section, selection of –
Airplane propellers (see Aircraft propellers)
Airplanes (def) –
aeroacoustics –
aerodynamic efficiency –
aerodynamic forces on –
supersonic and hypersonic –
banking –
best range speed –
ceiling –
compasses for (gyroscopic) –
control of –
dimensions of (table) –
drag of – –
(See also Airfoils; Drag)
dynamic stability of –
emissions from –
endurance speed – Index Terms Links
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Airplanes (def) (Cont.)
engines for –
aeroacoustics –
carburetors –
cooling –
high-cycle fatigue in –
rich-front combustors for –
table –
environmental issues –
flaps for, table –
flaps and slots for –
gas turbines for –
gyrocompasses for –
jet propulsion (see Aircraft jet propulsion)
maximum endurance –
maximum range –
minimum glide angle –
noise, Chapter noise regulations –
Chapter rule –
parasite drag of (def) –
performance of –
typical (table) –
power: available –
range of (table) –
rolling –
speed of (table) –
stability –
stalling angle –
static lateral stability –
static stability –
struts, drag of – Index Terms Links
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Airplanes (def) (Cont.)
time to climb to altitude –
turbomachine noise from –
turn-indicator –
wing sweepback –
wings, aspect ratio –
drag of –
flaps and slots –
laminar flow over –
scale effect –
chart –
sections –
(See also Airfoils)
Airslide conveyors –
AJM (abrasive-jet machining) –
Albumin glue (table) –
Alclad alloys (aluminum) –
Alcohol –
air for combustion of (table) –
compressibility –
denatured – –
heat of combustion of (table) –
products of combustion of (table) –
solvents –
specific gravity and density (table) –
wood – –
Algebra, linear –
Algol (computer language) –
Alkali cleansers –
Alkalinity of boiler water – Index Terms Links
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All-day efficiency (transformers, def) –
Allowance (def) –
for various types of fit –
table –
Alloys:
aluminum –
antifriction –
for castings –
copper –
for bearings (table) –
manufacturing properties of (table) –
creep rates in (table) –
fusible (table) –
for high temperature –
superalloys (tables) –
lead –
magnesium –
nickel –
nonferrous –
hardening –
heat-treatment of –
manufacturing properties of (table) –
resistivity (table) –
for resistor materials –
shape memory (see Shape memory alloys)
specific gravity and density (table) –
steel, manufacturing properties of (table) –
(See also Steel, alloys)
superplastic –
titanium –
zinc – Index Terms Links
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Alnico (magnet material) –
Alpha iron (def) –
Alpha particles, atomic –
Alphabets:
German fraktur –
Greek –
Alternating-current instruments –
Alternating currents (see Circuits, alternatingcurrent; Currents, alternating;
Electric motors; Generators)
Alternation, electric current (def) –
Alternators –
Altitude:
air volume correction factors due to (table) –
solar (table) –
variation of atmospheric pressure and temperature
with (table) –
ALU (arithmetic logic unit) –
Alumina brick –
Aluminum:
conductors of – –
current-carrying capacities for (table) –
table – –
corrosion resistance of –
painting and lacquering of –
plastic range chart for –
soldering of –
tubing of –
welding of – – Index Terms Links
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Aluminum alloys –
aging –
annealing of –
anodizing treatment of –
castings, composition and properties of (tables) –
designations –
die-casting –
table –
extrusions –
foil –
forging of –
heat-treatment of –
tables –
machining of –
magnesium –
mold-casting of –
plates –
protection of –
riveting –
sheet –
silicon –
soldering of –
strain hardening of –
strength at high temperatures (table) –
welding of – –
wrought –
composition and properties of (table) –
Aluminum brass: composition
and properties of (table) – Index Terms Links
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Aluminum bronze –
for bearings –
composition and properties of (table) –
Aluminum oxide, for wood sanding –
Aluminum paint –
Aluminum pipe (table) –
Alundum (abrasive) –
Amatol (explosive) –
American farm windmill –
American National Standard pipe threads –
American Standard wire gage –
Table –
American Unified screw threads –
American wire gage, copper wire sizes (table) –
Ammeters – – –
Ammonia:
pipes for, valves and fittings –
properties of (chart) –
saturated (table) –
as refrigerant – –
saturated: properties of (table) –
superheated: properties of (table) –
Ammonia absorption machines –
Ammonia compressors:
condenser pressure (table) –
horsepower per ton of refrigeration (table) –
volume of gas per ton of refrigeration (table) –
Ammonia dynamites –
Ammonia gelatins in explosives –
Ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (explosive) – Index Terms Links
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Amortisseur windings (a-c armatures) –
Ampere (def) – – –
Ampere-turn (def) –
Amplidyne (d-c generator) –
Amplification (def) –
Amplifiers:
difference –
differential (electronic circuit) –
high-gain operational –
instrumentation –
radio –
transistor –
two-stage –
AMS specifications, for stainless steel,
chemical composition (table) –
Analog computers –
Analysis:
dimensional –
of factory operations –
factors in –
Analytical geometry –
Anchor ring, volume and area –
Andt process (coke making) –
ANFO (explosive) –
Angle of attack (aerodynamics, def) –
induced –
Angle of stall (airfoils, def) –
Angle valves – Index Terms Links
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Angles:
analytical geometry formulas –
bisection of –
complementary (def) –
congruent (def) –
conversion tables for –
dihedral –
half, functions of –
measurement of (surveying) –
units for –
multiple, functions of –
negative, functions of –
solid –
steel, used as beams –
sum and difference of –
supplementary (def) –
trigonometric formulas –
Angular acceleration (def) –
Angular displacement (def) –
Angular momentum (def) –
Angular velocity –
conversion factors (table) –
Annealing:
of nonferrous metals –
of steel – –
Annual reports –
Annuity tables – –
Annulus:
area of –
number of contiguous circles in – Index Terms Links
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Anodizing –
Anomalistic year –
ANSI method of generator voltage regulation – –
Anthracite (see Coal, anthracite)
Anthropometric data (table) –
Anthropometric test dummies –
Antifreeze –
Antifriction alloys –
Antifriction curve, Schiele’s –
Antioch process (molding) –
Antirolling gyroscopes (ships) –
Aperiodic decay (def) –
Aperture, numerical –
API (American Petroleum Institute) scale
(specific gravity) conversion tables –
Apothecaries’liquid measure –
Apothecaries’weight –
Apparent power (a-c circuits, def) – –
Apron conveyors –
Table –
Aquifers, for water storage –
Arc furnaces – –
Arc welding (see Welding, arc)
ARCH (hydrogasification) –
Arch beams –
Arches:
furnace –
masonry, laying of –
Archimedean spiral – Index Terms Links
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Arcs:
circular, center of gravity of –
of contact (belts) –
Arcsine –
Arctangent –
Are (def) – –
Area, units of –
Area meters, fluid flow –
Areas:
centers of gravity for – –
conversion tables –
equivalent (table) –
measurement of – –
methods of calculating – – –
moments of inertia of –
plane: centers of gravity of – –
by graphics – –
moments of inertia of, by graphics – –
of similar figures –
of solids –
AREMA railway line clearance –
Arithmetic –
fixed point –
floating point –
laws of –
Arkansas oilstones –
Armature leakage reactance –
Armature reactance and resistance, a-c generators –
Armature reaction – –
Arms, flywheel – Index Terms Links
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Artificial intelligence –
Asbestos –
as brake material, friction of –
specific gravity and density of (table) –
thermal conductivity of (table) –
Asbestos-cement pipes –
ASCII codes, table –
Ash:
bituminous –
coal –
tables – –
combustibles in –
deposits –
eastern –
furnace fouling by –
fusibility –
table –
lignitic –
reflectivity of –
Ash conveyors, pneumatic –
Ashlar masonry (table) –
ASHRAE comfort chart –
ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) –
ASME specifications, for stainless steel (table) –
Aspect ratio (aerodynamics, def) –
Asphalt –
roofing –
Asphaltum, specific gravity and density (table) –
Assay ton (unit of weight, def) – Index Terms Links
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ASTM specifications:
for alloy-steel castings (table) –
for brick (table) –
for cement – –
for chains (table) – –
high-test –
proof-coil –
transport –
for commercial zinc (table) –
for copper wire (table) –
for fire resistance –
for gypsum plaster –
for Portland cement (table) –
for stainless steel, chemical composition (table) –
mechanical properties (table) –
for standard sieves
(proportioning concrete, table) –
for steel –
table –
structural – –
for locomotives (table) –
for ships (table) –
for steel castings –
Astroid –
Astronautics –
(See also Space)
Asymptote:
of hyperbola –
of tractrix – Index Terms Links
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Atmosphere:
control of, in industrial furnaces –
impurities in (chart) –
international standard (table) –
of planets (table) –
protective gas (heat treating, table) –
standard (COESA, def) –
table –
upper, data on (COESA) –
variation with altitude (table) –
Atmospheric corrosion –
Atom (def) – –
Atomic energy:
fusion systems –
(See also Power plants, nuclear)
Atomic number (def) –
of elements (table) –
of metals (table) – –
Atomic power (see Power plants, nuclear)
Atomic reactors (see Reactors)
Atomic weights:
of elements (table) –
of metals (table) – –
Attemperation of steam –
Attenuation (automatic control, def) –
of sound –
Attraction, laws of –
Audible frequency range (sound) –
Auscoke (BHP) – Index Terms Links
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Austenite (def) – – – –
grain size – –
influence of alloys on (table) –
Authority:
Autofacturing –
material feeding –
measurement –
micron –
nano –
packaging –
sensing –
sorting –
transferring –
Autogiros (def) –
Autoignition temperatures (gaseous fuels) –
Automated storage and retrieval
systems (materials handling) –
Automatic control:
actuators for –
basic system –
block-diagrams for – –
algebra –
representation –
closed-loop –
block-diagrams for –
commands –
compensation: derivative –
error –
input –
output – Index Terms Links
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Automatic control: (Cont.)
integral –
error –
definition of terms –
error coefficients –
final control elements for –
frequency response –
equations for common elements (table) –
graphical display –
Bode diagrams –
Nyquist plots –
polar plots –
linear quadratic regulators –
performance index for –
LQG/LTR systems –
command following in –
compensator design procedure for –
control systems analysis for –
controllability of –
detectability of –
example of –
LQG controller design for –
LQG/LTR controller design for –
multiplicative uncertainty of –
noise rejection in –
observability of –
performance robustness of –
PI controller design for –
precompensator design for –
robustness of – Index Terms Links
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Automatic control: (Cont.)
stability robustness of –
stabilizability of –
modes vs. process characteristics (table) –
nomenclature –
peak overshoot –
peak time –
pneumatic systems – –
process characteristics for (table) –
rise time –
robustness (def) –
properties –
sampled-data systems –
stability of –
signal flow representations –
stability and performance of –
gain margin (def) –
Nyquist stability criterion –
phase margin (def) –
Routh’s stability criterion –
steady-state performance –
time constants in –
transient analysis of system –
overshoot –
transient frequency –
viscous-damped –
z transformation –
Automatic control systems (def) –
Automatic controllers (def) –
Automatic guided vehicles –
Automatic pilot (gyroscope) – Index Terms Links
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Automatic vehicles (materials handling) – –
Automation (def) –
intelligent –
Automobile engines – –
in buses –
compression –
compression ratio (tables) –
cooling – – –
cylinders – –
firing orders –
foreign –
table –
ignition – –
lubrication of –
passenger-car data –
pollution from –
power density (chart) –
valve timing –
Automobile safety, human injury tolerance related to –
tables –
Automobiles –
acceleration –
air conditioning for –
antilock brakes for –
body construction –
brake fade in –
brake linings for –
brakes –
caliper-disk –
drums –
hydraulic – Index Terms Links
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Automobiles (Cont.)
internal-expanding –
parking –
pedal pressure for –
power –
self-energizing –
service –
shoes –
split systems –
braking of, reaction time in –
characteristics purchased –
coil springs for –
combined fuel economy –
constant-velocity joints for –
cooling –
corporate average fuel economy –
differentials for, limited slip –
drag coefficients for (chart) –
drivelines for –
engines (see Automobile engines)
/ fuel economy –
foreign –
four-wheel drive for –
front suspensions for –
front-wheel drive for –
fuel consumption of –
gear ratios for –
heating for –
highway driving schedule –
kingpins for – Index Terms Links
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Automobiles (Cont.)
materials recycled from –
materials used in (table) –
McPherson struts in –
microprocessors in –
miles driven –
performance –
rear axles –
differentials for –
semifloating –
rear suspensions –
registration in the United States –
resistance, air –
rolling resistance versus tire inflation pressure (chart) –
Rzeppa joints for –
shock absorbers for –
sprung weight of –
starting and lighting systems –
steering –
Ackermann –
power –
oil pumps for –
steering arms for –
stopping distances for –
tires for –
(See also Tires)
torsion bars for –
traction control for –
traction required in – Index Terms Links
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Automobiles (Cont.)
transmissions –
automatic –
continuously variable –
fluid couplings –
friction clutches –
manual –
gear ratios –
synchromesh –
torque converter –
tripod joints for –
trucks (see Trucks)
unsprung weight of –
urban driving schedule –
uses of –
ventilation –
wheel alignment –
camber (def) –
caster (def) –
toe-in (def) –
wheels for –
Autotransformers –
for squirrel-cage motors –
Availability (thermodynamics) –
Available heat (def) –
in steam engine cycle –
Aviation fuels –
Avogadro’s number (def) –
Avoirdupois weight –
AWG (American Wire Gauge) – Index Terms Links
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AWS specifications, for stainless steel,
chemical composition (table) –
Axial fans –
characteristic curves –
efficiency of (chart) –
formulas –
performance curves for – –
Axial-flow pumps – –
Axis:
of inertia, principal (def) –
of oscillation –
Axles, of automobiles –
Azimuth (def) –
back (def) –
solar (table) –
B
Babbitt linings in large bearings –
Babbitt metal (table) –
Babcock coefficient of friction (steam flow) –
Backhoes, loaders with –
Bagasse, as fuel –
Bainite (def) –
Balance:
dynamic – –
standing –
static –
Balance sheets (business accounting) – Index Terms Links
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Balances:
equal arm –
spring –
torsion –
Balancing –
of machines, rotating – –
steam turbines –
Ball bearings (see Bearings, rolling contact)
Ball-mill grindability test for coal –
Ball screw actuators (jacks) –
Ball screws –
Ball valves (pump) –
Ballasts:
for fluorescent lamps –
instant start –
rapid start –
Balsa, as insulation – –
Banana oil –
Band brakes –
friction of –
Band clutches –
Band saws, metal –
Bar codes –
Code –
Code One –
Code –
Code PDF –
Code K –
Code –
Code –
Data Matrix – Index Terms Links
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Bar codes (Cont.)
interleaved -of- –
scanners for –
-of- –
U.P.C. –
Barium titanate (ferroelectrics) –
Barn (unit of nuclear cross-section, def) –
Barometers –
mercury –
Barometric condensers –
Barrel, standard (def) –
BATEA (best available technology
economically achievable) –
Batteries –
dry –
block assembly –
effect of temperature –
efficiency of –
flashlight –
radio B –
Ruben-cell –
electrodes –
electromotive force of –
Exide Ironclad –
ignition system –
lead –
polarization –
poles –
radio C – Index Terms Links
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Batteries (Cont.)
storage –
capacity of (table) –
care of – –
charging –
Edison – –
efficiency of –
for mine locomotives –
Nicad – –
pasted-plate type –
Planté –
portable –
rechargeable –
removal from service –
specific gravity for electrolyte –
stationary –
voltage of –
Baumé scale (specific gravity), conversion tables –
Bauschinger effect –
Beam and crank mechanisms –
Beam lengths:
mean (radiation) – –
table –
Beams –
angles used as –
bending moment –
cantilever (def) –
connections in steel-framed structures –
constrained – Index Terms Links
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Beams (Cont.)
continuous –
uniformly loaded (table) –
curved, strength of –
deflection of – –
Castigliano’s theorem – –
curve for – –
diagram –
formulas –
as function of stress –
graphical method –
Maxwell’s theorem –
design of –
factors governing –
elastic curve –
I (see I beams)
internal moment beyond elastic limit –
internal resilience, formula –
loads and reactions –
diagram –
oblique –
rolling or moving –
moment and shear diagrams for – –
moments of inertia of various sections (tables) –
neutral axis in (def) –
neutral plane and line of (def) –
radii of gyration of various sections (tables) –
rectangular, uniformly loaded, safe loads (table) –
reinforced-concrete – Index Terms Links
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Beams (Cont.)
resilience –
per unit volume (table) –
section modulus (def) –
tables –
sections, properties of (tables) –
shear in –
shear diagram –
simple (def) –
slope diagram –
steel, deflections (tables) –
maximum safe load on –
table –
proportions of –
safe loads – –
table –
short, calculation of –
supports for –
web connections for –
stiffness of – –
strength of (formula) –
theory of flexure in –
uniform cross-section: bending moments (table) –
vertical shear (table) –
uniform strength –
table – –
vibration –
wooden – –
properties of (table) –
safe loads (table) – Index Terms Links
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Bearing, determination of (in surveying) –
Bearing metals –
aluminum alloys –
babbitt (table) –
copper-base (table) –
metal-powder-sintered, oil-impregnated (tables) –
miscellaneous –
porous –
(See also Babbitt; Brass; Bronze)
Bearing pressures of soils and rock (table) –
Bearings – –
ball –
(See also Bearings, rolling contact)
for centrifugal pumps –
closures for –
conical, friction –
efficiencies of –
friction in – –
gas-lubricated –
compressibility parameter –
thrust – –
whirl stability of –
guide –
journal –
allowable mean pressures –
table –
babbitt linings –
thickness –
bushings –
clearance –
elements of – Index Terms Links
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Bearings (Cont.)
film thickness in –
friction –
variation with clearance –
graphite-lubricated –
heat dissipation from –
length-diameter ratios –
load distribution –
lubrication –
mean pressures (table) –
oil grooves –
for various load directions –
oilless –
porous-metal –
propeller shaft –
seals –
types of –
Kingsbury thrust –
friction –
lubrication –
complete –
failure –
film thickness –
hydrostatic oil lift –
minimum oil feed –
mixed –
pressure feed –
semifluid –
starting and stopping –
wicks – Index Terms Links
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Bearings (Cont.)
materials for, copper base (table) –
(See also Bearing metals)
Michell –
mine car –
mounting –
needle –
oilers for –
for oscillatory motion –
plain –
porous – –
roller –
railway, resistance of –
(See also Bearings, rolling contact)
rolling contact –
AFBMA standards –
angular-contact –
attachments to shafts –
ball and roller –
capacity –
closures –
components –
cages –
rings –
rolling elements –
design life in various applications (table) –
double-row –
equivalent loads for –
fits (table) –
friction –
grease for – Index Terms Links
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Bearings (Cont.)
life adjustment factors –
load ratings –
table –
locking collars for –
lubrication of –
tables –
maximum capacity –
mountings –
in pillow blocks –
radial –
rated life (def) –
sealed –
selection procedure for – –
speed limits for –
split –
tapered-roller –
thrust bearings – –
types of –
sealed (rolling contact) –
shielded (rolling contact) –
silver lined –
sintered, iron-base (table) –
sliding –
step, friction –
thrust – – – –
ball –
capacities of (table) –
film thickness –
friction – Index Terms Links
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Bearings (Cont.)
friction coefficient –
gas-lubricated – –
grooves –
hydrostatic step –
Kingsbury –
roller –
rolling contact – –
segmental, pivoted –
Bêché pneumatic forge hammer –
Bed moisture (coal) –
Belleville springs –
Belleville washers –
Bellows gages –
Bellows gas meter –
Belts –
arc of contact –
conveyor –
drives –
arrangements –
efficiency –
friction –
idler pulleys –
power –
flat, selection of –
high-strength –
joints –
leather –
strength of – Index Terms Links
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Belts (Cont.)
lengths: open and crossed –
formulas –
graphical methods of determining –
power transmission by – –
rubber –
minimum pulley diameters for (table) –
power ratings (tables) – –
slack removal – –
tension in –
tighteners for – – –
V (see V-belts)
Bench mark (surveying, def) –
Bending:
elastic limit in –
of metals –
allowance for –
loads for –
machines for – –
theory of (beams) – –
and torsion of shafts –
Bending moment of beams –
Bendix automobile brakes –
Bendix-Weiss universal joint –
Bends:
pipe –
for rope –
Benzene, as solvent –
(See also Hydrocarbons)Index Terms Links
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Benzol (solvent) –
Bergbau-Forschung process (coke making) –
Berne convention (copyrights) –
Bernoulli distribution –
Bernoulli function –
Bernoulli’s differential equation –
Bernoulli’s equation (hydraulics) – –
Beryllium –
Bessel’s equation –
Bessel’s function –
Beta decay –
Beta function –
Beta rays –
Bevel gears (see Gears, bevel)
Beveloid gears –
Bidding procedures –
Bifilar pendulums –
Binary numbers –
Binders, core –
Binding energy (nuclear) –
Binomial coefficients –
tables –
Binomial distribution – – –
Binomial theorem –
Bioactive (biomaterials, def) –
Biocompatibility (biomaterials, def) –
Biogas, as fuel –
Bioinert (biomaterials, def) –
Biomass, energy from –
Biomass fuels – Index Terms Links
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Biomaterials (def) –
bioactive –
biocompatibility of –
bioinert –
bioresorbable –
implants –
prosthetic heart valves –
stents –
toxicity of –
Biomechanics (def) –
anthropometric data (table) –
anthropometric test dummies –
of articular cartilage –
of bone –
of cervical spine –
of elbows –
glossary of directional terms –
of hips –
human strength (fig) –
of joints –
of knees –
of lumbar spine –
of muscles –
occupational –
prostheses and implants –
of shoulders –
of spine –
of tendons and ligaments –
BioMEMS – –
Bioresorbable (biomaterials, def) – Index Terms Links
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Biosphere (def) –
Bipropellants (rocket fuel) –
Birefringement materials –
Birmingham wire and sheet-metal gages –
Bisection:
of angles –
of lines –
Bisphenol resins: properties of (table) –
Bit (computers) –
Bituminous coal (see Coal, bituminous)
Black-surface enclosures (radiant-heat) –
Blackbody (def) –
Blades, fan, centrifugal –
Blasius equation (friction-drag-coefficient) –
Blast furnace (def) –
Blast-furnace gas:
cleaning of – –
flame temperatures (table) –
Blasting gelatin –
Bleeding cycle (turbines) –
Blind rivets –
Blocks, concrete –
pulley –
Blockwood (def) –
Blowers, for draft –
for superchargers –
for ventilation –
(See also Centrifugal compressors; Fans)
Bluetooth (IEEE . wireless communication protocol) –
Board measure (def) – Index Terms Links
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Boats, maximum safe power for –
BOD (biological oxygen demand) –
Bode diagrams –
for controllers –
description of –
Body axes, airplane –
Body, human, anthropometric data (table) –
mass fraction and center of (fig, table) –
proportions (fig) –
Bohr theory of atoms –
Boiler furnaces:
combustion in –
controls –
design and construction of –
draft losses in –
heat transfer –
heat transmission –
mechanical draft –
pulverized-coal: firing –
stokers –
walls –
water-cooled –
Boilers:
acid cleaning of –
air preheaters for –
carbon-monoxide fired –
care of –
chemical cleaning of –
circulation in –
natural – – Index Terms Links
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Boilers: (Cont.)
codes for –
combined circulation – –
condensate polishing in –
controls for –
corner-fired –
corrosion in – –
draft loss through –
dry storage of –
economizers for –
efficiency of –
emergency operation of –
environmental controls –
dry scrubbing –
electrostatic precipitators –
fabric filters –
flue gas desulfurization –
mechanical collectors –
oxides of nitrogen –
particulate control –
selective catalytic reduction –
spray dryer absorption –
sulfur dioxide –
wet scrubbing –
exhaust gas –
external cleaning –
feedwater (see Feedwater)
fireside corrosion in –
forced-circulation – –
furnace (see Boiler furnaces)Index Terms Links
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Boilers: (Cont.)
heat balance –
heat losses –
high-temperature-water –
inspection and maintenance –
normal operation –
nuclear –
codes and specifications for –
heat transfer in –
PWR system –
once-through type – –
package –
performance of, acceptance tests –
component tests –
draft loss –
guarantees –
maximum continuous rating –
thermal losses –
process recovery –
radiant –
rating (def) –
safety interlocks –
start-up –
steam separation in –
supercritical –
superheaters for –
tubes for: film coefficients for –
radiation factors for rows of (chart) –
standard dimensions (table) –
types of – Index Terms Links
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Boilers: (Cont.)
waste-heat –
water for (see Feedwater)
water-tube –
Boiling points:
of the elements (table) – –
of hydrocarbons (tables) – –
of metals (table) – –
of various substances – – –
Bolometer –
Bolted joints, design of –
Bolts:
carriage –
drift, pulling resistance –
heads for, standard dimensions (table) – –
high-strength: direct tension indicators for –
materials for –
ISO metric (table) –
strength of –
and nuts, thread standards –
preload-indicating –
proof loads for –
proof strength of –
for steel-framed structures –
stress due to tightening –
tension due to tightening nuts on –
threads for, ANSI metric (table) – –
for timber trusses –
table – Index Terms Links
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Bone:
apparent density of –
biomechanics of –
composition of –
cortical –
mechanical properties of –
table –
remodeling of –
trabecular –
Boolean algebra:
in circuit analysis –
laws of (table) –
Boom trucks –
Borers, wood –
Boring machines –
Boring mills –
Boron –
Boron carbide (abrasive) –
Boron nitride (abrasive) –
Borozon (boron carbide), as abrasive –
Bosch fuel-injection pumps –
Boundary layer (def) –
in aerodynamics –
in fluid flow –
Boundary layer control (BLC) –
Boundary layer flow (fluid dynamics) –
Bourdon pressure gages –
Boxboard –
BPCTCA (best practical control technology
currently available) – Index Terms Links
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Brakes:
automobile and truck –
band –
cone –
disk –
dynamometers –
eddy-current –
dynamometer –
electric –
fan –
friction – –
horsepower absorbed by –
for hoisting machinery –
hydraulic (automobile) –
internal –
multidisk –
prony –
railway – – –
rim –
vacuum –
Braking:
of railway trains – – –
regenerative (def) –
Brale (hardness-testing device) –
Brass:
composition and properties of (tables) –
leaded –
table –
machinability of –
naval (table) –
pipe (tables) – – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Brass: (Cont.)
plastic range chart for –
rolled, mechanical properties of (table) –
strength at high temperatures –
(See also Copper alloys)
Brass-aluminum alloys for condenser tubes –
Brayton cycle – – – –
in gas turbines –
Braze welding –
Brazing –
filler metals for (table) –
furnace –
induction –
torch –
Brick –
ANSI/ASTM specifications (table) –
cement –
chrome –
common –
red –
facing –
fire (see Firebrick)
grades (table) –
high-alumina –
magnesite –
manufacture of –
masonry: specific gravity and density of (table) –
strength of –
table – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Brick (Cont.)
paving –
prefabricated panels of –
properties of (table) –
sand-lime –
silica –
silicon carbide –
specialty –
Brickwork:
lateral support –
laying and bonding –
strength of –
Brine coolers –
double-pipe –
shell-and-tube –
Brinell hardness number (def) –
for metals (table) –
Brinell hardness test – –
Brines:
circulation of –
properties of (tables) –
for refrigerating plants –
Briquettes, for coke ovens –
British thermal units (Btu) – – –
mechanical equivalent – –
British unit of refrigeration (def) –
Brittleness, impact tests for –
Broaches –
speeds and feeds for –
Broaching –
Broaching machines – Index Terms Links
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Bronze – –
aluminum (table) –
for bearings –
cupronickels – –
tables –
as electrical conductor –
manganese –
phosphor –
table –
silicon –
table –
strength at high temperatures (table) –
tin –
tables –
Brown and Sharpe wire gage: scheme of –
table –
(See also American wire gage)
Brown coat (plastering) –
Btu (see British thermal units)
Bucket carriers –
(See also Conveyors)
Bucket elevators –
casings –
Buckets:
dragline: scraper –
self-filling –
grab –
electrohydraulic –
for impulse hydraulic turbines –
orange-peel –
for steam turbines – Index Terms Links
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Buckingham’s II theorem (dimensional analysis) –
Buckling, of columns –
Budgets – –
Buffing –
of plastics –
Buhrstones –
Building blocks –
Building construction – –
fire-resisting –
foundations –
industrial –
materials (see Building materials)
partitions: sound-adsorption coefficients (table) –
sound-transmission loss (table) –
reinforced-concrete (see Reinforced concrete)
steel (see Steel-framed structures)
steel for, allowable stresses in (tables) –
structural design –
Building materials:
fire resistance of – –
specific gravity and density of (table) –
thermal conductivity of (tables) – – –
Building stone –
specific gravity and density of (table) –
Buildings:
closed, wind forces on –
earthquake forces in –
exits and fire escapes –
fire protection –
heating (see Heating)
industrial (see Industrial plants)Index Terms Links
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Buildings: (Cont.)
safety provisions –
ventilation (see Ventilation)
wind pressure on –
Bulk flo conveyor –
Bulk modulus of elasticity (def) – –
of metals (table) –
of various liquids (table) –
Bulldozers –
crawler type –
wheel type –
Bumper code (space vehicle meteoroid risk assessment) –
Buoyancy –
center of –
for ships (def) –
Burners –
air-atomized –
for combustion furnaces –
corner-fired –
gas –
oil –
pulverized coal –
primary air for –
secondary air for –
Bus bars for switchboards –
Buses, engines in –
(See also Automobiles)
Bushel, U.S. and imperial (def) – –
Bushings, dimensions of (table) – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Butane:
in LPG (table) –
properties of (table) – –
as refrigerant –
table –
Butterfly valves for hydraulic turbines –
Butyl acetate, uses of –
Butyl alcohol –
Butyl rubber –
BWG (Birmingham wire gage) –
Bypass engines (turbofan engines) – –
Byte (computers) –
C
C (computer language) –
Cable length (nautical unit) –
Cable tramways (see Cableways)
Cables:
aluminum, electrical properties of (table) –
copper (table) – –
resistance and reactance of (table) –
electric: insulation for – – –
paper for –
underground power –
carrying capacity (tables) –
nonmetallic sheathed (interior wiring) –
service entrance (interior wiring) – –
Cableways:
deflection –
factor of safety –
hoisting and conveying – Index Terms Links
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Cableways: (Cont.)
slackline –
speeds and loads –
supporting towers –
tramways –
cables and traction ropes –
loading and discharge terminals –
power required –
rope, stresses in –
transporting –
types of –
CAD (computer-aided design) –
CAD/CAM – –
Cadmium –
CAE (computer-aided engineering) –
CAFE (corporate average fuel economy) – –
Caisson method for foundations –
Calcium-carbide furnace (electric) –
Calcium chloride:
brine, properties of (tables) –
as freezing preventive –
Calculus –
rules for differentiation –
table of integrals –
Calendars –
Calipers –
Calorie, IT (def) –
Calorific value (see Heat value)Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Calorimeters:
separating –
steam –
throttling –
Calsum bronze, as electrical conductor –
Camber line, of airplane wing section –
Campbell diagram –
Cams –
design of –
diagrams –
pitch line –
Candela (unit of luminous intensity, def) – – –
Cantilever beams (def) –
(See also Beams)
Capacitance, electrical, unit of (def) –
Capacitances:
of capacitors –
in parallel –
in series –
Capacitive circuit –
Capacitive reactance (def) – – –
Capacitor motors –
Capacitors –
capacitance of –
synchronous –
Capacity and volume equivalents (tables) – –
Capillarity, in tubes (chart) –
Capillary action –
in tubes (chart) – Index Terms Links
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Car dumps:
cross-over –
rotary, gravity –
power –
unit-train –
Car positioners (railroad) –
Carat, metric (def) –
Carbide, tungsten –
Carbides:
cemented, for tools –
composition, properties and uses of (table) –
Carbolon (abrasive) –
Carbon:
air required for combustion –
heat of combustion of (table) –
in tool steel –
Carbon dioxide:
dissociation of –
emissivity (table) –
measurement of –
production of –
properties of (tables) – –
as refrigerant –
table –
solid, as refrigerant –
Carbon equivalent (cast iron, def) –
Carbon monoxide:
flame temperature and dissociation (table) –
measurement of – Index Terms Links
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Carbon nanotubes –
(See also Nanotechnology, nanotubes)
Carbon-residue test for lubricating oils –
Carbon resistors –
Carbon steel (see Steel, carbon)
Carbon tetrachloride, as solvent –
Carbonic acid (see Carbon dioxide)
Carbonization of coal –
apparatus for –
briquettes for –
coal blending in –
coal-chemical recovery in –
heat-balances (table) –
coals for –
coking process –
coking rates in –
gas yield (table) –
variations during (table) –
heat required for –
high-temperature: yields from –
table –
pilot scale tests for –
plastic zone –
processes –
temperature effects during –
gradients in (diagram) –
thermal efficiency of –
Carborundum (abrasive) –
Carburetors –
electronic –
Carburizing of steel – Index Terms Links
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Cardan universal joints –
Cardboard –
Cardioids –
Carnot cycle – –
Carrene (refrigerant) –
Carriage bolts –
Carrier wave (television) –
Carriers:
open-top –
pivoted-bucket –
V-bucket –
capacities and weights (table) –
Cars:
box-body dump –
gable-bottom –
hopper-bottom –
industrial –
mine –
friction resistance (table) –
railway – –
for containers –
roller bearing resistance –
wheels and axles for –
rocker side-dump –
scoop-dump –
shakers for –
unloading machinery for –
Cartilage, biomechanics of –
properties of (table) –
Cartridge brass (table) – Index Terms Links
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Casein in glues –
Casings, for centrifugal fans –
Cast iron:
alloys, composition and mechanical properties of (tables) –
carbon in –
classification of –
columns (tables) – –
composition of – –
corrosion of –
cutting speeds (lathe, table) –
definition of – –
ductile – –
gray, mechanical properties of –
table –
malleable –
mechanical properties of –
tables –
nodular –
pipe (see Pipe, cast-iron)
shrinkage of –
strength of (tables) –
at high temperature (table) –
tapping depth –
white (def) –
(See also Castings)
Cast steel:
properties of (charts) –
strength of at high temperatures (table) –
Castable mixes for refractories –
Castigliano’s theorem (beam deflections) – – Index Terms Links
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Casting:
of aluminum-base alloys –
cold-chamber machines for –
of copper-base alloys –
gooseneck machines for –
low pressure –
methods, design and cost features (table) –
pressure –
piston machines for –
sand – –
basic steps –
patterns –
processes –
by slush process –
of steel: melting practice –
with steel molds –
Castings:
alloys for –
aluminum (table) –
austempered ductile iron –
austenitic ductile iron, ASTM specifications for –
table –
austenitic gray iron, ASTM specifications for (table) –
cast iron, specialty –
compacted graphite iron –
copper –
corrosion resistant, ACI designations for (table) –
designs for molding –
die – Index Terms Links
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Castings: (Cont.)
ductile iron, ASTM specifications for (table) –
mechanical properties of (table) –
tensile requirements for (table) –
gray iron, allowances for –
composition and mechanical properties of –
heat resistant, ACI designations for (table) –
inspection of – –
iron – –
allowances for –
magnesium alloy –
malleable-iron –
composition and mechanical properties of –
Ni-resist, corrosion resistance of (table) –
oxidation resistance of (table) –
sand-blast cleaning of –
steel – –
allowances for –
allowances for machine finish –
alloy –
ASTM specifications for (table) –
ASTM requirements for (table) –
ASTM specifications for (table) –
classification of –
composition of –
corrosion resistance of –
design of –
dimensional tolerances for (table) –
ductility –
endurance limit –
heat resistance of – Index Terms Links
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Castings: (Cont.)
impact resistance of –
machinability of –
table –
machine finish allowances for –
table –
minimum thicknesses for –
properties of – –
charts –
shrinkage allowance for –
specifications for –
uses of –
wear resistance of –
weight range –
welding of –
white iron, ASTM specifications for (table) –
(See also Foundries; Molding)
Catamarans –
Catenary –
Cauchy-Euler equidimensional equation –
Cauchy number –
Cavitation, in displacement pumps –
effects of –
in screw propellers –
Cavitation limits of hydraulic turbines –
CBN (cubic boron nitride), as abrasive –
for cutting tools –
CD (compact disk) –
Ceiling (airplanes) –
Cell phones – Index Terms Links
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Cells:
lead, voltages of –
wet –
(See also Batteries)
Cellulose acetate butyrate resins: properties of
(table) –
Cellulosic resins: properties of (table) –
Celsius, conversion to Kelvin (eq) –
Cement –
autoclave soundness test for –
bricks –
compressive strength of (table) –
high-early-strength –
insulating –
for masonry –
plaster –
portland –
air-entraining –
ASTM specifications for (table) –
blast-furnace slag in –
high-early-strength –
low-heat –
modified –
regulated-set –
shrinkage-compensated –
specific gravity and density of (table) –
strength of (table) –
sulfate-resisting –
white – Index Terms Links
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Cement (Cont.)
pozzolan –
sand for, tests for –
setting time –
surfaces, painting of –
tests for –
types and kinds of –
waterproofed –
Cement-lined pipe –
Cement plants: pollution from –
Cemented-carbide tools –
Cemented-carbides –
corrosion resistance of –
design considerations for –
inserts of –
mechanical properties of –
micrograin –
Cementite (def) –
Cental (unit of weight, def) –
Center:
of buoyancy –
of curvature –
of gravity – –
by experiment –
of lines –
of plane areas – –
by graphics – –
of solids –
of mass –
of percussion –
Centesimal measure of angles – Index Terms Links
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Centigrade, conversion to Fahrenheit –
(See also Celsius)
Centipoise (unit of viscosity, def) –
Centistoke (unit of kinematic viscosity) –
Central heating (see Heating)
Centrifugal casting –
of iron pipe –
Centrifugal compressors –
axial thrust in –
efficiency of –
fluid flow in –
motors for –
Centrifugal fans –
for air conditioning –
fan laws for (table) –
applications of –
blade forms –
blowback in –
capacity of –
casings for –
characteristics of – –
charts – –
compressibility factor (def) –
cross-flow –
details of –
efficiency of –
fluid flow in –
formulas –
head (def) –
impeller types – Index Terms Links
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Centrifugal fans (Cont.)
laws of –
mixed-flow –
motors for –
parallel operation of –
performance of –
performance curves for – –
power output (def) –
pressures in (def) –
puffing in –
pulsation in –
relative characteristics of (table) –
series operation of –
sound power in –
stability of –
static pressure in –
system characteristics of –
system matching –
testing of –
Centrifugal force (def) –
Centrifugal pumps –
application of –
axial-flow – –
axial thrust in –
balance drums and disks for – –
balancing holes for –
bearings for –
casings –
cavitation limits – Index Terms Links
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Centrifugal pumps (Cont.)
characteristic curves – –
influence of fluid properties on –
influence of viscosity on –
couplings for –
critical speeds of –
diffuser type –
double seals for –
effect of speed change –
efficiency of (chart) – – – –
fluid flow in –
head-capacity curves (charts) – –
hydraulic balancing devices –
hydraulic performance of –
impellers (def) –
shapes for (chart) –
unbalanced forces on –
velocity diagrams for –
installation of –
lantern rings for –
lattice-effect coefficient (chart) –
maintenance of – –
materials for –
table –
mechanical construction –
mechanical seals for –
mixed-flow –
motors for –
mountings for –
multistage – Index Terms Links
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Centrifugal pumps (Cont.)
names of parts for (table) –
nomenclature of –
NPSH (def) –
required for –
operation of –
packing for –
parallel operation of –
parts of, recommended names of (table) –
performance of –
priming of –
recirculation in –
seal cages for –
sealless –
magnet-drive for –
series operation of –
shaft sleeves for –
shafts for –
similarity laws for –
specific speed of (def) –
stuffing boxes for –
suction specific speed –
system friction losses in –
system-head curves for –
theory of –
vertical end-suction –
vertical-shaft construction –
volutes –
water-seal packing for –
wearing rings for –
wet-pit – – Index Terms Links
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Centripetal force (def) –
Centrode (def) –
Centroids (def) –
of lines –
of plane areas –
of any quadrilateral –
of solids –
Ceramic products –
Ceramics –
manufacture of –
properties of –
tool inserts of –
CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response
Compensation and Liability Act) –
Cermets –
Cetane index (fuels, def) –
Cetane number (fuels, def) –
CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) chemicals –
CFD (computational fluid dynamics) –
(See also Fluid dynamics, computational)
CGS system of units –
Chain (unit of length, def) –
Chain blocks:
differential –
triplex – –
Chain conveyors –
(See also Conveyors, bucket)
Chain drives –
inverted-tooth (silent) –
length of chain in – Index Terms Links
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Chain drives (Cont.)
power ratings –
table –
roller –
Chain-grate stokers –
Chain hoists –
data for (table) – –
Chains –
alloy, data on (tables) – –
ASTM specifications for (table) – –
conveyor –
end fittings for –
Grade (proof coil) –
Grade (high test) –
Grade (transport) –
grades of –
high-test, ASTM specifications for (table) –
master links for –
master rings for –
NACM specifications for (tables) – –
power transmission –
proof coil, ASTM specifications for (table) –
roller –
dimensions and speeds (table) –
length calculations –
multiple-strand –
power ratings (table) –
service factors (table) –
sprocket wheels for –
diameter formulas –
teeth – Index Terms Links
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Chains (Cont.)
silent –
power ratings –
tables – –
service factors (table) –
sling –
special –
strength of –
tables – –
transport, ASTM Specifications for (table) –
welded-link –
wheel –
working loads (tables) – –
Channels:
open (hydraulic) –
roughness coefficients (table) –
Chaos (automatic control) –
Characteristic curves:
of fans – –
of pumps – –
Charcoal, as fuel –
Charpy impact test – –
Chattering, of magnets –
Chebyshev polynomials –
Chelating agents (cleaners) –
Chemical compounds (def) –
calculations of –
Chemical elements (def) –
table –
Chemical fire extinguishers – –
Chemical processes: corrosion in – Index Terms Links
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Chemical symbols (table) –
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) –
Chemistry –
Chézy formula (hydraulics) –
Chi-square distribution (statistics, table) – –
Chimneys:
compression at base –
draft –
gases (see Flue gas)
(See also Stacks)
Chip breakers –
Chips, from cutting tools – –
Chrome brick –
Chromium –
in tool steel –
Chromizing – –
of steel – –
Chutes –
for bulk materials –
for lumpy materials –
spiral –
for unit loads –
CIM (computer integrated manufacturing) –
Cinder and fly ash – –
Cippoletti trapezoidal weir –
Circles:
angles in –
area of –
circumference of –
constructions of – –
equations of (analytic geometry) – Index Terms Links
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Circles: (Cont.)
involute of –
segments of (tables) – –
theorems on –
Circuit breakers – – –
air-blast –
Circuits (electric) –
alternating-current: four-phase –
interior wiring –
parallel –
polyphase power: advantages of –
measurement of –
quarter-phase –
solution of problems –
three-phase – –
two-phase –
voltage drop –
Mershon diagram –
wiring calculations for –
branch, voltage drop – –
capacitive, reactance of –
carrying capacity of conductors (tables) – –
critical damping resistance of –
dielectric –
direct-current, wiring calculations –
discrete component –
effective resistance –
impedance of –
inductive –
time constant – Index Terms Links
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Circuits (electric) (Cont.)
inductive reactance of –
integrated –
linear ramp generator –
loop –
magnetic –
multivibrator –
natural frequency – –
network –
parallel – –
phase difference –
resonance –
sample and hold –
series – –
series-parallel –
street-lighting –
three-wire: a-c – –
d-c –
resistance and reactance (tables) – –
Circular arcs (see Circles)
Circular cutters –
Circular inch (def) –
Circular measure –
of angles –
tables –
Circular mil (def) – –
Circular pitch (gears, def) –
Circular saws –
Circulation (aerodynamics, def) –
Clad steels –
Cladding, by rolling – Index Terms Links
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Clairaut, differential equation of –
Clapeyron equation –
Claude’s system of liquefying air –
Clay for firebricks –
Clean Air Acts –
Clean areas (def) –
protocols –
Clean rooms –
classes of –
table –
protocols –
Cleaners, ultrasonic –
noise from –
Cleaning, critical –
testing –
gross –
testing –
methods of –
with carbon dioxide –
by manual washing –
by mechanical blasting –
with ultrasonics –
by vapor degreasing –
precision –
testing –
regulatory considerations in –
sonic – –
Cleanliness –
levels of –
Cleansers –
Clearance in steam engines – Index Terms Links
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Climb of airplanes –
Clock motors –
Closed system (thermodynamics, def) –
Cloud point (petroleum oils, def) –
Cloudburst hardness test –
Clouds (particles in suspension, def) –
of large black particles, radiation from –
Clutches –
allowable pressures in (table) –
cone –
disk –
for automobiles –
dynamatic, for conveyors –
friction –
for automobiles –
coefficients of (table) –
jaw –
multiple-disk (automobile) –
overrunning –
positive –
rim –
CM (chemical machining) –
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor) – –
CMRR (common mode rejection ratio) –
CNC (computer numerical control) –
Coach screws (table) –
uses of – Index Terms Links
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Coal (def) –
analyses (tables) –
proximate – –
ultimate –
anthracite (def) –
ash in – –
composition of (table) –
fusibility –
table –
bituminous – –
bulk density of –
caking (def) –
calorific value –
Dulong’s formula for –
Parr formulas for –
tables –
carbonization (see Carbonization of coal)
classification of –
tables –
cleaning –
coking characteristics of –
coking process –
combustion of –
spontaneous –
consumption of (table) –
density and specific gravity of –
firing in boiler furnaces –
fixed carbon in –
free-swelling –
free-swelling index for – Index Terms Links
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Coal (def) (Cont.)
for gas manufacture (table) –
gasification of –
grindability of – –
tests –
gross calorific value (def) –
heat value (see Coal, calorific value)
for industrial heating –
lignitic (def) –
analyses of (tables) –
meta-anthracite –
mineral-matter-free basis of classifying –
mining –
moisture in –
net calorific value (def) –
piled, specific gravity and density of (table) –
preparation of –
production of –
proximate analyses of (def) – –
tables – –
pulverized, air supply for burning –
burners for –
fineness of –
pulverizing of –
rank (def) –
mined in various states (table) –
tables –
reserves –
sampling –
semianthracite (def) –
separators for – Index Terms Links
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Coal (def) (Cont.)
slurry pipeline –
specific gravity of –
table –
specifications for –
spontaneous combustion of –
storage –
subbituminous –
tables –
sulfur in –
tables –
sulfur removal from –
transportation –
ultimate analysis of: methods –
table –
volatile matter in –
tables – –
Coal-chemical ovens –
Coal gas, flame temperatures (table) –
Coated carbides, as cutting tools –
Coating thickness, measurement of –
Cobalt, in tool steel –
Cocks –
Code (bar code) –
Code One (bar code) –
Code (bar code) –
Code PDF (bar code) –
Code K (bar code) –
Code (bar code) – Index Terms Links
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Coefficients:
of area expansion –
binomial –
of contraction –
of discharge for liquids through orifices – –
of excess air in combustion (def) –
of expansion (def) –
at low temperatures –
film –
of form (ships) –
of friction – –
in metalworking –
table –
Joule-Thomson – –
of performance (def) – –
of restitution –
of rigidity (def) –
Steinmetz (table) –
of thermal expansion of metals (tables) – – –

of transmission, through light-transmitting
partitions (table) –
through skylights (table) –
through windows (table) –
of velocity –
for steam –
COESA atmosphere –
COGAS (combined gas-turbine and steam-turbine,
ships) –
Cohesion of liquids –
Coils, pipe – Index Terms Links
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Coining (metal squeezing) –
Coke –
analyses of (table) –
blast-furnace –
foundry –
high-temperature –
low-temperature –
medium-temperature –
petroleum –
pitch –
specific gravity and density of (table) –
Coke-oven gas (table) –
Coke ovens –
briquettes for –
heat balances of (table) –
pollution controls for –
preheated coal for –
Coking properties of coal –
Tests –
Cold-air refrigerating machines –
Cold-diffuser conditioning of storage rooms –
Cold forging of metals –
Cold storage –
insulation requirements –
lockers –
product data (table) –
rooms: air conditioning –
piping –
temperatures –
vapor barriers for – Index Terms Links
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Cold-working of metals –
nonferrous metals –
Colebrook equation for friction – –
Collapsing pressure of tubes, formula –
Collimators –
Color, codes, in industrial plants –
designation of –
use, in industrial plants –
Color-measurement systems –
Color scale for temperatures of iron and steel –
Color television –
Color test for lubricating oils –
Color vision –
Colorimeters –
Colors, for electrical wiring –
for identifying piping –
Colpitts oscillator –
Columbium –
Columns:
cast-iron –
strength of (tables) – –
classification (long and short) –
eccentrically loaded, stresses in –
ends, forms of –
long: critical load –
Euler’s formula –
slenderness ratio –
strength of (table) –
reinforced-concrete –
round-ended, strength of, Euler’s formula (table) – Index Terms Links
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Columns: (Cont.)
short (table) –
formulas –
steel: allowable unit stresses (tables) – –
pipe –
concrete-filled –
proportions of –
strength of (tables) – –
timber –
wooden –
working stresses (table) –
wrought-iron pipe, strength of (tables) – –
Combinations and permutations –
Combined-cycle turbines –
Combined flexure and longitudinal force –
and torsion – –
Combined stresses –
Combustion –
air required by gaseous fuels –
in boiler furnaces –
of coal –
spontaneous –
control of, in boilers, automatic –
dissociation of gases –
equations –
excess air for (charts) –
flame temperatures (table) –
of gaseous fuels –
products (table) –
temperature (table) – Index Terms Links
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Combustion (Cont.)
of gases: air required for –
products –
heat of formation (def) –
heat value of fuels –
heats of (def) –
table –
incomplete, loss due to – – –
of liquid fuels –
products of – –
radiation from – –
table –
of solid fuels –
air required –
excess air for (charts) –
temperatures attained in –
volume contraction due to –
Combustion chambers:
for internal-combustion engines –
axial swirl in –
fast-burn –
pent-roof –
long, radiation in –
partially stirred: radiation in –
Combustion furnaces (see Furnaces)
Combustion knock – –
Combustion turbines (see Gas turbines)
Come-alongs –
Comet, properties of (table) –
Comfort conditions (table) –
Comfort indexes – Index Terms Links
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Communications channels, bandwidth of –
Communications networks –
layers for – –
standards for –
Commutating-pole motors, d-c –
Commutation in d-c generators and motors – –
Commutator motors, a-c –
Compensator (transformer) –
starting, a-c motor –
Compactors, for earthmoving –
sheepsfoot –
Compiler –
Complex conjugate (def) –
Complex numbers (def) –
Composite properties (fiber composites, def) –
Composites: fiber (see Fiber composites)
Composition A (explosive) –
Composition B (explosive) –
Compound, chemical –
calculation of composition –
Compound interest (tables) – –
Compound motors, electric –
Compound-wound generators –
Compressed air, for industrial plants –
Compressed-air machinery:
lubrication of –
(See also Air compressors; Centrifugal
compressors)
Compressed-air machines, for refrigeration –
Compressibility of liquids –
table – Index Terms Links
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Compressible fluids, flow of –
Compression:
of air (see Air compression)
of saturated and superheated vapors – –
Compression couplings –
Compression-ignition (engines) –
Compression machines, vapor, theory of –
Compression ratios (internal-combustion engines,
def) –
permissible –
Compression testing –
Compressors:
accessories for –
adiabatic analysis of –
air (see Air compressors)
ammonia –
axial, motors for –
centrifugal (see Centrifugal compressors)
cylinders –
cooling of –
dual –
dynamic versus positive-displacement –
efficiencies – –
for gas turbines –
kinetic –
lubrication –
motors for – –
multiple effect –
multistage sizing –
non-lubricated cylinders for –
orbiting-scroll – Index Terms Links
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Compressors: (Cont.)
piston rings for –
piston-rod packing for –
polytropic process in –
real gas effects in –
reciprocating – –
reciprocation, motors for –
refrigeration –
relief valves for –
rolling-piston –
rotary, dry-lobe –
single-screw –
twin-screw –
rotary vane –
screw –
standard conditions for –
surging in –
trochoidal –
valves for –
volumetric efficiency of –
Wankel –
wet compression –
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) – –
(See also Fluid dynamics, computational)
Computer-aided design (CAD) – –
dynamic analysis –
engineering analysis –
experimental testing –
finite-element analysis –
kinematics in –
parametric design systems – Index Terms Links
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Computer-aided design (CAD) (Cont.)
rapid prototyping –
static analysis –
synthesis in –
variational design applications –
variational design systems –
virtual reality –
Computer-aided engineering (CAE) –
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) –
Computers:
analog –
applications of –
arithmetic in –
compilers for –
digital –
components for –
input to – –
languages for, problem-oriented –
procedure-oriented –
letters in, representation of –
mathematical programming with –
memory –
numbers in, representation of – –
operating systems for –
operation of –
output from –
personal –
programming languages for – –
programs for –
simulation with –
software for – Index Terms Links
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Computers: (Cont.)
speed of –
tapes for –
timesharing in –
words in (def) –
Concrete –
accelerators for –
admixtures –
aggregates for –
air-entrained –
air-entraining agents for –
blast-furnace slag for –
clay in sand for –
compaction of –
consistency of –
curing of –
deformation properties of –
dry rodded weight –
effect of freezing on –
effect of oils and acids on –
effect of sea water on –
fineness modulus of (def) –
fly ash as additive for –
forms for –
heavyweight aggregates for –
lightweight aggregates for –
masonry, specific gravity and density (table) –
for masonry units –
materials for, per cubic yard (table) –
mica in sand for – Index Terms Links
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Concrete (Cont.)
mixes for, for small jobs –
table –
mixing –
painting of –
piles – –
pipe –
placement of –
proportioning –
quality control –
ready-mixed –
reinforced (see Reinforced concrete)
retarders for –
sand for –
seawater used for –
silica fume for –
slump test for –
table –
strength of –
variation with age (table) –
transverse strength of –
water for –
water and air requirements for (tables) – –
water content (tables) – –
water reducers for –
watertightness –
weight of –
Concrete blocks – –
Concrete mixers –
Condensate polishing (steam generation) – – – Index Terms Links
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Condensate pumps –
Condensation –
Condensers:
circulating water, United States
temperatures (map) –
cooling water, air in (table) –
direct-contact, low-level –
electrical (see Capacitors)
evaporative –
refrigeration –
double-pipe –
evaporative –
steam –
air-cooled –
air ejectors for –
two-stage –
barometric –
deaeration of –
direct-contact –
ejectors for –
flow-induced vibrations in –
movements in –
noncondensibles, removal of –
pressure and circulating-water temperatures for (table) –
surface-type –
calculations –
of size –
circulating-water pumps for –
cleanliness factors for –
condensate pumps for – Index Terms Links
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Condensers: (Cont.)
configurations –
expansion in –
inlet-water-temperature
correction factors (table) –
material and gage factor for (table) –
performance curves –
proportions of (table) –
sizing –
tube-bundles for –
tube characteristics (table) –
tubes: cleanliness – –
heat-transfer rates –
water boxes for –
water velocities in –
steam tables for (tables) –
tube selection for –
(See also Cooling towers)
Condensing water, cooling of –
Conductance:
a-c (def) –
electrical (def) –
Conductances:
thermal –
conversion table –
Conduction:
and convection – –
heat, analysis using finite-element method –
heat transmission by – Index Terms Links
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Conductivity:
electrical (def) –
thermal (tables) – –
conversion table –
of insulation (tables) –
of liquids and gases (table) –
in materials for low temperatures (table) –
of metals (tables) – –
of miscellaneous solids (table) –
(See also Heat transmission)
Conductors, electric –
aluminum (table) –
copper alloys for (table) –
current-carrying capacities (table) –
economical cross sections –
estimating resistances and weights –
materials for –
properties of metals and alloys (table) –
specific resistance of (table) –
temperature coefficients of resistance of (def) –
table –
types and applications of (table) –
(See also Cables)
Cone pulleys –
Cones, surface and volume of –
Conical pendulum –
Conradson carbon-residue test for lubricating oils –
Conservation:
of energy – – – –
– Index Terms Links
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Conservation: (Cont.)
of mass – –
of matter –
of momentum – –
Consolidation Coal process (coke making) –
Constant-entropy expansion:
of gases –
of vapors –
Constant-pressure expansion:
of gases –
of vapors –
Constant-temperature expansion:
of gases –
of vapors –
Constant-velocity joints –
Constant-volume expansion:
of gases –
of vapors –
Constrained beams –
Construction (see Building construction)
Constructions, geometrical –
Consumers, power costs to (table) –
Containerization, packaging for –
Containers –
condensation in –
freight cars for –
handling equipment for –
owners of –
refrigerated –
ships for –
sizes of – Index Terms Links
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Containers (Cont.)
specifications for –
terminals for –
types of –
Contaminants:
in drinking water: limits of (table) –
in water: removal processes for (table) –
Continuity equation (in fluid flow) – –
Continuous beams –
Continuous improvement (quality control) –
Contour lines (maps, def) –
Contour mapping (surveying) –
Contracts –
Control:
automatic (see Automatic control)
of material flow –
Control action (automatic control, def) –
Control charts (quality control) – – –
c charts for –
p charts for –
R charts for –
X bar charts for –
Control systems:
adaptive (def) –
frequency-response equations for (table) –
hydraulic –
Controllable-pitch propellers:
airplane –
marine –
Controllers, Bode plots for –
electronic – Index Terms Links
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Convection:
coefficients of –
and conduction – –
heat transmission by –
natural –
Convers-Labarre method (pile spacing) –
Conversion, of mass to energy –
Conversion equations, for kinematic viscosity –
Conversion tables:
for accelerations – –
for angular measure: decimals of degrees,
minutes, and seconds –
velocity –
for areas –
for conductance, thermal –
for conductivity, thermal –
for density – – –
for energy –
for flow of heat –
for heat –
for length – – –
for mass –
for power – –
for pressure –
for specific gravity and density, degrees API and
Baumé – –
for velocity –
for volume – – –
for weight –
for work – Index Terms Links
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Converters:
analog-to-digital –
digital-to-analog –
phase –
synchronous –
switchboard equipment for –
Conveying:
bucket –
(See also Conveyors, bucket)
cableways –
(See also Cableways; Conveyors)
Conveyors:
apron –
table –
in assembly operations –
belt –
arrangements – –
belts for –
capacities of (table) –
changing direction of materials on –
diverters for –
drive calculations –
drives for –
electromagnetic separators for –
feeders –
horsepower required for –
idler pulleys for –
intersections for –
life of –
magnetic pulleys for –
maximum slope (table) – Index Terms Links
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Conveyors: (Cont.)
portable –
pulleys for – –
sectional –
shuttle –
sliding –
slope for various materials (table) –
speed (table) –
take-ups –
trippers – –
width required for lumps (table) –
bucket –
open-top –
Peck carrier –
pivoted –
capacities (table) –
V-bucket –
capacities and weights (table) –
Bulk flo –
carrying –
continuous-flow –
drag-chain –
drives for –
feeders for –
flight –
arrangements for –
scraper type –
suspended-chain type of –
suspended-flight type of –
gravity roller –
hydraulic – Index Terms Links
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Conveyors: (Cont.)
noncarrying –
oscillating –
overhead –
components of – –
control –
drop-lift –
power-and-free – –
powered –
safety guards –
switching – –
controls –
track for –
transfer devices –
trolleys –
turns –
for plant uses (table) –
platform –
pneumatic –
reciprocating plate feeder for –
Redler –
ribbon –
roller –
runaround –
scraper –
screw –
cut-flight –
paddle –
power required –
short-pitch – Index Terms Links
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Conveyors: (Cont.)
speeds and capacities (tables) –
variable-pitch –
spiral –
speeds and capacities of (table) –
suction for –
trolley –
vertical –
vertical interfloor –
vibrating feeders for –
wheel –
Convolution: of functions (def) –
Convolution integrals (vibration) –
Coolants (cutting fluids) –
Coolers:
for air conditioning systems –
brine –
capacity of (table) –
heat-transfer coefficients (table) –
Cooling:
effect of throttling –
of internal-combustion engines –
thermoelectric –
Cooling ponds –
for thermal pollution reduction –
Cooling sprays –
Cooling towers – –
for air conditioning systems –
approach (def) –
cooling range of (def) –
corrosion in – Index Terms Links
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Cooling towers (Cont.)
cost evaluation –
drift in –
dry –
height of –
hyperbolic –
induced-draft –
makeup for –
materials for –
mechanical-draft in –
performance of (curve) –
performance calculations for –
for thermal pollution reduction –
wet-bulb temperatures (map) –
where used –
Cooling water systems, corrosion in –
Coordinates:
polar –
rectangular –
transformation of –
COP (coefficient of performance, def) –
Copes (molding) – –
Copper –
alloys (see Copper alloys)
for bus bars –
cable, resistance and reactance of (table) –
conductors, current-carrying capacities (table) –
oxygen-free –
resistivity of – Index Terms Links
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Copper (Cont.)
tough-pitch –
tubing –
welding of – –
Copper alloys –
for bearings –
table –
brazing of –
castings, composition and properties of (table) –
distribution of (table) –
classification of –
table –
copper-aluminum, plastic range chart for –
for copper-base castings –
properties of (table) –
copper-nickel (tables) –
copper-silicon (tables) –
copper-tin –
copper-zinc –
corrosion resistance of –
effects of temperature on –
electrical conductivities of –
for electrical conductors (tables) – –
extruded –
fabrication of –
heat treating of –
machining of – –
mechanical properties of –
processing of – Index Terms Links
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Copper alloys (Cont.)
soldering of –
fluxes for –
strength of (tables) –
temper designation codes for (table) –
thermal conductivities of –
turning of –
welding of – –
wrought, composition and properties of (table) –
(See also Brass; Bronze)
Copper-nickels – –
Copper pipe –
Copper tubing –
Copper wire:
alloys for (table) –
ASTM specifications for (table) –
insulation for –
reactance (tables) – –
resistance (tables) – – – –

temperature coefficient of –
weight (table) –
Coppers – –
Copperweld (electrical conductor) –
Copy (printing):
Copyrights –
Cord (lumber measure, def) – –
Cordage –
Core binders –
Core blowers –
Core boxes – Index Terms Links
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Core driers –
Core molding –
Core ovens –
Core sands –
Coremaking methods –
Cores (def) –
Coriolis acceleration –
Cork, specific gravity and density of (table) –
Corkboard, as cryogenic insulation –
Corkscrew rule (magnetism) –
Corner test (statistics) –
Corona (electrical discharge) –
Corporation, annual reports for –
Corrosion –
with anodic protection –
in boilers –
cathodic inhibitors for –
with cathodic protection –
caustic –
as caustic gouging –
by cavitation –
chemical –
coatings for –
conversion coatings –
crevice –
by dealloying –
by dezincification –
as ductile gouging –
economic impact of –
effects of galvanic metals on –
effects on safety – Index Terms Links
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Corrosion (Cont.)
electrochemical –
Ellingham diagrams for –
by environmentally induced cracking –
erosion (def) –
factors influencing –
cold-working –
concentration cells –
dissimilar electrodes –
ennoblement –
environment –
freshwater –
hard water –
heat treatment –
high-purity water –
inclusions –
microfouling organisms – –
open circuit potential –
residual stresses –
seawater –
soft water –
soil corrosivity –
soil resistivity –
sulfate-reducing bacteria –
temperature –
thermal cycling –
thermogalvanic cells –
time of wetness –
welding – Index Terms Links
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Corrosion (Cont.)
fatigue –
feedwater treatment against –
fretting –
galvanic –
gasket –
Gibbs free energy in –
graphite –
with graphitization –
of gray cast iron –
high-temperature –
hydrogen embrittlement in –
hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in –
hydrogen interactions in –
by impingement attack –
inhibitors –
intergranular –
kinetics of –
activation polarization in –
active/passive metals in –
concentration polarization in –
equilibrium potential in –
mixed polarization in –
passive films in –
passivity in –
polarization in –
protective films in –
resistance polarization in –
as knife-line attack –
liquid-metal embrittlement in –
microbiologically-influenced – Index Terms Links
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Corrosion (Cont.)
Nernst equation for –
nonabsorbent gaskets to prevent –
organic inhibitors for –
oxygen scavengers in –
passivators –
as pitting –
pitting factors for –
potential-pH plots in –
Pourbaix diagrams for –
precipitators for –
prevention of –
protective coatings against –
solid-metal-induced embrittlement in –
in steam generating systems –
components –
table –
in steam turbines –
by stray-current electrolysis –
by stray-currents –
stress, cracking –
as surface carburization –
testing –
using corrosion coupons for –
electrochemical techniques for –
standardized methods for –
thermodynamics of –
types of –
underdeposit –
as uniform attack –
as wick boiling – Index Terms Links
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Corrosion coupons –
Corrosion fatigue of metals –
Corrosion precipitators –
Corrugated paper –
Corrugated sheets, for building walls – –
Corundum (abrasive) –
Cosecant (trigonometry) –
Cosine (trigonometry) –
Cosines, law of –
Cost accounting, accrual basis –
activity based –
break-even –
budgeting control systems in – –
cash basis –
cost management by –
direct costing methods for –
factory overheads in –
labor –
materials –
methods of –
process cost method of –
for product costing –
standard costs – –
transaction costing in –
transfer pricing by –
types of systems for – –
Cost analysis –
Costs:
elements of –
fixed, characteristics of –
of labor – Index Terms Links
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Costs: (Cont.)
of materials –
variable, characteristics of –
Cotangent (trigonometry) –
Cotter pins –
Cotton, mercerized –
Cotton fibers (tables) – –
Coulomb (def) –
Counters (event measurement) –
electric –
electronic –
mechanical –
pickups for –
Counterweights for elevators –
Couple (mechanics, def) –
Couples:
composition of –
displacement of –
moment of –
rotation moments of –
Coupling coefficient (electric circuits) –
Couplings:
clutch (see Clutches)
compression –
constant velocity –
fire-hose: ANSI (table) –
screw threads for –
flanged-face –
flexible –
chain –
Falk Steelflex – Index Terms Links
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Couplings: (Cont.)
Fast –
Oldham –
Waldron –
Fluid –
for automobiles –
torque capacity (eq) –
torque converter –
ribbed clamp –
rigid –
rubber –
sleeve (pipe) –
slider, double –
universal, Hooke’s joint –
viscous –
CPM (critical path method) –
CPU (central processing unit) –
Cracked gasoline –
Cramer equation for pollution calculations –
Cranes:
capacities of (table) –
carrier-mounted –
crawler-mounted –
derricks –
efficiency of –
gantry –
hand-power –
hooks –
industrial (table) –
jib –
lattice boom – – Index Terms Links
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Cranes: (Cont.)
with luffing jib –
mobile –
mobile tower –
motors for –
overhead –
classes of –
special purpose –
power shovels as –
runways for, lateral forces on –
ringer –
rough terrain –
Sky Horse –
superlift –
telescoping boom – –
traveling –
classes of –
double-girder –
electric –
single-girder –
truck –
Crank mechanism –
Crankshafts – –
flywheels for – –
forces and torques on –
(See also Shafts)Index Terms Links
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Crash test dummies (automotive safety) –
Creep (def) –
of low-chromium steel (table) –
of metals (def) – –
testing –
of zinc and zinc alloys –
Creep rates:
of iron (table) –
of metals and alloys (table) –
of steel (table, chart) – –
Crescent beams –
CRG (catalytic-rich gas) –
Critical cooling rate (steel) –
Critical damping resistance –
Critical data for various gases (tables) – –
Critical flow pressure, in gas or vapor flow –
Critical path method of scheduling – –
Critical points:
of the elements (table) – –
of various substances (table) –
Critical pressure (def) –
Critical speed –
Critical state for gases (tables) – –
Critical temperature (def) –
Critical temperatures:
of the elements (table) – –
of iron (def) –
of various substances (table) –
Crocus (abrasive) –
Cross product (mathematics, def) – Index Terms Links
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Crossover frequency (control theory) –
Crowding (metalworking) –
Crushed steel (abrasive) –
Cryogenic pumps –
Cryogenic refrigerators –
Cryogenics –
applications of –
cryogen hazards –
definition of –
equipment materials – –
stress analysis –
gas liquefaction for –
instruments for –
insulation for –
aluminum powder as –
balsa wood as –
corkboard as –
selection of –
level measurements –
by capacitance gage –
by weighing –
pulse-tube refrigerators for –
steels for service in –
temperature measurements –
thermoacoustic refrigerators for –
vent systems for –
Cryogens:
burns from –
compressibility of –
liquid density, quantum-mechanical correlation –
properties of (table) – Index Terms Links
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Cryogens: (Cont.)
specific heat (chart) –
thermal conductivity –
thermal-expansion coefficient –
vapor pressure (chart) –
viscosity –
volumetric latent heats (table) –
Crystalline alumina (abrasive) –
Crystolon (abrasive) –
Crystoplastic (def) –
Cube, surface and volume of –
Cubic measure, conversion tables –
Cubical expansion, coefficient of (def) –
Cupolas –
Cupronickel –
tables –
Curie temperature (ferroelectrics) – –
Curl, vector –
Current regulators (automobiles) –
Current transformers –
Currents:
alternating –
active or energy (def) –
circuits (see Circuits, alternating-current)
reactive or wattless (def) –
waves: average value –
effective value –
form factor –
phasor representation –
vector representation – Index Terms Links
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Currents: (Cont.)
electric, unit of (def) –
heat developed by –
wattless –
(See also Circuits; Electric motors)
Curvature, radius and center of –
Curve resistance (train) –
Curved beams –
eccentrically curved (table) –
Curves, railway, radii of –
Curvilinear motion – –
Cut and fill:
defining limits of –
determining land area for –
establishing boundaries for –
Cutters:
circular –
milling –
Cutting:
with laser beams –
thermal –
oxyfuel –
plasma arc –
(See also Metal cutting)
Cutting fluids (machining) –
Cutting-off machines (metals) –
Cutting oils –
Cutting processes –
gears – Index Terms Links
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Cutting tools:
action of –
applications of, materials for (table) –
back rake of –
broaches –
carbide –
ceramic –
cermets –
chip formation by –
cutting angle of –
cutting ratios for –
diamond –
drills, troubleshooting of (table) –
fluids for –
hardness vs. temperature (chart) –
for lathes: life of –
power requirements of –
shapes for –
troubleshooting of (table) –
materials for –
characteristics of (tables) – –
milling machines –
feeds and speeds for (table) –
troubleshooting of (table) –
nomenclature of – –
nonferrous –
nose radius of –
planers –
rake angle of – –
reamers – Index Terms Links
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Cutting tools: (Cont.)
relief angle of – –
shapers –
shapes of –
shear angles for –
shear plane of –
shear strain in –
side-cutting edge angle –
side rake of –
steel –
surface finish by –
threading –
tool condition monitoring –
tool temperatures in –
tungsten carbide –
classification of (table) –
wear of –
wear notches in –
wood –
(See also Machine tools)
CVD (chemical vapor deposition) –
Cyaniding (heat-treatment) –
Cycle:
alternating-current (def) –
ideal gas –
for perfect gases –
steam – –
bleeding –
Rankine – –
reheating – Index Terms Links
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Cycloid –
Cyclone furnaces –
Cyclone separators –
for dust exhaust systems –
Cylinder-boring machines –
Cylinder grinders –
Cylinders:
air resistance of (table) –
of automobile engines –
collapsing pressure –
hollow, volume of –
of internal-combustion engines –
oval hollow, strength of –
rolling down a plane –
shrink-fit effects –
of steam engines, jackets, effect on economy –
stiffening rings for –
surface and volume of –
thick-walled –
thin-walled –
D
Dacron rope –
D’Alembert forces (def) –
Dalton’s law for gases – –
Dampers, viscous –
Damping:
in automatic control (def) –
critical –
friction –
hysteretic – Index Terms Links
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Damping: (Cont.)
structural –
of vibrations – –
viscous (automatic control) –
Damping ratio (automatic control, def) –
Darcy formula in pipeline flow –
Darlington connection (electronic circuit) – –
Darrieus wind rotor – –
D’Arsonval galvanometer –
Dashpot –
Data-flow diagrams – –
Data logging –
Data Matrix (bar code) –
Databases, for computers – –
Day (def) –
Dead-weight gage tester –
Deaeration: of feedwater – –
Deaerators – –
corrosion of –
Deburring –
Decimal equivalents (table) –
Decision making, cost accounting to support –
Declination, solar, annual variation (table) –
Dedendum (gear teeth) –
Deep drawing (metalworking) –
Definite integrals –
Deflection:
angular, under torsion (table) –
of beams (see Beams, deflection of)Index Terms Links
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Defoamants, in engine oil –
Deformation (def) –
plastic flow theory –
of spheres and cylinders under compression –
Degreasing, vapor –
Degree (circular measure, def) –
Degrees:
API (table) –
Baumé (table) –
Dehumidification of air –
(See also Air conditioning)
Delco-Remy distributors –
Delta connections, three-phase circuits –
Delta iron (def) –
Demodulation of radio waves –
De Morgan’s theorem (Boolean algebra) –
Denier (unit of fineness of fibers) –
Density (def) –
of air (formula) –
conversion table –
equivalents (table) –
of metals (tables) – – – –

of various substances (table) –
of water (tables) – –
Depreciation of power equipment –
Derivative compensation (automatic control) –
Derivatives:
calculus – –
partial – Index Terms Links
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Derricks –
guy –
self-slewing –
Design stresses (mechanics) –
Desktop publishing –
Detergents –
Determinants –
Detonation (see Knock)
Deuterium as cryogen –
Deviation, in automatic control (def) –
Dew point – –
Dew point method of humidity measurement –
Dewpoint recorders –
Dextrin baked cores –
Diametral pitch (gears, def) –
Diamond (abrasive) – – –
Diamond cutting tools –
Diamond-pyramid hardness (def) –
Diaphragm gages –
Diaphragms to replace packing –
Diatomaceous silica (abrasive) –
Die blocks:
materials for –
proportions of –
Die casting –
alloys for, zinc-base (table) –
machines for –
Dielectric (def) –
Dielectric circuit – Index Terms Links
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Dielectric constant (def) –
of insulating materials (table) –
Dielectric heating – –
Dielectrics –
Dieline (refrigerant) –
Dies:
clearances required in –
resistance to shearing in (table) –
threading –
Diesel cycle – – –
Diesel-electric drives:
locomotive –
table –
Diesel engines:
analysis of engine process –
combustion chambers –
cooling systems for –
cycle for – – –
efficiency of: indicated –
theoretical –
volumetric –
emissions control strategies –
exhaust temperatures –
exhaust treatments –
fuel injection in –
nozzles for –
fuel lines for –
fuel sprays –
fuels for –
table –
(See also Diesel fuels)Index Terms Links
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Diesel engines: (Cont.)
governing of –
intake manifolds for –
locomotive (see Locomotives, diesel-electric)
lubrication of –
marine –
data on (tables) – –
medium-size (table) –
pollution from –
pump injection –
stationary –
data on (table) –
supercharging –
for tractors –
for trucks and buses –
Diesel fuels – – –
additives –
distillation curves –
grades –
specifications for (table) –
Differential calculus –
Differential chain block –
Differential equations:
homogeneous –
Laplace transforms –
partial –
solutions of – –
Differential transformer pick-ups –
Differentials:
in automobiles –
calculus – Index Terms Links
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Differentiation: rules for –
Digital image correlation (stress analysis) –
Dihedral (def) –
Dimensional analysis –
theorems –
Dimensionless numbers –
Dimensions:
of common variables (table) –
of a quantity (def) –
Dings magnetic separators –
Diode (electronics) –
free-wheeling –
Dip brazing –
Dipole function –
Dirac delta function –
Direct-current circuits, wiring calculations for –
(See also Generators, direct-current)
Direct-current instruments –
Direct energy conversion:
fuel cells –
notable surface of action in –
magnetohydrodynamic generation –
photovoltaic generation –
thermionic generation –
Fermi level –
work-function barrier –
thermoelectric generation –
figure of merit for –
Direct tooling –
Direct view factors (radiation, def) – Index Terms Links
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Directrix:
of catenary –
of ellipse –
of hyperbola –
of parabola –
Discharge coefficients for flow of liquids – – –
Discounted cash flow –
Disk brakes – –
Disk clutches – –
Disks:
air resistance of (table) –
computer – –
controllers for –
nutating, liquid-meter –
rotating: with central hole –
Dispersants: in engine oil –
Dispersion (optical) –
Displacement:
motions –
of ships (def) –
Display technology –
Displays (radar) –
Dissociation:
in combustion of gases –
of gaseous fuels and explosion temperatures (table) –
Distance:
measurement of –
analytic geometry formulas for –
in surveying – – – Index Terms Links
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Distillation of crude oils (chart) –
Distribution systems, electric
(see Electric power distribution)
Distributions (probability) – –
Distributors (electric ignition) –
Disturbance (automatic control, def) –
Divergence:
of nozzles for steam flow –
vector –
Divergence theorem –
Diverters, for belt conveyors –
Division, arithmetical –
DMA (direct memory access) controller –
DME (direct measuring equipment) –
Docking, of space craft –
Docks, loading, design of –
Dodecahedron –
Dolomite, composition of –
Domain (algebra, def) –
Domestic refrigerating machines –
Doors, coefficients of heat transmission through (table) –
for industrial plants –
Dot product (mathematics, def) –
Draft:
forced –
induced –
natural –
of ships (def) –
stack effect (table) – Index Terms Links
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Draft loss (def) –
Draft tubes (hydraulic turbines) –
Drafting, geometrical constructions in – –
Drag (aerodynamics):
coefficients of, for various bodies –
in hydraulics – –
induced – –
parasite –
profile –
supersonic (see Supersonic and hypersonic
aerodynamics)
of various bodies (table) –
of wings –
Drag coefficients (table) –
Drag forces –
Drag-free satellites –
Drag-link mechanisms –
Dragline buckets:
scraper –
self-filling –
Dragline excavators – – –
Drags (molding) – –
Drain pipe (table) –
Drainage fittings –
Dram or drachm:
apothecaries’liquid measure (def) –
apothecaries’weight (def) –
avoirdupois weight (def) – Index Terms Links
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Drawbar horsepower, of locomotives –
Drawing of metals –
pressure in –
various shapes –
work done in –
Dredges:
commercial –
diesel –
digging ladders for – –
elevator –
hydraulic –
placer –
Driers, for paint –
(See also Evaporators)
Drift bolts, pulling resistance of –
Drilling –
various metals (table) –
of plastics –
Drilling machines –
sizes of –
Drills:
for pipe taps (table) –
sizes of (table) –
tap, sizes of (table) –
troubleshooting of (table) –
twist –
sizes of (table) –
Drop-forge dies –
Drop forging –
Drop hammers – – Index Terms Links
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Drop-weight test –
Dropping point (greases) –
Drums:
for hoisting: rope for –
for wire rope, minimum groove dimensions for (table) –
ratios for –
Dry batteries (see Batteries, dry)
Dry-bulb temperature (def) – –
Dry cells –
Dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) –
Dry measure –
DSP (digital signal processor) –
Dual (linear programming) –
Dual-fuel engines –
advantages –
Ductile cast iron (def) – –
Ducts:
air friction in (charts) – –
air velocities in (table) –
design of –
equal friction method for –
static regain method for –
noise in –
pressure loss in –
return face velocities (table) –
Dulong and Petit’s rule (specific heat) –
Dulong’s formula (calorific value of coal) –
Dumbwaiters –
Dump trucks –
Duralumin, creep rates for – Index Terms Links
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Dust (def) – – –
explosive, characteristics of (table) –
removal of, by mechanical separators –
screen scale for (table) –
size of particles in – –
velocity of settling (chart) –
Dust explosions:
building design to prevent –
characteristics of (table) –
composition of atmosphere and dust in –
concentration of dust in –
definition of –
effects of inerts on –
explosibility index of (def) –
factors affecting – –
fineness of dust in –
ignition sources – –
ignition temperatures for –
inerted atmosphere to prevent –
maximum pressure in –
minimum concentrations for –
minimum energy to ignite –
oxygen concentrations for –
particles in, sizes of –
surface area of –
pressure-rise rates –
prevention of –
relative hazards –
relief venting for –
turbulence in –
of various materials (table) – Index Terms Links
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Dynamic balance –
Dynamic braking:
of locomotives – –
of transit cars – –
Dynamic electricity (def) –
Dynamic similarity (models) – –
Dynamic unbalance (def) –
Dynamics –
of fluids –
(See also Fluid dynamics)
Dynamites –
ammonia –
ammonia gelatin –
gelatin –
straight –
Dynamometers –
Dyne (def) –
E
E-Gas (gasification) – –
E transformer – –
Earth:
packed and loose, specific
gravity and density of (table) –
Earthmoving equipment –
Earthquake forces in buildings –
Earthquakes –
design for –
EBM (electron-beam machining) –
Eccentric angle in ellipse – Index Terms Links
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Eccentric loads:
on circular rings –
on cylinders –
on short blocks –
on various cross sections –
Eccentricity:
of ellipse –
of hyperbola –
ECDG (electrochemical discharge grinding) –
ECG (electrochemical grinding) –
Ecology (def) –
(See also Environmental control)
Economic lot size –
Economizers –
corrosion in –
size of –
types of –
Ecosystems –
Eddy-current brakes – –
Eddy-current losses –
Eddy-current testing of materials –
EDG (electric-discharge grinding) –
Edison storage cell – –
EDM (electric-discharge machining) –
(electronic distance meter) –
EDS (Exxon donor solvent) –
EER (energy efficiency ratio, def) –
EFD (experimental fluid dynamics) –
(See also Fluid dynamics, experimental)
Effective temperatures (wind chill, table) – Index Terms Links
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Efficiency:
of Carnot cycle –
of machine elements (table) –
Eigenvalues –
Eigenvectors –
Ejectors:
air (see Air ejectors)
Elastic constants of metals (table) –
Elastic limit (def) – –
in flexure –
proportional (def) –
Elastic solid (def) –
Elasticity (def) –
modulus of (def) –
for metals (tables) – – –
theory of –
Elastomers (rubberlike substances) –
comparative properties of (table) –
properties of, at low temperatures –
Elbow, human, biomechanics of –
loads on –
Electric apparatus:
symbols for –
(See also Electric instruments)
Electric-arc welding (see Welding)
Electric brakes –
Electric circuits (see Circuits)
Electric conductivity –
Electric current (see Current)
Electric-discharge machining of metals – Index Terms Links
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Electric energy:
measurement of –
units of (def) –
Electric equipment, safety devices for –
Electric-furnace steel (def) –
Electric furnaces:
arc –
arcs in –
charges –
electrode consumption –
ladle –
rating and sizes of (table) –
refractories for –
regulation characteristics of (chart) –
single-phase –
submerged-arc –
temperature in –
three-phase –
atmosphere: artificial –
natural –
dielectric heating –
energy consumption of (table) –
high-temperature, resistors for –
induction – –
core-type –
coreless –
frequency for –
operation –
sizes of (table) – Index Terms Links
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Electric furnaces: (Cont.)
induction heating for –
power requirements for (table) –
for refining steel –
resistance – –
with fixed or movable electrodes –
uses of –
resistor –
bath heating –
heating chamber –
high-temperature –
losses from –
operating efficiency –
ovens –
resistors for – –
sizes of –
temperature regulation of –
for tempering –
ventilation of –
types of –
Electric generators (see Generators)
Electric ignition systems (see Ignition systems)
Electric instruments – –
alternating-current –
direct-current –
high-voltage –
impedance bridges –
transformers for –
Electric lamps –
Electric locomotives –
(See also Locomotives)Index Terms Links
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Electric measurements –
Electric meters –
Electric motors:
adjustable bases for –
alternating-current: branch-circuit maximum
ratings (table) –
brushless –
capacitor –
commutator –
computer control of –
heat gain from (table) –
induction –
breakdown torque –
efficiency of (table) –
polyphase –
power and weight (table) –
power factor (table) –
resistor starters for –
rotors –
single-phase –
starting –
speed control –
squirrel-cage –
starting compensator –
switchboard equipment –
wiring calculations –
as induction generator –
industrial applications –
laminated pole –
round-rotor –
salient-pole – Index Terms Links
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Electric motors: (Cont.)
single phasing of –
slip-ring –
synchronous –
performance of (table) –
power and weight of (table) –
synchronous induction –
synchronous reluctance –
turbine –
application of –
branch-circuit protection for –
direct-current –
armature reaction – –
commutating pole – –
commutation –
compound, performance of (table) –
computer control of –
cumulative compound –
full-load currents (table) –
fundamental equations –
industrial applications –
series –
speed control – –
shunt –
armature resistance control –
control by changing impressed voltage –
field-current control –
speed control – –
stabilizing windings for –
starters –
speed and torque characteristics (chart) – Index Terms Links
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Electric motors: (Cont.)
industrial applications –
insulation for (table) –
insulation classes for –
locked-rotor indicating code for –
table –
nameplate information on –
overload protection of –
protective device settings for (table) –
rating of –
running overload protection for –
selection of –
service factors for –
speed control of – –
by multivoltage method –
regulation of (def) –
traction –
Ward-Leonard –
squirrel-cage, locked-rotor indicator code for –
temperature ratings for –
universal –
Electric power (def) –
active (def) –
apparent (def) –
cost of –
formulas –
measurement of –
reactive (def) – Index Terms Links
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Electric power distribution:
circuits –
feeders and mains –
networks, a-c –
service wires –
systems –
three-wire: a-c –
d-c –
wire resistance and reactance (tables) – –
wiring calculations –
Electric power plants (see Power plants)
Electric power transmission –
corona in –
d-c, high-voltage –
lines: Mershon diagram –
overhead, reactance of (table) – –
voltage drop in –
symmetrical system –
underground cables –
ampacities (table) –
Electric resistor materials –
table –
Electric steel –
Electric switchboards –
Electric switches –
Electric vehicles, storage batteries for –
Electric waves:
average value –
form factor – Index Terms Links
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Electric welding (see Welding)
Electric wiring (see Wiring)
Electrical conductors:
ampacities of (table) –
circuit-breakers for –
for equipment grounding –
fuses for –
protection of –
types of (table) –
Electrical engineering –
Electrical machinery, symbols for –
Electrical resistivity of metals (table) – –
Electrical symbols (table) – –
Electrical transmission systems –
Electrical units –
table –
Electricity:
dynamic (def) –
static (def) –
Electrochemical machining –
Electrodynamometer –
Electrohydraulic forming –
Electrolux Servel process of refrigeration –
Electrolytic cells (def) –
reference electrodes for –
standard hydrogen electrodes for –
Electrolytic iron: properties and uses of –
Electromagnetic forming (metalworking) –
Electromagnetic spectrum (chart) – Index Terms Links
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Electromagnets – –
alternating-current –
exciting coils for –
heating of –
lifting –
polyphase –
sparking of –
tractive – –
wire for –
Electromotive force:
induced, direction of –
unit of –
Electron (def) – –
Electron capture (def) –
Electron tubes –
Electronic components –
Electronic voltmeters –
Electronics, industrial –
Electroplating –
in semiconductor manufacturing –
Electrostatic precipitators (boilers) –
Electrotype metal (table) –
Elementary substance (def) –
Elements:
chemical (def, table) –
periodic table of –
physical properties of (table) – –
Elevator dredges – Index Terms Links
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Elevators:
automatic control of –
belt-and-bucket –
bucket –
capacity of (table) –
casings –
continuous –
gravity discharge –
power requirements for –
supercapacity –
car mileage of –
controls for – –
counterweights for –
dispatch systems for –
drives for –
flight times for –
gearless – –
high-rise –
hydraulic –
load ratings for –
low-rise –
medium-rise –
motors for – –
power consumption and efficiency of –
traction-type –
Ellingham diagrams (corrosion) –
Ellipses:
area and perimeter of –
properties of –
quadrant, center of gravity of – Index Terms Links
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Ellipsoid, volume of –
Elliptic integrals –
Elliptic differential equations –
Elongation due to tension (table) –
Embossing of metals –
Emery (abrasive) –
Emery wheels (see Grinding wheels)
Emissions:
engine design conditions to reduce –
engine operating conditions to reduce –
exhaust treatments to reduce –
from internal-combustion engines –
Emissivity (radiant heat, def) –
of carbon dioxide (table) –
gas –
of various surfaces (table) – –
of water vapor (table) –
Emittance (radiant heat, def) –
Employees, of engineers –
Empty set (def) –
Emulsions, cutting fluid (machining) –
Enamel coatings –
Energy (def) – –
atomic (see Atomic energy)
conservation of – – –
thermodynamics –
conversion table for –
electric (see Electric energy)
free (def) –
Helmholtz (def) –
internal: of ideal gas – Index Terms Links
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Energy (def) (Cont.)
kinetic (def) –
law of conservation of – – –
mass equivalence of (formula) –
of moving fluid –
nuclear (see Atomic energy)
potential (def) –
solar (see Solar energy)
Energy conversion:
direct (see Direct energy conversion; Energy converters)
to mass (formula) –
Energy converters –
bioenergetic –
EHD water drop –
electrohydrodynamic –
electrokinetic –
electron convection –
ferroelectric –
ferromagnetic –
magnetostrictive –
magnetothermoelectric –
Nernst effect –
particle-collecting –
photoelectromagnetic –
photogalvanic –
piezoelectric –
pyroelectric –
superconducting –
thermophotovoltaic –
Van der Graaff –
water drop – Index Terms Links
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Energy equivalents (table) –
Energy sources:
from biomass –
geothermal (see Geothermal power)
heat of the seas –
hydroelectric –
reserves –
coal –
natural gas –
nuclear –
petroleum –
shale oil –
tar sands –
solar (see Solar energy)
from thorium –
from uranium –
from vegetation –
from waves –
from wind –
Engineering employees –
Engineering licenses –
Engineering statistics –
Engineer’s liability insurance –
Engines:
airplane (see Airplanes, engines)
automobile (see Automobile engines)
balancing of –
cycles for: internal combustion –
steam – –
diesel (see Diesel engines)Index Terms Links
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Engines: (Cont.)
hot-air –
internal-combustion
(see Internal-combustion engines)
jet (see Aircraft jet propulsion)
marine (see Marine engines)
reciprocating, balancing of –
steam (see Steam engines)
Ennoblement (corrosion) –
Enthalpy (def) –
of gases –
table –
for ideal-gas air (table) –
of ideal gases –
Enthalpy-pressure diagram, for air (chart) –
(See also Pressure-enthalpy chart)
Entropy (def) –
of ideal gas –
Environmental control –
air- and gas-cleaning devices for (table) –
air-cleaning apparatus for –
air pollution: sources of –
tables –
condenser water cooling –
construction projects, considerations for –
cost-benefit calculations for –
cyclone separators for –
federal legislation on: air pollution –
water pollution – –
industrial discharge permits – Index Terms Links
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Environmental control (Cont.)
national policy –
process selection for –
purposes of –
of radioactive waste –
recycling –
scrubbers for –
size of airborne particles (chart) –
standards for industrial discharges (table) –
of sulfur gases and particulates –
sulfur oxides removal for –
thermal discharges –
in various industries –
waste disposal –
wastewater –
Environmental releases, radioactive –
EOQ (economic order quantity, inventory control) –
Epicyclic gear trains –
Epicycloid –
Epitrochoid –
Epoxy resins: properties of (table) –
EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) –
Equations:
Cauchy-Euler equidimensional –
for circle –
differential – –
linear – –
methods of solving –
for ellipse –
linear –
of hyperbola – – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Equations: (Cont.)
of parabola –
simultaneous –
of state (thermodynamics) – –
of a straight line –
Equilibrium (mechanics, def) –
forces, in mechanics –
laws of, in mechanics –
Equilibrium diagram, iron-iron carbide (chart) –
Erg (def) –
Error:
absolute and relative –
in automatic control (def) –
in measurement –
Error compensation (automatic control) –
Escalators –
Esters (solvents) –
Etching, in semiconductor manufacturing –
Ethane: as refrigerant –
Ethanol –
Ethyl alcohol, as solvent –
Ethyl cellulose resins: properties of (table) –
Ethyl chloride, thermal properties of – –
Ethylene glycol (antifreeze), properties of –
Ethylene and polyethylene copolymer resins:
properties of (table) –
Euler method –
Euler number –
Euler’s equations of motion –
Euler’s formula for long columns – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Eutectoid (steel) –
Evaporative condensers – –
Evaporative cooling of condenser water –
Evaporators:
heat transmission in, maximum (table) –
refrigeration –
vapor binding in –
Everdur –
Evolute of a curve (def) –
Excavating machines –
Excavation, volume computation in –
Excavators –
dragline –
Excess air for combustion (charts) –
coefficient of –
Exchangers, heat (see Heat exchangers)
Exciters, switchboard equipment for –
Exergy (def) –
Exfoliation, of aluminum –
Exhaust gas:
analysis of (chart) –
apparatus for –
Exhaust systems, fans for –
Exide ironclad battery –
Exitance (def) –
Expansion:
of bodies by heat –
coefficients of (table) – –
of petroleum products (table) –
in compound engines –
of functions in series – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Expansion: (Cont.)
of gases (formulas) – –
of pipelines, stresses due to –
of saturated and superheated vapors (formulas) – –
thermal, coefficients of (def) –
Expansion ratio, effect on engine economy –
Expected value (def) –
Expenses:
fixed, characteristics of –
variable, characteristics of –
Experimental fluid dynamics (EFD) –
(See also Fluid dynamics, experimental)
Explosion welding –
Explosions:
detonation rates of (table) –
of dusts (see Dust explosions)
in internal-combustion engines –
Explosive D –
table –
Explosive forming –
Explosives –
ballistic mortar strength of –
deflagrating (def) –
detonating (def) –
dynamite –
emulsions –
military –
table –
permissible in mines –
sensitivity of –
water-based – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Exponential series –
Exponential smoothing (forecasting) –
Exponents (algebra, def) –
Extraction turbines –
Extrusion of metals –
Eyebolts –
proportions and strength of (table) –
EZPass (radio-frequency identification system) –
F
F distribution (statistics, table) –
f number (optics) –
Fabric structures, air-inflated
(see Air-inflated fabric structures)
Fabrics –
impregnated, for insulation –
Face brick –
Factories (see Industrial plants)
Factory accounts (see Cost accounting)
Fahrenheit:
conversion to Celsius (eq) –
conversion to Rankine (eq) –
Failure, theories of –
Falk flexible couplings –
False position (root finding) –
Fans:
axial-flow –
centrifugal (see Centrifugal fans)
classification of –
forced-draft –
induced-draft – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Fans: (Cont.)
jet –
laws for –
laws of –
propeller –
(See also Blowers)
Farad (capacitance, def) –
Fast flexible couplings –
Fast Fourier transform –
Fasteners, aluminum, properties of (table) –
Fathom (def) –
Fatigue:
endurance limit in (table) –
of metals –
effects of corrosion on –
effects of notches on –
effects of overstressing and understressing on –
Fatigue failure –
of shafts –
Fatigue limit (def) –
Faure storage battery –
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) – –
Feedback loop (automatic control) –
Feeder panels, equipment for –
Feeders:
belt conveyor –
of electric distribution systems –
for conveyors –
Feeding devices, for conveyors – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Feedwater:
alkalinity –
amines for –
ammonia in –
blowdown –
combined water treatment for –
corrosion by –
deaeration of –
evaporation –
filtering –
heating, regenerative (turbines) –
impurities in –
effect in boiler –
limits, ABMA (table) –
oxygen removal – –
oxygen scavengers for –
oxygenated treatment for –
pH –
phosphate treatment of –
polishing of –
purification of –
scale from –
sludge –
softening –
thermal deaerators for –
treatment of –
amines, use of –
cation exchange –
chemical –
demineralization –
hardness elimination – – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Feedwater: (Cont.)
of raw water –
solids removal –
Feedwater heaters:
condensing –
deaerators –
spray-type –
tray-type –
desuperheating section –
drain-cooling section –
friction loss (table) –
heat-transfer rates –
high-pressure –
length of –
low-pressure –
materials for –
open-feed –
performance calculations –
pressure drop in –
regenerative cycle for –
tube-wall thickness (table) –
types of –
vent condensers for –
Felts –
roofing –
Ferrite (def) –
Ferroalloy furnace (electric) –
Ferroelectric crystals – –
Table – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Ferroelectrics –
electromechanical coupling behavior of –
glossary of terms in –
hysteresis loop in –
piezoelectricity in –
FET (field effect transistor) –
FHB (fluid-bed hydrogenization) –
Fiber composites – –
advanced –
anisotropic behavior of – –
classical lamination theory – –
design of –
failure of – –
fibers in –
properties of (tables) – – –
glass-polymer, properties of (table) –
graphite-polymer, properties of (table) –
homogenization of –
laminates – – –
balanced –
cross-ply –
deformations of –
engineering properties of –
macromechanics of –
stack sequence in – –
stress analysis of –
symmetric –
manufacture of –
matrices for –
mechanics of –
micromechanical models (def) – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Fiber composites (Cont.)
micromechanics of a layer –
orthotropic behavior of – –
rule-of-mixtures model –
smearing of –
for space applications –
stress-strain behavior of a layer –
volume fraction (def) –
Fiber optics –
Fiberglass –
Fibers:
animal –
for cordage –
creep of –
denier (unit of fineness) –
elastic properties (table) –
glass –
tables – –
heat endurance –
identification of –
inorganic –
nylon –
tables – –
properties of (tables) – –
rayon –
synthetic –
Teflon –
vegetable –
zirconia – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Fibonacci series –
Field buses (information transmission) –
Field of force –
Field intensity (magnetic, def) –
Film coefficients –
for boiling liquids – –
combined convection and radiation –
condensing vapors –
extended surfaces – –
factors influencing –
forced-circulation evaporators –
for gases – –
heat transmission (def) – –
for high-velocity gases – –
laminar flow –
natural convection –
over tubes – –
turbulent flow – –
Filmogen (paint, def) –
Filters, capacitor –
Filtration of sound –
Fineness modulus (concrete, def) –
Finish shearing –
Finite-difference methods, in torsion calculations –
Finite-element analysis –
Finite-element methods –
basic concepts in –
closed-form solution –
Galerkin method –
for heat conduction analysis –
potential energy formulation – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Finite-element methods (Cont.)
for space-vehicle analysis –
for torsion calculations –
for truss analysis –
Finite element methods, for vibration analysis – –
FIR (finite impulse response) –
Fire extinguishing, hand apparatus for –
Fire hose –
couplings for: ANSI (table) –
screw threads –
Fire point of oil (def) –
Fire protection – –
building construction for –
hose for (see Fire hose)
hydrants for –
for industrial plants –
information sources on –
by isolation –
loss limitation in –
pumps for –
resistant materials for –
sprinkler equipment for –
standpipes for –
with temporary heating –
with temporary storage –
underground piping for –
water supply for –
Fire pumps –
Fire resistance of building materials – – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Firebrick – –
coatings for –
heat losses and heat-storage capacity of (table) –
manufacture of –
mortars for –
plastics and ramming mixtures for –
selection of –
shapes and sizes of –
table –
(See also Refractories)
Fireclay refractories –
table –
Fires, from dusts, combating of –
Fischer-Tropsch process –
Fission of nuclei (see Nuclear fission)
Fits –
allowances and tolerances –
classification of –
force –
international, tolerances for (table) –
limits for (table) –
locational interference –
metric –
preferred (table) –
press –
pressures in (charts) –
pressures required in making –
stresses due to –
torsional holding of – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Fits (Cont.)
running, allowances for (table) –
shrink: allowances for (table) –
stresses due to –
transition – –
Fittings, pipe (see Pipe fittings)
Fitts’law (task performance) –
Flakeboard –
Flame propagation in gaseous fuels –
Flame radiation –
Flame speed, in internal combustion engines –
Flame temperatures, of gaseous fuels (table) –
Flame travel, in internal-combustion engines –
Flammability of fuels:
gaseous –
table –
limits of (table) –
LeChatelier’s equation for –
Flanged-face couplings –
Flanged fittings:
cast-iron –
steel –
Flanges:
cast-iron –
steel –
unions –
Flash intercoolers, for refrigeration systems –
Flash point, of lubricating oils (def) –
Flasks (molding) – –
Flats, of bolts and nuts (table) – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Flax, properties of (tables) – –
Flexible metal hose and tubing –
Flexure, theory of (beams) –
Flight (see Aerodynamics)
Flight conveyors –
Flip-flop (electronic circuit) –
JK circuit –
Float (scheduling) –
Float glass –
Floors:
earthquake-resistant –
industrial plant –
loads on –
plank, safe load on, and deflection (table) –
reinforced-concrete –
safety provisions for –
trusses for –
chart –
wood –
joists for –
wood-block –
Flotation –
Flow:
of air: measurement of –
in pipes –
in pneumatic conveyors –
coefficients of friction –
of compressible fluids – – – –

through nozzles – – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Flow: (Cont.)
through orifices – – –
in pipes –
friction loss –
of cryogens, measurement of –
of gases: fundamental equations –
measurement of –
of heat –
conversion table for –
(See also Heat transmission)
of liquids: dimensional analysis of –
laminar – – –
measurement of (see Flow meters)
through orifices – –
in pipes –
turbulent – – –
(See also Flow, of water)
of materials, in plants –
(See also Materials handling)
of metal at high temperatures (creep) –
of steam: through labyrinth packings –
through nozzles –
through orifices –
in pipes –
friction loss due to –
resistance of fittings to –
saturated –
of water: measurement of (see Flow meters)
through notches – –
through nozzles – –
in open channels – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
in pipes –
Chézy equation for –
Manning formula for –
in streams: estimation by surveying –
venturi meter for –
over weirs – –
Flow analysis, of materials in plants –
Flowcharts –
Flowers: effects of sulfur dioxide on (table) –
Flow meters – – –
Coanda effect –
Coriolis mass –
Doppler –
fluidic –
magmeter –
paddlewheel –
propeller –
sonar –
thermal dispersion –
transit-time –
ultrasonic –
vortex-shedding –
Flue gas:
analysis of – –
apparatus for –
heat loss in –
Flue gas desulfurization (steam generation) –
Fluid couplings (see Couplings)Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Fluid dynamics –
computational –
boundary layer flow –
governing equations of –
irrotational flow –
Kelvin’s theorem –
Navier-Stokes flow –
vorticity –
experimental –
classification of measurements –
general requirements of –
hot-wire probes –
laser doppler anemometry – –
laser speckle strophometry –
micro and nano sensors –
molecular tagging velocimetry –
multisensor probes –
nuclear magnetic resonance –
particle image velocimetry – – –
planar doppler velocimetry –
pressure measurements –
pressure-sensitive paint –
quantum dot nanoparticles –
temperature measurements –
temperature-sensitive paint –
thermal anemometry –
velocity measurements –
vorticity measurements –
Fluid kinematics –
Fluid statics – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Fluid volume, measurement of –
Fluidized beds, in furnaces – –
Fluids (def) –
coefficients of friction (formulas) –
flow (see Flow)
general properties of –
ideal (def) –
for machining –
measurement of –
(See also Flow meters)
Newtonian (def) –
non-Newtonian (def) –
throttling of – –
Fluorescent lamps –
Fluoroplastic resins: properties of (table) –
Flux density (magnetic, def) –
Fly ash, sintering of –
Flywheel effect (def) –
Flywheels:
arms, design of –
high-speed, stresses in rims –
rims –
split-rim –
stresses in –
weight determination –
Wittenbauer’s analysis –
FMC coke process –
Focal length of lenses – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Focus:
of ellipses –
of hyperbola –
of parabola –
Foil, laminated –
Follow boards (mold making) –
Food-board –
Foot (def) –
Footings:
for foundations –
reinforced-concrete –
Force (def) –
centrifugal –
centripetal –
components of – –
composition of –
definition of units –
equilibrium of –
external and internal (def) –
field of –
intensity of (def) –
fundamental equation of –
line of (def) –
supporting –
unbalanced –
units of – –
Force fits –
Force polygon –
Forced-circulation boilers – –
Forced draft – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Forces:
on irregular surfaces (mechanics) –
in mechanical linkages –
resultant of –
system of, in equilibrium –
Forecasting –
double exponential smoothing –
moving average –
seasonality in –
time series for –
Forging, of metals –
Forging dies –
Forging hammers – –
Forging steel (table) –
uses of –
Fork trucks –
Form factor, a-c waves –
Formation, heats of (def) –
Formcoke (coke making) –
Forms, for reinforced concrete –
Forsterite (refractory) –
Fortran –
Forward path (automatic control, def) –
Fossil fuels, reserves of –
Foucault-current losses –
Fouling index, of coal –
Foundations:
bearing pressure on soils –
caisson methods for –
deep – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Foundations: (Cont.)
excavation, computations in –
footings for –
pile –
setting stakes for –
spread (reinforced-concrete columns) –
Foundries –
casting inspection in – –
cleaning equipment for castings in –
melting processes used in –
molding equipment for –
(See also Castings; Molding)
Four-cycle engines –
advantages –
Fourier coefficients –
Fourier integral equation –
Fourier series –
Fourier transform –
Fourier’s law (heat conduction) –
FPGA (field-programmable gate array) –
Fractions, decimal values (table) –
Fracture:
at low stress –
under tension and compression –
Fracture mechanics –
Fracture stress (def) –
Frame of reference (mechanics, def) –
Framed structures, steel (see Steel-framed structures)
Francis turbines – –
Free energy (thermodynamics) – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Free-swelling index test for coal – –
Freezing points:
of the elements (table) – –
of various substances (table) –
Freezing preventives –
Freight cars –
axles for –
coupler cushioning for –
design of –
dimensions of –
discharge gates for –
lading restraints for –
suspensions for – –
train resistance –
wheels for –
Freon (See also Refrigerant)
Freon : pressure-enthalpy chart for –
Frequency:
a-c (def) – –
natural – –
Frequency bands (tables) –
Frequency modulation (radio) –
Frequency response:
of automatic controls –
graphical display –
Fresh air requirements for various locations (table) –
Friction:
coefficients of (def) –
clutches (table) –
fluid flow in pipes –
journal bearings – – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Friction: (Cont.)
rolling (table) –
static and sliding (def) –
tables –
tables –
thrust bearings – –
for various materials –
dry (def) –
effect of sliding velocity on –
of liquids in pipes –
of machine elements –
rolling (def) –
skin (aerodynamics) –
of steam engines –
Friction brakes, horsepower absorbed by –
Friction clutches (automobile) –
Friction factors for pipes (liquid flow) –
Friction head (liquid) –
Friction loss in pipe fittings (table) –
Friction sawing (metal) –
Frigorie, European unit of refrigeration (def) –
Fringes (optics) –
Froude’s law (ship resistance) –
Froude number – – – –

Frustum, of cone or pyramid, volume of –
Fuel cells – – –
Fuel injection:
for diesel engines –
fuel lines for –
nozzles for – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Fuel injection: (Cont.)
pump injection systems –
pumps for –
system characteristics –
for spark ignition engines –
central –
injector pulse –
port –
speed-density controls for –
systems – –
Fuel oils:
analyses of (table) –
API and specific gravity of (tables) – –
combustion in boiler furnaces –
crude –
flash point of –
grades of –
heat of vaporization of –
table –
heat values (tables) – –
pour point of –
specific heat of –
(See also Fuels, liquid)
Fuels – – – –

alternative –
autoignition temperatures –
aviation turbine –
table –
biomass –
for boilers – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Fuels (Cont.)
briquettes –
by-product (table) –
combustion of (see Combustion)
consumption of (automobiles) –
cost, in power plants –
diesel –
table –
(See also Diesel fuels)
flame speed in –
fossil, reserves of –
for gas turbines, grades of –
gaseous –
analysis of – –
combustion of – –
air required –
table –
in boiler furnaces –
dissociation in –
table –
products of (table) –
temperature –
volume contraction –
composition of (table) –
flame propagation –
flammability –
table –
heat value (table) –
for industrial heating – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Fuels (Cont.)
odorization of –
physical constants of –
specifications for –
heat value (def) – –
high and low (def) –
heats of formation –
for industrial heating –
for internal-combustion engines – –
table –
jet –
table –
knock rating –
knock suppressors (table) –
liquid –
combustion of – –
air required (table) –
products of (table) –
heat values (tables) – –
for industrial heating –
molecular weight (table) –
properties of –
volatility of (def) –
nuclear (see Nuclear fuels)
oils (see Fuel oils)
peat –
products of combustion of (table) –
rocket – Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Fuels (Cont.)
solid, combustion of –
air required for –
products of –
specific gravity and density of (table) –
synthetic –
liquefaction of –
from coal –
wood –
Full annealing (def) –
Fuller-Kinyon system –
Fumes (def) –
Functions:
algebraic (def) –
gamma – –
hyperbolic (tables) –
series for –
implicit –
trigonometric –
series for –
of two or more variables –
Fungible-service pipelines –
Furan resins: properties of (table) –
Furlong (unit of length, def) –
Furnace brazing –
Furnaces:
arches for –
boiler (see Boiler furnaces)
combustion
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