Make – Props and Costume Armor

Make – Props and Costume Armor
اسم المؤلف
Shawn Thorsson
التاريخ
16 أبريل 2024
المشاهدات
154
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Make – Props and Costume Armor
Create Realistic Science Fiction and Fantasy Weapons, Armor
Shawn Thorsson
CONTENTS

  1. Preface
  2. Acknowledgements
  3. PART I: Prototypes and One-Offs
  4. Chapter 1: Building with Sheets and Tubes
  5. Starting Off Simple
  6. Battle Axe for the Wolf Warrior
  7. Hunter’s Rifle
  8. Chapter 2: Working with Pepakura
  9. Pepakura Boot Camp
  10. Putting Pepakura to Work
  11. Making It Hard
  12. Making It Smooth
  13. Detailing
  14. Chapter 3: EVA Foam
  15. Sourcing: Where to Get Foam
  16. The Basics: Making Foam Obey Your Every Whim
  17. Patterning
  18. Final Detailing
  19. Prepping for Paint
  20. Paint!
  21. Chapter 4: 3D Printing and CNC Carving
  22. PART II: Molding and Casting1. Chapter 5: Mold-Making Basics
  23. The Simplest Molds Ever
  24. Mold-Making Material
  25. Mold-Making Terminology
  26. Chapter 6: One-Piece Molds
  27. Easy Version: A Part with a Flat Backside
  28. Slightly Harder Version: A Piece with Details on All Sides
  29. Chapter 7: Multi-Piece Molds
  30. Starting Simple: A Two-Part Mold with a Mold Box
  31. Not So Simple: A Three-Piece Silicone Rubber Jacket Mold with a Mother Mold
  32. A Few Tips and Tricks for Better Castings
  33. Chapter 8: Molds for Rotocasting
  34. Prepare the Prototype
  35. Prepare the Work Space
  36. Building Up the Rubber Jacket
  37. Building the Mother Mold
  38. Rotocasting
  39. Trimming and Prepping the Cast Part for Painting
  40. PART III: Vacuum Forming
  41. Chapter 9: Vacforming Basics
  42. Terminology
  43. Designing the Forming Bucks
  44. Building the Forming Bucks
  45. Choosing Plastics for Vacforming
  46. The Simplest Possible Vacforming Setup2. Chapter 10: Build Your Own Vacuum Forming Machine
  47. Begin by Building the Clamping Frame
  48. Heat Sources
  49. Common Configurations
  50. Building the Platen
  51. Vacuum Sources
  52. Putting It to Work
  53. PART IV: Painting and Weathering
  54. Chapter 11: Basecoats and Masking
  55. More Than You Ever Wanted to Know About Paint
  56. Basecoats: Building a Believable Finish Starts with a Solid Foundation
  57. Masking and Stenciling
  58. Chapter 12: Faux Finishes
  59. Metal
  60. Leather
  61. Wood Grain
  62. Carbon Fiber
  63. Chapter 13: Weathering
  64. Additive Weathering
  65. Subtractive Weathering
  66. Mud
  67. Rust
  68. The Path to Patina
  69. Scorches and Burn Marks
  70. Burnt Metal
  71. Blood Spatter7. PART V: Bringing It All Together
  72. Chapter 14: Strapping and Padding
  73. Padding
  74. Armor Attachment Options
  75. Strapping Materials
  76. Buckles and Related Hardware
  77. How to Attach Straps to Stuff
  78. Design Considerations for Strapping Your Armor Together
  79. The Tricky Bits
  80. Odds and Ends: A Few More Strapping Tips
  81. Chapter 15: Showing Off
  82. Handlers
  83. Field Repair Kit
  84. Posing for Photos
  85. Planned Photoshoots
  86. Index
    INDEX
    Numbers
    3D model. See also Hunter helmet
    choosing and designing, 36
    of cube with notch, 30
    entering dimensions, 36
    printing, 30
    rearranging seams, 36
    sizing, 31
    template, 31
    3D printing. Seealso Pepakura Designer shareware; printing
    build lines, 84
    versus CNC (computer numeric control), 82
    A
    ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), choosing for vacforming, 163
    ABS pipe, for battle axe, 17
    acrylic
    choosing for vacforming, 163
    paint, 194
    additive weathering, 222–226
    adhesives
    for battle axe, 11
    for binding sawdust, 5cyanoacrylate, 43
    for Pepakura, 34
    aluminum foil
    using duct tape with, 74
    using with armor, 70
    ankles, wrists, and necks, 254–256
    armor
    after making forming platen, 172
    attachment options, 247–249
    back of hand area, 72–73
    breastplate, 73–74, 77
    cup shape, 75–76
    dents and scratches, 77–78
    elbow area, 73
    gauntlet, 70
    painting, 80
    paper template, 75
    prepping for paint, 79–80
    raised and layered details, 78
    rivets and screw heads, 79
    seams and panel lines, 77
    set of parts for, 174
    tin foil, 70
    tools and materials, 58, 70
    trimming gauntlet, 78B
    baking tray, using for clamping frame, 165, 169–170
    bandage shears, using for forearm, 71
    bar clamps, using for battle axe, 10
    basecoats. See also paint
    clothing choices, 198–199
    ergonomics, 197–198
    overspray protection, 197
    portability of small objects, 198
    primer, 199–200
    spray can handles, 198
    surface preparation, 196
    wearing respirators, 198
    work-space preparation, 197–199
    battle axe
    ABS pipe for, 17
    cutting shape of, 13
    driving screw, 12
    dry-fitting parts of, 14
    finishing, 18
    glue, 11
    handle, 17
    holding together styrene layers, 15
    MDF (medium-density fiberboard), 8PVC pipe fittings, 17
    shaping blade, 8–9
    shimming inner pipe, 17
    solvent cement, 16
    template, 12
    behavior, being cool, xii–xiii
    belt buckle. See also Hunter character
    back of, 93–99
    button in middle of, 6–7
    colors, 5
    creating for Hunter character, 4–7
    foundation layer, 6
    gray primer, 7
    MDF (medium-density fiberboard), 5
    metal versions of, 100
    outline, 5
    replicating, 99
    scroll saw, 6
    shaping, 6
    spot putty, 7
    textured styrene sheet, 6
    bends, in foam, 63–64
    blackwash, applying, 230, 234
    block mold. See box mold
    blood splatter weathering, 239–242bolts
    making visible, 54
    using to attach straps, 250–251
    Bondo
    mixing with resin, 46
    secrets of, 48
    box mold. See also mold box
    back of belt buckle, 93–99
    peeling off prototype, 97
    breastplate
    making, 73–74, 77
    raised pattern, 78
    brush painting, 199. See also painting
    brushed steel faux finish, 211–212
    bubbles
    adding vents for, 103
    appearance in rotocasting, 138
    preventing, 139
    preventing in molds, 131–132
    untrapping from rubber, 96
    buckles, 249–250
    bucks, explained, 156
    burn marks and scorches, 237–238
    burnt metal weathering, 238–239
    buttplates, 260buttstock, building for Hunter’s rifle, 110–117
    C
    cam buckles, 249–250
    carbon fiber, faux finishes, 218–219
    cardboard
    for drip wall, 137
    using with Hunter helmet, 44
    cast part
    making, 99
    prepping for painting, 150–152
    removing from mold box, 116
    trimming for painting, 150–152
    cast products, 90
    casting resin, using rice with, 98
    castings
    demolding, 98
    explained, 89
    improving, 131–132
    catalyst, explained, 89
    caulking edges with clay, 162
    center release buckles, 249–250
    chest. See breastplate
    chip brush, using with resin, 45
    clamping framebuilding for vacforming, 164–165, 169–170
    explained, 156
    for vacuum forming machine, 176–179
    clamps, using with battle axe, 14–15
    clay
    caulking edges with, 162
    oil- versus water-based, 158–159
    sprue made of, 102
    clay bed
    building for mold box, 111
    registration keys, 111
    clay blob, adding to mother mold, 143
    clay tabs, adding to parting wall, 161
    CNC (computer numeric control), 81–82
    codpieces, 260
    cold casting metal, 99–100
    compound curves in foam, 63–64
    contact cement, using with foam, 60
    contour gauge, using with Hunter helmet, 54
    corners, in foam, 63–64
    costume armor. See armor
    cotton and canvas webbing straps, 249
    craft foam, sourcing, 58
    cube with notch, 3D model of, 30, 34
    cup shape, making, 75–76curing gypsum products, 161
    curing time, explained, 89
    curves in foam, 63–64
    cut-off wheel, using with mother mold, 146
    cutting. See also relief cut
    foam, 59–60, 63
    shape of battle axe, 13
    cyanoacrylate adhesives, 11, 15–16, 34, 42
    D
    dagger, 108
    marking sides of, 102
    mounted prototype, 101–102
    prototype, mold, and cast part, 107
    prototype removed from cut mold, 106
    replicating, 108
    sprue made of clay, 102
    vents for bubbles, 103
    degassing silicone, 122
    demolding
    castings, 98
    explained, 90
    prototypes, 97, 115
    dents and scratches, adding to armor, 77–78
    doe, explained, 90draft, explained, 90
    drills, using, xii
    D-rings, 249–250
    drip walls, 137
    from mother mold, 126
    removing, 123
    drybrushing, 225–227
    duct tape
    dummy, 64–67
    using with foil, 74
    dummy. See duct tape
    E
    ears, protecting, ix
    elastic straps, 249
    elbows
    and knees, 258
    shaping, 73
    enamel paint, 194–195
    epoxy paint, 195
    EVA foam. See also foam
    gluing straps to, 253
    sourcing, 58
    eye holes, rough trimming, 151
    eyes, protecting, viii–ixF
    fabric straps, 249
    factory-looking parts. See vacforming
    faux finishes
    carbon fiber, 218–219
    leather, 212–214
    metal, 210–212
    wood grain, 214–218
    fiberboard. See MDF (medium-density fiberboard)
    fiberglass
    adding to mother mold, 142–143
    brushing resin into, 125
    gluing straps to, 253
    laying over resin, 124
    resin and Bondo, 46
    warning about, 125
    fiberglass work, doing for Hunter helmet, 44–45
    field repair kit, 264–265
    filler, explained, 90
    Flap tool, using in Pepakura, 32
    flat backside on back of part, 93–99
    florist’s foam, using for forming bucks
    flux capacitor, explained, 91
    foam. See also EVA foamcontact cement, 60
    corners, bends, and compound curves, 63–64
    cutting, 59–60, 63
    hiding seams, 62
    joining seams, 60–61
    lap joint, 62
    melting and deforming, 63
    reshaping by hand, 63–64
    seams and joints, 61–62
    for shin armor, 69
    sourcing, 58
    tracing template on, 72
    using hot glue with, 60–61
    foam armor
    human model, 65
    tools and materials, 65
    foam strip, sizing for forearm, 71
    foil
    using duct tape with, 74
    using with armor, 70
    footman loops, 249–250
    forearm, pattern for, 70–72
    forming bucks, 156. See also molds
    building, 157–162
    designing, 156–157finishing, 162
    molds filled with plaster, 162
    placement of, 169
    plaster print coat, 159
    strengthening, 160
    thickening mold with plaster, 159
    forming platen. See also platen
    placement of forming bucks, 169
    using in vacforming, 166–174
    for vacuum forming machine, 183–184
    G
    gang mold, explained, 90
    gauntlets, 158
    cutting pattern for, 70
    matched pair of, 72
    trimming, 78
    gel and gel time, explained, 90
    glass reinforced plastic, 124
    glue
    adhesion, 252
    applying to battle axe, 11, 16
    using to attach straps, 251
    gluing
    straps to EVA foam, 253straps to sheet plastics, 251–252
    goos, using to attach straps, 251
    gray primer
    adding to Hunter helmet, 53
    using for belt buckle, 7
    using with wolf helmet, 83
    gypsum products, curing, 161
    H
    hand plate, sculpting, 158
    handlers, 263–264
    handplates, attaching, 257–258
    hands, protecting, ix
    heat guns, using, xi–xii
    heat sources for vacuum forming machine, 177–179
    helmet. See 3D model; Hunter helmet
    HIPS (high-impact polystyrene), choosing for vacforming, 163
    hips and shoulders, 259
    hole saw, using for battle axe, 10
    hollow copies, making, 134
    hot glue, using with foam, 60–61
    hot knife, using to cut foam, 59
    human model
    duct taping, 66–67
    plastic wrapping, 65space for legs and arms, 67
    Hunter character. See also belt buckle
    adhesive for binding sawdust, 5
    belt buckle for, 4–7
    forming shoulder for, 173
    posing, 267
    reference artwork, 5
    Hunter helmet. See also 3D model; rotocasting; mother mold; rotocasting;
    wolf helmet parts
    3D model, 35, 43
    appearance of bubbles, 138
    avoiding errors, 42
    building essentials, 40–41
    building rows of ridges, 54
    building up rubber jacket, 138–139
    choosing place to begin, 42
    concept art, 35
    contour gauge, 54
    crown parts, 38
    cured print coat, 139
    detailing, 53–55
    drip wall, 137
    fiberglass work, 44–45
    filling holes with spot putty, 55
    finding starting point, 37gluing pieces together, 42
    gray primer, 53
    making hard, 43–50
    making paper shiny, 45
    making smooth, 50–53
    making waterproof, 46
    mother mold, 140–147
    nose parts, 42
    painted version of, 152
    preparing prototype, 135–136
    preparing work space, 138
    printing, 40
    problems with, 134
    rearranging seams, 38
    resin, 44–46
    resin/Bondo mixture, 46
    rough trimming eye holes, 151
    scoring fold lines, 42
    seams and tabs, 39
    shaping, filling, and sanding, 52
    silicone registration keys, 140
    thixotropic additive, 139
    tiny parts, 40
    tools and materials, 40–41
    unfolding process, 39workbench, 44
    Hunter’s rifle. See also three-part silicone rubber molds
    barrel assembly, 24–25
    bending sharp corners, 26
    butt, 20–21
    buttstock, 110
    cutout for battery pack, 27
    determining scale, 18–19
    final assembly, 27–28
    finishing, 131
    forward body, 23–24
    gluing pieces together, 27
    holes drilled, 27
    lights and electronics, 22–23
    magazine well, 120
    main body, 21–22
    parts, 27
    upper cover pieces, 25–27
    Hydra, Liz, 187
    I
    ice cube tray, using for registration keys, 121
    J
    jack plane, using for battle axe, 9
    jacket mold. See also mold jacketwith mother mold, 134
    thickening, 126
    jigsaw
    using for battle axe, 9
    using with battle axe, 8
    using with Hunter helmet, 54
    K
    ketchup, using as masking agent, 228
    keys, explained, 90
    knees and elbows, 258
    knives
    keeping sharp, 59
    using, x
    Krix, Harrison, 187
    L
    lacquer paint, 195
    lap joint, using with foam, 62
    leather
    faux finishes, 212–214
    straps, 249
    lungs, protecting, viii
    M
    magazine wellfilling with clay, 120
    prepping for molding, 129
    magnets, using with vacuum forming machine, 186
    mannequin, building from duct tape, 64–68
    masking agents, 228–229
    masking tape
    painting, 206
    removing, 208
    using for painting, 205–208
    using with gauntlet, 73
    using with shin armor, 69
    materials. See tools and materials
    MDF (medium-density fiberboard)
    using for battle axe, 8
    using for Hunter character, 5
    using for Wolf Warrior character, 11
    wolf helmet parts, 83
    metal, 210–212. See also patina weathering
    metal parts, simulating look of, 99–100
    microballoons, adding, 116, 132, 149
    mixing plaster, 160
    model, explained, 90. See also prototypes
    mold box. See also box mold
    building, 103
    for buttstock, 111clay bed, 111
    coating with release agent, 114
    demolded prototype, 115
    demolding prototype, 106
    disassembling, 104, 115
    height of, 103
    ink on outside of, 105
    jeweler’s cut, 106
    pouring in resin, 116
    pouring rubber into, 104
    reassembling, 115
    relief cut, 104–105
    removing cast part from, 116
    serpentine cut in, 105
    strapping together, 116
    mold jacket, smoothing, 123. See also jacket mold
    mold release, spraying on, 126
    mold-making
    material, 88–89
    terminology, 89–91
    molds. See also forming bucks; mother mold; multi-piece molds;
    rotocasting
    of clay, 88
    explained, 90
    filling with resin, 97–98peeling off prototypes, 97
    piece with details on sides, 101–108
    of silicone rubber, 89
    sprues and vents, 112
    mother mold. See also Hunter helmet; molds
    adding fiberglass, 142–143
    building for Hunter helmet, 140–147
    building second half of, 128–129
    clay blob, 143
    clay parting wall, 141
    completing, 125–126
    explained, 90
    holes drilled around flange, 144
    jacket mold with, 134
    mixing instructions, 141
    prying apart, 129
    reassembling, 147
    relief cut, 146–147
    wall coated with resin, 142
    mud weathering, 230–231
    multi-piece molds, making with mold box, 110–117. See also molds
    mustard, using as masking agent, 228–229
    N
    necks, ankles, and wrists, 254–256notches, cutting into paper template, 75
    nuts, using to attach straps, 250–251
    nylon straps, 249
    O
    .OBJ format, converting models to, 30
    one-piece molds. See Hunter’s belt buckle
    P
    padding
    adding, 246
    installing, 247
    materials, 246–247
    paint. See also basecoats; spray painting
    alligatoring, 203
    application processes, 196
    applying, 200–201
    blistering, 202
    blushing, 201
    brush marks, 204
    compatibility, 195–196
    crinkling or wrinkling, 203–204
    elements of, 194
    fish eyes, 203
    grainy or bumpy surfaces, 202–203
    hair, dust, lint, or bugs, 204masking tape, 205–208
    problems and solutions, 201–204
    sagging or running, 201
    types of, 194–195
    painting. See also brush painting
    armor, 80
    masking tape, 206
    prepping armor for, 79–80
    prepping cast part for, 150–152
    trimming cast part for, 150–152
    paper, making shiny, 45
    paper template, making, 75–76. See also template
    parachute buckles, 249–250, 259
    parting line, explained, 90
    parting wall
    clay tabs added to, 161
    making from water-based clay, 159
    parts
    for armor, 174
    explained, 89
    with flat backside, 93–99
    sculpting, 158
    patina weathering, 236–237. See also metal
    patterns. See also template
    bandage shears for forearm, 71forearm, 70–72
    shaping, 68
    template for shin armor, 69
    test fitting for gauntlet, 72
    peeling molds off prototypes, 97
    pencil, rubbing with, 12–13
    Pepakura Designer shareware. See also 3D printing; prototyping
    adhesives, 34
    Check Corresponding Face tool, 37, 40–41
    downloading, 30
    Flap tool, 32
    gluing seams, 34
    model parts cut out, 33
    Print Page Numbers box, 40
    print settings, 33
    printing on cardstock, 33
    scored line for fold, 34
    PETG (polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified), 163
    photos, posing for, 265–267
    pipe fittings, boring and shimming, 17
    plaster, mixing, 160
    plaster mold, prying apart halves of, 161
    plaster print coat, 159
    plastics, choosing for vacforming, 163–164
    platen, explained, 156. See also forming platenpolyester resins, warning about, 44–46. See also resin
    polystyrene, choosing for vacforming, 163
    powdered brass, dusting mold with, 99
    power tools, using, xii
    primer
    adding for rust weathering, 232
    applying, 199–200
    color, 228
    print coat, pouring on prototype, 126
    printing. See also 3D printing
    3D model, 30
    Hunter helmet, 40
    Pepakura model on cardstock, 33
    protective equipment, using, viii
    prototypes. See also model
    demolding, 115
    preparing for rotocasting, 135–136
    prototyping. See Pepakura Designer shareware, 82
    back of belt buckle, 93–99
    buttstock for Hunter’s rifle, 110–117
    explained, 90
    peeling box mold off of, 97
    PVC pipe fittings, for battle axe, 17
    Rrapid prototyping systems, 82
    registration keys
    adding to clay bed, 112
    making from ice cube tray, 121
    in silicone surface, 140
    for three-part silicone rubber mold, 123
    release agent
    coating mold box with, 114
    explained, 90
    relief cut. See also cutting
    making for mold box, 104–105
    for mother mold, 146–147
    resin. See polyester resins
    covering with fiberglass mat, 124
    filling mold with, 97–98
    pouring into mold box, 116
    resin cast parts, prepping for paint, 197
    resin mixture, adding microballoons to, 149
    respirators, wearing when painting, 198
    rib piece, making, 76
    rice, using with casting resin, 98
    rifle. See Hunter’s rifle
    rivets
    and screw heads, 79
    using to attach straps, 250–251Rondo
    gluing straps to, 253
    making for Hunter helmet, 46–50
    rotational casting, explained, 90
    rotocasting, 147–149. See also Hunter helmet; molds
    explained, 90, 134
    tools and materials, 134
    rubber, pouring into mold box, 104, 113. See also silicone rubber
    rubber gloves, using to make Rondo, 47–50
    rubber jacket mold. See jacket mold
    rubbing with pencil, 12–13
    Rubin, Peter, 82
    rust weathering, 231–235
    S
    safety equipment, selecting, ix
    sanders, using, xii
    sandpaper, using, x–xi
    sawdust, binding with adhesive, 5
    saws, using, xii
    scorches and burn marks, 237–238
    scratches
    adding, 227
    adding to Hunter helmet, 230
    and dents, 77–78screw heads
    making visible, 54
    and rivets, 79
    screws
    driving for battle axe, 12
    using to attach straps, 250–251
    scroll saw, using for belt buckle, 6
    sculpting parts, 158
    seams
    gluing for Pepakura model, 34
    hiding in foam, 62
    joining for foam, 60
    making in foam, 61–62
    and panel lines, 77
    sheet plastic
    bending sharp corners in, 26
    gluing straps to, 251–252
    shield for Wolf Warrior, 80
    shin armor
    masking tape, 69
    template for, 69
    shoe covers, attaching, 258
    shoulders
    forming, 173
    and hips, 259silicone rubber. See also rubber; three-part silicone rubber molds
    for box mold, 95–96
    cleaning up edge of, 124
    degassing, 122
    making molds from, 89
    pouring, 96
    untrapping bubbles in, 96
    slide adjusters, 249–250
    slush casting, explained, 90, 134
    snaps to undersuit, 248
    solvent cement, applying to battle axe, 16
    space heaters. See heat sources for vacuum forming machine
    spin casting, explained, 90
    spot putty
    using for belt buckle, 7
    using with Hunter helmet, 55
    spray painting, 199. See also paint
    spring clamps, using with battle axe, 14
    sprue
    explained, 90
    made of clay, 102
    and vents for mold box, 112
    .STL format, converting models to, 30
    strap harness, 248
    strappingdesign considerations, 253–254
    materials, 249
    tips, 260–261
    straps
    attaching, 250–253
    gluing to sheet plastics, 251–252
    gluing to fiberglass and Rondo, 253
    poking holes in, 251
    styrene layers, holding together, 15
    styrene sheet, using for belt buckle, 6
    subtractive weathering, 227–230
    T
    template. See also patterns
    for 3D model, 31
    for forearm, 72
    for shin armor, 69
    tracing onto foam, 72
    using with battle axe, 12
    textured styrene sheet, using for belt buckle, 6
    thixotropic additive, using with Hunter helmet, 139
    three-part silicone rubber molds. See also Hunter’s rifle; silicone rubber
    clay bed, 119–120
    jacket halves, 130
    mold release, 126print coat, 121
    prototype, 118–119
    registration keys, 121, 123
    removing clay, 127
    removing drip wall, 123
    thickening coats, 122
    tools and materials, 118
    tools and materials
    armor, 58, 70
    bar clamps, 10
    chip brush, 45
    drills, xii
    foam armor, 65
    forming bucks, 157–158
    heat guns, xi–xii
    hole saw, 10
    for Hunter helmet, 47–50
    Hunter helmet, 40–41
    jack plane, 9
    jigsaw, 8
    jigsaw blade, 54
    knives, x
    power tools, xii
    rotocasting, 134
    sanders, xiisandpaper, x–xi
    saws, xii
    screws, 12
    scroll, 6
    spring clamps, 14
    three-part silicone rubber molds, 118
    two-part mold with mold box, 110
    utility knives, x
    two-part mold, 110–117
    U
    undercut, explained, 91
    undersuit
    snaps to, 248
    Velcro to, 247–248
    urethane casting resins
    adding filler for, 116
    availability, 147
    curing, 149
    warning about, 98
    urethane paint, 195
    utility knives, using, x
    V
    vacforming
    building clamping frame, 164–165choosing plastics for, 163–164
    forming bucks, 156–157
    forming platen, 166–174
    layers, 173
    machine, 156
    process, 156
    terminology, 156
    warning about, 156
    vacuum chamber, 96, 122
    vacuum forming machine
    clamping frame, 176–179
    configurations, 180–183
    forming platen, 183–184
    grid for platen, 183–184
    heat sources, 177–180
    rare earth magnets, 186
    toggle switch for heater, 187
    using, 188–189
    vacuum sources, 184–187
    warning about, 176
    Velcro, adding to undersuit, 247–249
    vents
    adding for bubbles, 103
    explained, 91
    verisimilitude, explained, 221viscosity, explained, 91
    Vitruvian Hunter, 245
    W
    washes, adding, 222–225
    weathering
    additive, 222–226
    blood splatter, 239–242
    burnt metal, 238–239
    drybrushing, 225–227
    mud, 230–231
    patina, 236–237
    rust, 231–235
    scorches and burn marks, 237–238
    subtractive, 227–230
    washes, 222–225
    wingnuts, using with molds, 130
    wolf helmet parts, 83–84. See also Hunter helmet
    Wolf Warrior character
    battle axe for, 8–18
    shield for, 80
    wood grain, faux finishes, 214–218
    workbench, for Hunter helmet, 44
    wrists, ankles, and necks, 254–256

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