Injection Molding Handbook

Injection Molding Handbook
اسم المؤلف
Dominick V. Rosato, Donald V. Rosato, Marlene G. Rosato.
2 أكتوبر 2019

Injection Molding Handbook
Third Edition
Edited by
Dominick V. Rosato, P. E.
Donald V. Rosato, Ph.d.
Marlene G. Rosato, P. E.
Chapter 1 the Complete Injection Molding Process
Machine Characteristics
Molding Plastics
Molding Basics and Overview
People and Productivity 6; Plastic Materials 6;
Morphology and Performance 9; Melt Flow and
Rheology 11;plasticating 12; Screw Designs 14;
Molds 15; Processing 16; Process Controls 18;
Control Guides 20; Art of Processing 21; Fine
Tuning 21
Automatic 22; Semiautomatic22; Manual 22; Primary 23; Secondary 23
Molding Operations
Purchasing and Handling Plastics
Training Programs
Processor Certifications
Plastics Machinery Industry
Captive 23; Custom 24; Proprietary 24
Chapter 2 Injection Molding Machines
Reciprocating (Single-stage) Screw Machines
Two-stage Machines
Reciprocating Vs. Two-stage Machines
Other Machine Types
Machine Operating Systems
Hydraulic Operations
Injection Hydraulic Accumulator 32
Reservoirs 40; Hydraulic Controls 42: Proportional Valves 42;servovalves 43: Digital Hydraulic
Control 43: Hydraulic Fluids and Influence of
Heat 44; Pumps 44; Directional Valves 45; Servo
And Proportional Valves 46
Electric Motors 47; Adjustable-speed Drive Motors 47; Servo Drives 47; Microtechnology Moldings 47;injection Molding: a Technology in Transition to Electrical Power 48
Electrical Operation
Hybrid Operations
Clamping Systems
Clamping Pressures 60; Hydraulic Clamps 61;
Toggle Clamps 62; Hydromechanical Clamps 62;
Hydroelectric Clamps 63; Comparison of Clamp
Designs 64; Tie-bars 64; Tie-barless Systems 69;
Platen Systems 71
Barrel Borescoping 72; Barrel and Feed Unit 72;
Barrel Heaters 73;barrel Cooling 74;barrel Characteristics 75
Screw Operations
Machine Sizes and Design Variations
Rebuilding and Repairs
Stripping, Polishing, and Plating 79; Machine
Downsizing and Upsizing 79
Machine Lockout 80; Machine Safety 81; Identification of Hazards 82; Safety Built Into the Machines 82; Current and Former Installations 88;
Imm Safety Checklist 88;safety Rules for Molding Department 88;american National Standard
92; Safety Standards 92; Plasticator Safety 93;
Barrel-cover Safety 93; Plant Safety 93; Safety
Information 93
Designing Facilities
Upgrading 93; Clean Room 94; Clean Machines
Noise Generation
Startup and Shutdown Operations
Molding Operation Training Program
First Stage: Running an Imm 99;the Sequence in
A Cycle 102;second Stage:parameter Setting and
Starting a Job 105
Factors to Consider 113; Operating the Machine 127; Final Stage: Optimizing Molding Production 128; Specification Information, General
130; Specification Information, Details 131; Productivity and People 134; Training Information
Shear-rate-sensitive and -insensitive Materials
Molding Guide
Guide to Imm Selection
Chapter 3 Plasticizing
Plastics Melt Flow 154;barrel Temperature Override 157
Feed Section 157;transition Section 161; Metering Section 162
Screw Rotation 163; Soak Phenomena 164; Injection Stroke 165; Injection Pressure Required
Screw Design Basics 170; Sequence of Operations 172; Advantages of Screw Plasticizing
173; Length-to-diameter Ratios 173; Compression Ratios 174;rotation Speeds 175
Screw Sections
Elements of the Plasticating Processes
Screw Plasticizing
Processing Thermoplastics or Thermoset Plastics
Screw Actions
Mechanical Requirements 177; Torque 177;
Torque Vs. Speed 177
Injection Rates
Back Pressures
Melt Performance
Melt Pumping
Melt Temperature
Temperature Sensitivity 179; Temperature Controls Required 179; Barrel Heating 180;cooling
Melt Performance
Residence Time
Melt Cushions
Melt Shear Rate
Melt Displacement Rate
Shot Size
Screw-barrel Bridging
Vented Barrels
Recovery Rate 182
Overview 182; Basic Operations 184; Barrelventing Safety 188
Design Basics 189;design Performance 189; Mixing and Melting Devices 189;screw Barriers 193;
Specialized Screw Designs 196; Screw Tips 197;
Influence of Screw Processing Plastics 201; Melt
Quality 202; Materials of Construction 204
Screw Designs
Screw Outputs
Influence of Screw and Barrel Wear on Output
Influence of the Material on Wear 205; Screw
Wear 205; Production Variations 205; Screw Wear
Inspections 207; Output Loss Due to Screw Wear
Chapter 4
207; Screw Replacement 207; Screw Wear Protection 208
Patents Influence Screw Designs
Molds to Products
Interrelation of Plastic, Process, and Product
221; Molding Process Windows 221; Cycle Times
223; Molding Pressure Required 224; Products
Basics of Melt Flow 225; Mold Filling Hesitation
225; Melt Cushioning 225; Mold Filling Monitoring 225; Sink Marks 226
Processing Plastics
Mold Descriptions
Mold Basics
Mold Optimization
Mold Types
Computer Systems 235
Molds for Thermosets 238; Mold Classifications
Cold-slug Well 243; Melt Orientation 244;
Fill Rates 250; Melt Temperature 250; Mold Temperature 250; Packing Pressure 251; Mold Geometry 251; Flash Guide 251
Plastic Melt Behaviors
Cavity Melt Flow
Molding Variables Vs. Performance
Shot-to-shot Variation
Cavity Melt Flow Analyses 254; Cavity Melt Fountain Flow 254
Machine Size 258; Plasticizing Capacity 258; Economics 258; Cavity Draft 259; Cavity Packing 259;
Cavity Surface 259
Contact Area at Parting Line 262
Sprues 263; Runner Systems 264; Gates 277; Gate
Summary 287
Correcting Mold Filling Imbalances in Geometrically Balanced
Runner Systems
Isolating Mold Variations in Multicavity Molds
Ejector Systems 293; Ejector Pin Strength 296;
Sprue Pullers 300; Side Actions 300; Angle Pins
301;cam Blocks 302; Stripper-plate Ejection 302;
Cavity Evaluation
Clamping Forces
Sprue-runner-gate Systems
Mold Components
External-positive-return Systems 302; Cam Actuation 303; Sprue Bushing and Locating Ring
303; Ring and Bar Ejection 303; Top-and-bottom
Ejection 304; Inserts 305; Side Guide Slides 307;
Ejector Blades 307
Mold Venting
Molds for Thermoset Plastics
Mold Construction 313; Cold-runner Systems
314; Injection-compression Moldings 314
Overview 314; Design Considerations 315; Basic Principles of Heat Flow 317; Heat Transfer
By Heat Pipes 321; Heat Balance of Halves 321;
Mold Connection for Fluid 321; Cooling Time 321;
Cooling With Melt Pulses 322;flood Cooling 322;
Spiral Cooling 322; Cooling Rates 322; Cooling
Temperatures 322; Cooling Flow Meters 323
Mold Cooling
Mold Shrinkages and Tolerances
Ejection of Molded Products
Mold Release Agents
Mold Materials of Construction
Shrinkage Vs. Cycle Time 329
Steels 334; Heat Treating 342; Requirements
To Be Met by Mold Steel 342; Aluminum 343;
Beryllium-copper 343; Kirksite 343; Brass 343
Etching Cavity Surfaces
Machining Safety
Moldmaker Directory
Mold Material Selection Software
Fabrication of Components
Hobbing 346; Cast Cavities 346; Electroforming
346; Electric-discharge Machining 346
Spi Finish Numbers 348; Hand Benching 349;
Direction of Benching 350; Ultrasonic Tools 351;
Textured Cavities 351; Patterns of Different Textures 351; Mold Steels 352; Conditions Required
For Polishing 352
Nickel 355; Chrome 355; Nitriding and Carburizing 356; Other Plating Treatments 357; Coating
Treatments 357; Heat Treatments 358
Overview 359;manual Cleaning 362;oven Cleaning 362; Solvent Cleaning 362; Triethylene Glycol Cleaning 363; Postcleaning 363; Salt Bath
Cleaning 363; Ultrasonic Solvent Cleaning 363;
Fluidized-bed Cleaning 363; Vacuum Pyrolysis
Cleaning 363
Platings, Coatings, and Heat Treatments
Cleaning Molds and Machine Parts
Chapter 5
Strength Requirements for Molds
Stress Level in Steel 364;pillar Supports 365;steel
And Size of Mold Base 366
Mold Filling 367; Deflection of Mold Side Walls
Eyebolt Holes
Quick Mold Change
Mold Protection
Preengineered Molds
Standardized Mold Base Assemblies
Specialty Mold Components
Collapsible and Expandable Core Molds
Deformation of Mold
Automatic Systems 374; Heavy Molds 374
Overview 387; Stereolithography 387; Rapid
Tooling 388
Introduction 389; Industry Guide 389; Purchase
Order 390;mold Design 390; Production of Molds
Buying Molds
Mold Storage
Computer-aided Mold and Product Design
Production Control Systems
Computer Monitoring of Information
Productivity and People
Value Analyses
Zero Defects
Fundamentals of Designing Products
Molding Influences Product Performance
Design Optimization
Material Optimization
Material Characteristics
Behavior of Plastics
Molding Tolerances
Computer Analysis 422
Thermal Stresses 437; Viscoelastic Behavior 437
Tolerances and Designs 443; Tolerance Allowances 443; Tolerances and Shrinkages 444; Tolerances and Warpages 444; Thin-wall Tolerances
444; Micron Tolerances 444; Tolerance Damage
444; Full Indicator Movements (Fims) 444; Tolerance Selection 444; Tolerance Stack-ups 445;
Standard Tolerances 445
Tolerance Measurement and Quenching
Dimensional Properties
Dimensional Tolerances
Product Specifications 449; Using Geometric Tolerancing
Chapter 6
Design Features That Influence Performance
Plastics Memory
Residence Time
Computerized Knowledge-based Engineering
Accidental Orientation 453; Orientation and
Chemical Properties 453; Orientation and Mechanical Properties 454; Orientation and Optical
Properties 454;orientation Processing Characteristics 454; Orientation and Cost 454
Molecular Orientation: Design of Integral Hinges
Interrelation of Material and Process With Design
Design Shapes
Shapes and Stiffness
Stress Relaxation
Predicting Performance
Choosing Materials and Design
Design Concept 458; Engineering Considerations
Design Parameters 460; Types of Plastics 460
Designing With Creep Data 463;allowable Working Stress 465; Creep Behavior Guidelines 466
Stapler 466; Snap-fits 467; Springs 467
Design Considerations
Long-term Behavior of Plastics: Creep
Design Examples
Design Approach Example
Design Accuracy
Risks and the Products
Acceptable Risks 472; Acceptable Goals 473; Acceptable Packaging Risks 473; Risk Assessments
473; Fire Risks 473; Risk Management 473; Risk
Retention 473
Cost Modeling
Innovative Designs
Protect Designs
Molders’ Contributions 476
Molding Materials
Definition of Plastics 484; Heat Profiles 488; Costs
489; Behavior of Plastics 490; Checking Materials
Received 491
Neat Plastics
Polymer Synthesis and Compositions
Interpenetrating Networks
Reactive Polymers
Additives 501; Fillers 502; Reinforcements 502;
Summary 502
Alloys and Blends
Thermoplastic and Thermoset Plastics
Thermoplastics 511; Thermoset Plastics 511;
Cross-linking 512;cross-linking Thermoplastics
512;thermoplastic Vulcanizates (Tpvs) 512;curing 512; Heat Profiles 513
Liquid Crystal Plastics (Lcps)
Elastomers, Thermoplastic, and Thermoset
Thermoplastic Elastomers 515; Thermoset Elastomers 515; Natural Rubbers 515; Rubber Elasticity 515; Rubber Market 515
Commodity and Engineering Plastics
Injection Molding Thermoplastics and Thermosets
High Performance Reinforced Moldings
Injection Moldings 518; Bulk Molding Compounds (Bmcs) 518; Characterizations 519; Directional Properties 521
Newtonian Flow 522; Non-newtonian Flow 523
Plastic Structures and Morphology
Chemical and Physical Characteristics 524; Crystalline and Amorphous Plastics 524; Catalysts and
Metallocenes 526; Plastic Green Strength 527
Average Molecular Weight 527;molecular Weight
Distribution 529; Additives 529; Molecular
Weight and Melt Flow 530;molecular Weight and
Aging 530
Flow 531; Viscosity 531; Viscoelasticity 532; Intrinsic Viscosity 533;shear Rate 533;laminar and
Nonlaminar Melt Flows 535; Melt Flow Analyses
535;melt Flow Analysis Programs 535;analyzing
Melt Flow Results 536; Melt Flow Defects 536;
Hindering Melt Flow With Additives 536; Melt
Fractures 536
Molecular Weight ( M W )
Rheology and Melt Flow
Cavity Filling
Plastic Raw Materials
Plastic Advantages and Disadvantages
Plastic Properties and Characteristics
Weld Line Strengths and Materials
Material Selections
Colorants 548; Concentrates 549; Barrier Plastics
Melt Shear Behaviors 537
Astm 4000 Standard Guide for Plastic Classifications
Thermal Properties and Processability
Melt Temperatures 554; Glass Transition Temperatures 555; Dimensional Stabilities 555;thermal Conductivities and Thermal Insulation 556;
Heat Capacities 556; Thermal Diffusivities 556;
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion 556; Thermal
Stresses 556
Material Handling
Recycled Plastic Definitions 559; Recycled Plastic Identified 560; Recycled Plastic Properties
560; Recycling Size Reductions 560; Recycling
Mixed Plastics 560; Integrated Recycling 560;recycling Methods and Economic Evaluations 560;
Recycling and Lifecycle Analysis 561; Recycling
Commingled Plastics 561; Recycling Automatically Sortingplastics 561;recycling and Common
Sense 561; Recycling Limitations 561
Recycling Facts and Myths
Storage and Condensation 562; Material Storage
562; Silo Storage 562
Processing Different Plastics
Molding Conditions 564; Materials 565; Molding
Test Results 565
Molding Conditions 570
Molding Conditions 573; Purging 574; Shutdown
And Start-up574;thermal and Rheological Properties 574; Drying 574; Mechanical Properties
575;chemical Resistance 575;weatherability 575;
Color 575
Formulations 576;molding Conditions 576;screw
Design 577; Material Handling Equipment 578;
Processing Parameters 579; Problem Solving 579;
Splay 579
Molding Conditions 581; Performance Parameters 585; Design Parameters 586; Molding Performance Parameters 591; Mold Release 593; Close
Tolerance: Fast Cycles 595; Recycling Plastics 596
Molding Variables and Cause-and-effect Links
597; Molding Variables and Property Responses
599; Appearance Properties 599; Warping 600;
Polyvinyl Chloride
Abss (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrenes)
Chapter 7
Mechanical Properties and Molding Variables
601; Izod Impact 602; Molding for Electroplating
605; Property Variation With Position Mold Geometry 605; Summary 606
Drying 606; Recycle and Virgin Proportions 607;
Processing 608; Hydrolysis 609; Rheology 609;
Heat Transfer 609;residual Stress 610;annealing
Process 613; Hot- and Cold-runner Molding 614;
Material Stuffer 615
Injection Molding Thermosets
Energy Considerations
Process Control
Process Control Basics
Developing Melt and Flow Control 630; Inspection 630;computer Process Data Acquisition 630;
Control Flow Diagrams 632; Fishbone Diagram
Technology 636; Fast Response Controls 638;
Control Approaches 639; Process Control Methods 640;production Monitoring 640;on-machine
Monitoring 641
Temperature Control of Barrel and Melt
Electronic Controls
Fuzzy Logic Control
Process Control Techniques
Process Control Approaches
What Are the Variables? 652; Why Have Process
Control? 654; Control of Which Parameters Can
Best Eliminate Variability? 654; What Enables
Parameter Controllability? 657; Where Does the
Process Controller Go? 661;basicfeatures a Process Controller Should Have 662; Applications
664; Summary 666
Process Control Problems
Cavity Melt Flow Analyses
Problem 669;melt Viscosities Versus Fill and Pack
669; Test Methodology 670; Analyzing Results
673;example Test 673;using Empirical Test Data
To Optimize Fill Rates 674; Melt Vibrations During Filling 675; Stabilizing via Screw Return Time
Sensor Requirements 676; Molding Parameters
676; Display of Monitored Molding Parameters
Relating Process Control to Product Performances
678; Machine Controls 678; Microprocessor Advantages 679
Functions 680; Rotary and Linear Motion 680
Optimization via Pvt 681; Pmt Concept 683
Designs 684
Types of Instruments
Adaptive Control: Pvt and Pmt Concepts
Sensor Control Responses
Linear Displacement Transducers 685;linear Velocity Displacement Transducers 686; Pressure
Transducers 686; Transducer Calibrations 686;
Transducer Environments 686
Transputer Controllers
Temperature Controllers
Temperature Variations 688; Melt Temperature
Profiles 690; Automatic Tuning 691; Temperature
Sensors 691;fuzzy Logic Controls 692;fuzzy-pid
Controls 692
Temperature Timing and Sequencing
Pressure Controls
Pressure Pid Controls
Screw Tips 692; Cavity Fillings 692
Pid Tuning: What It Means 693; the Need for
Rate Control on High-speed Machines 694
Fuzzy-pressure Controls
Injection Molding Holding Pressures
Process Control Fill and Pack
Process Control Parameter Variables
Injection Molding Boost Cutoff or Two-stage Control
Injection Molding Controller Three-stage Systems
Mold Cavity Pressure Variables
Programmed Molding
Adaptive Ram Programmers 696
Three-stage Systems 701
Parting Line Controls 702; Computer Microprocessor Controls 703; Computer Processing Control Automation 703
Molding Thin Walls
Control System Reliabilities
Operations Optimized
Control Tradeoffs
Process Control Limitations and Troubleshooting
Control 705; Tie-bar Growth 706; Tie-bar Elongation 706; Thermal Mold Growth 706; Shot-toshot Variation 706
Intelligent Communications 709; Systematic Intelligent Processing 710
Intelligent Processing
Processing Rules
Processing and Patience
Processing Improvements
Control Advantages
Automatic Detections
Plantwide Control and Management 713
Chapter 8 Design Features That Influence Product Performance
Audits 717; Computer Approaches 717; Design
Feature That Influence Performance 718
Plastic Product Failures
Design Failure Theory
Basic Detractors and Constraints
Tolerance and Shrinkage 721;residual Stress725;
Stress Concentration 726; Sink Mark 727
Design Concept
Sharp Corners
Uniform Wall Thickness
Wall Thickness Tolerance
Flow Pattern
Parting Lines
Gate Size and Location
Taper or Draft Angle
Weld Lines
Vent, Trapped Air, and Ejector
Blind Holes
Press Fits
Internal Plastic Threads
External Plastic Threads
Molded-in Inserts
Screws for Mechanical Assembly
Geometric Structural Reinforcement
Snap Joints
Integral Hinges
Mold Action
Meld Lines 740
Chapter 9 Computer Operations
Communication Benefits 773; Computerized
Databases of Plastics 775; Cad/cam/cae
Methods 775; Computer-integrated Manufacturing
Benefits of Cad/cam/cae for Mold Design
Productivity 776; Quality 777; Turnaround Time
778; Resource Utilization 778
Mechanical Design 779; Computer-aided Engineering 780
Product Designers 783; Mold Designers and
Moldmakers 784; Injection Molders 785
Multisections 789;finite Element Techniques790;
Shrinkage and Warpage 791; Benefit Appraisal
795; Moldflow Basic Technology 795
Introduction 796; Fundamentals 799; Mold Cool
Analysis 801
Modeling Methods Applied to Part and Mold Design
Wire Frame Modeling 824;surface Modeling 826;
Solids Modeling 828
Group Technology 829; Finite Element Modeling 830;digitizing 831;layering 832;groups 833;
Patterns 833; Large-scale Geometry Manipulation 833; Local Coordinates or Construction
Planes 834; Model and Drawing Modes and
Associativity 834;verificationof Geometric Relationships 835; Automatic Dimensioning and Automatic Tolerance Analysis 836; Online Calculation Capabilities and Electronic Storage Areas
Illustration of Mold Design Process
The Manual (Paper) Method 837
The Cad/cam/caemethod
Online Databases
Basics in Cad/cam/caemodeling
Mold Flow Analysis
Basic Melt Flow Analysis
Mold Cooling
Computer Capabilities for Part and Mold Design
The Database Concept 843; Graphics Databases
844; Defining the Library Database 845
Tolerances and Dimensional Controls
Computer Controllers
Cad/cam/cae and Cim
Numerical Control Process
Programmable Controller Safety Devices
Computer Optical Data Storage
Artificial Intelligence
Computers and People
Computer-based Training
Myths and Facts
Capability and Training
Computer Software
Molding Simulation Programs
Rapra Free Internet Search Engine
Software and Database Programs
Injection Moldings and Molds 856: Materials
857; Shrinkage 858; Materials and Designs 859;
Design Products 860: Engineering 861; Graphics
861; Management 862: General Information 862;
Training 862
Plastics,toys, and Computer Limitations
Computers Not Designed for Home
Chapter 10 Auxiliary Equipment and Secondary Operations
Energy Conservation 870; Planning Ahead, Support Systems 871
Hoppers 871; Material Handling, Feeding, and
Blending 872; Material Handling Methods 872:
Sensors 874
Bulk Density 875; Basic Principles of Pneumatic
Conveying 876;air Movers 883; Pneumatic Venturi Conveying 886; Powder Pumps 886; Piping 888; Hoppers 889; Filters 889; Bulk Storage
891; Blenders 891; Unloading Railcars and Tank
Trucks 894
Nonhygroscopic Plastics 895; Hygroscopic Plastics 895;drying Overview 895;dryers 896
Overview 904; Heat-transfer Calculations 905;
Requirements Varywith Materials905;water Recovery 907;general Considerations 908;calculation of the Cooling Load 911;determining Water
Loads 913
Materials Handling
Drying Plastics
Water Chilling and Recovery
Energy-savingheat Pump Chillers
Safety 916; Basics 917; Hoppers 917; Cutting
Chambers 918; Cutting Chamber Assembly 921;
Hard Face Welding 921; Screen Chambers 922;
Auger Granulators 922; Granulating and Performance 924
Dewpoints 929; Mold Surface Temperatures 929;
Effect of Changein Air Properties930;air Conditioning and Desiccant Dehumidification 931;dehumidificationsystem 932
Controlled Motions 933; People and Phe 935;
Differenttypes935;value in Use 937;detriments
938: Robots Performance 938; Safety Measures
Mold Dehumidification
Parts-handling Equipment
Chapter 11
Overview 939;plastic Characteristics 939; Cutting
Guidelines 940
Adhesives 941; Solvents 946; Welding Techniques
948; Welding Process Economic Guide 953
Abrasives 953; Carbon Dioxide 953; Cryogenic
Deflashing 954; Brass 954; Hot Salts 954; Solvents
954; Ultrasonics 954;vacuum Pyrolysis 954; Coatings 955
Potential Preparation Problems 955; Pretreatments 959; Removing Mold Release Residues
Robot Terms 966
Joining and Assembling
Cleaning Tools
Finishing and Decorating
Troubleshooting and Maintenance
Troubleshooting Introduction
Remote Controls
Troubleshooting Approaches
Shrinkages and Warpages
Weld Lines
Troubleshooting Guides
Injection Structural Foams
Hot-stamp Decorating
Granulator Rotors
Auxiliary Equipment
Screw Wear Guide
Plastic Material and Equipment Variables 970
Defects 972
Finding the Fault 976
Counterflow 979
Inspection Rollers 1010;diameters 1010;depths
1011;concentricity and Straightness 1011;hardness 1011; Finish and Coating Thickness 1012;
Screw Manufacturing Tolerances 1012
Inside Diameters 1012;straightness and Concentricity 1012; Barrel Hardness 1012;barrel Specifications 1012
Cleaning the Plasticator Screw 1014;oil Changes
And Oil Leaks 1015; Checking Band Heaters,
Thermocouples, and Instruments 1015; Alignment, Level, and Parallelism 1015; Hydraulic,
Barrel Inspection Guide
Preventive Maintenance
Chapter 12
Pneumatic, and Cooling-water Systems 1015;
Hydraulic Hose 1016
Keep the Shop Clean
Keep Spare Parts in Stock
Return on Investment
Hydraulic Fluid Maintenance Procedures 1020;
Problems and Solutions 1020;downtime Maintenance 1021:preventative Maintenance 1021; Services 1022
Maintenance Software
Testing, Inspection, and Quality Control
Design and Quality
Basic Versus Complex Tests
Acceptable Quality Level 1032; Sampling Plan
1032;sampling Size 1033
Orientation and Weld Lines 1033; Density and
Specific Gravity 1035; Morphology: Amorphous
And Crystalline Plastics 1036; Molecular Structures 1037
Mechanical Test Equipment 1042; Tensile Test
1042; Deflection Temperature Under Load 1045;
Creep Data 1045
Characterizing Properties and Tests
Mechanical Properties
Electrical Tests
Thermal Properties
Chemical Properties
Chromatographic and Thermal Tests
Liquid Chromatography 1049; Gel Permeation
Chromatography 1049: Gas Chromatography
1050;ion Chromatography 1050; Thermoanalytical Method 1051; Thermogravimetric Analysis
1051; Differential Scanning Calorimetry 1052;
Thermomechanical Analysis 1053;dynamic Mechanical Analysis 1054; Infrared Spectroscopy
1054: X-ray Spectroscopy 1055; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 1055;atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 1055;raman Spectroscopy
1055; Transmission Electron Microscopy 1056;
Optical Emission Spectroscopy 1056;summary of
Characterizing Properties 1056
Selected Astm Tests 1062; Viscoelastic Properties 1079; Rheology, Viscosity, and Flow 1080;
Types of Tests
Online Viscoelastic Measurements for Plastics
Melt Processes 1080
Optical Analysis via Microtoming
Thermal Properties
Useful Temperature Range 1084;glass Transition
And Melt Temperatures 1084; Thermal Conductivity 1086; Heat Capacity 1086; Coefficient of
Linear Thermal Expansion 1086; Temperature
Dependence of Mechanical Properties 1089;diffusion and Transport Properties 1091;permeability 1091;migration 1092
Overview of Plastic Properties
Melt Tests
Melt Flow Tests 1095;melt Index Test 1095;melt
Index Fractional Tests 1098;molding Index Tests
1098;measurements 1098
Types of Scales 1099
Radiography 1099;ultrasonics 1100;liquid Penetrants 1100; Acoustics 1100;photoelastic Stress
Analysis 1100;infrared Systems1101; Vision System Inspections 1101; Computer Image Processors 1102
Temperature Scales
Nondestructive Tests
Computer Testing
Drying Hygroscopic Plastics
Laboratory Organizations Worldwide
Determining Moisture Content 1103
American Societyfor Testing and Materials 1105;
International Organization for Standardization
1105; Underwriters’ Laboratory Classifications
International System of Units
Identification of Plastics
Estimating Plastic Lifetimes
Quality Control
Quality Control Defined 1110; Quality Control
Variables 1110
No More Abcs 1112; Need for Dependability
1112;quality Auditing 1112
Qc Begins When Plastics Are Received
Reliability and Quality Control
Failure Analysis
Quality Control Methods
Quality Control and Quality Assurances
Auditing by Variables Analysis
Acceptable Quality Levels
Quality Optimization Goals
Quality System Regulation
Image Quality Indicators
Total Quality Management
Training and People
Training and Quality
Emerging Trends in Training
Training Versus Education
Economic Significanceof Quality
Cost of Quality 1119
Chapter 13 Statistical Process Control and
Quality Control
Combining Online Spc and Offline Sqc 1127;
Improve Quality and Increase Profits1128;statistical Material Selections: Reliabilities 1128; Statistical Material Selections: Uncertainties That
Are Nonstatistical 1129; Statistical Probabilities
And Quality Control 1129;statistics and Commitments 1129;statistics and Injection Molding 1129
Computers and Statistics 1131; Statistical Tools
Online Monitoring of Process Variables
Gathering and Analyzing Data
Process Control and Process Capability
Defect Prevention
Understanding Modern Methods of Control
Control Charts 1138
Standard Deviations 1142; Frequency Distribution 1143;control Chart 1145
Standard Deviation Versus Range
Basic Statistical Concepts
Mean Value, Range, and Standard Deviation
1148; Distribution 1149; Process Control Chart
1150;machine Capability 1150;process Capability 1150
Importance of Control Charts
Practical Example
Machine Capability 1153; Process Capability
1153; Control Limits for the Process Control
Chart 1154
Production Controls 115.5; Spc Step One: Raw
Material 1156; Spc Step Two: Materials Handling 1156; Spc Step Three: Injection Molding
11.56;spc Implementation: Summary of Experience 1156
How to Succeed With Spc
A Successful Spc System
Chapter 14 Costing, Economics, and Management
Machine Sales 1163;formulas for Business Failures 1164;managing 1164
Estimating Part Cost 1167; Automation of Data
Gathering 1169; Machinery Financing 1169; Energy Savings 1170
Technical Cost Modeling
Cost Analysis Methods
Material Timestwo 1171;material Cost Plus Shop
Time 1172;material Cost Plus Loaded Shop Time
1172;quotes 1172
Variable Cost Elements 1173; Fixed Costs 1174;
Summary of Fixed and Variable Costs 1177;process Parameters 1178; Technical Cost Modeling
1178;summary of Technical Cost Analysis 1179
Technical Cost Analysis
Financial Plant Management
Cost Management
Information Necessary for Product Costing and
Cost Control 1182; Reporting From the Production Floor and Management Control Reports 1183
Gathering the Data for Profit Planning and Budgeting 1186;establishing Profit, Goals, and Sales
Forecasts 1186; Developing the Detailed Plans
And Budgets 1187;flexible Budgeting 1187
Order Processing 1188; Inventory Control
1189; Production Scheduling and Control 1189;
Scheduling Approaches 1190;purchasing 1191
Profit Planning and Budgeting
Materials Management
Chapter 15 Specialized Injection Molding Processes
Blow Moldings
Injection Blow Moldings 1201; Stretched Blow
Moldings 1204; Stretched Blow Moldings With
Handle 1206;stretched Blow Molding Operation
Specialties 1207;blow Molding Shrinkages 1209;
Troubleshooting 1211; Blow Molding Versus Injection Molding 1215
Coinjection Molding
Injection Molding Sandwich Structures
Gas-assist Injection Molding
Advantages and Disadvantages 1220; Basic Processes and Procedures 1220; Molding Aspects
1223;shrinkage 1224;summary
Gas Counterflow Molding
Melt Counterflow Molding
Structural Foam Molding
Overview 1225;performance 1226;plastic Materials 1226; Characteristics of Foam 1226; Design
Analysis 1227; Blowing Agents 1229; Methods
Of Processing Sf With Chemical Blowing Agents
1230; Processing Sf With Gas Blowing Agents
1232;tooling 1234;start-up for Molding 1234
Injection-compression Molding (Coining)
Multiline Molding
Counterflow Molding
Oscillatory Molding of Optical Compact Disks
Continuous Injection Molding
Digital Video Disk Moldings 1238
Velcro Strips 1239;electrically Insulated Buttons
For Coaxial Cables 1242;railtrack Molding 1243
The Mold 1248;process Controls 1249
Reaction Injection Molding
Liquid Injection Molding
Soluble Core Molding
Insert Molding
Two-color Molding 1253;decoration 1253;paint
Coating 1254; Back Molding 1254; Two-shot
Molding 1254;inmold Assemblies 1254;doubledaylight Process 1255
Overmolding Compatible Plastics With No Welding
Closure Moldings
Unscrewing Closures 1256; Conventional Unscrewing Molds 1256; Unscrewing System Moldings 1256; Collapsible and Expandable Core
Molds 1257; Split-cavity Molds 1258; Strippable
Thread Molds 1258
Vacuum Molding
Tandem Injection Molding
Molding Melt Flow Oscillations
Ram Injection Molding
Golf Ball Moldings
Micro Injection Molding
Aircraft Canopies
Injection Molding Nonplastics
Introduction 1266;metal Injection Molding 1266;
Ceramic Injection Molding 1268
Chapter 16 Injection Molding Competition
Plastic Fabricating Processes
Rotational Molding
Extrusion Blow Moldings
Cold Forming
Cold Draw Forming
Dip Forming
Pressure Forming
Rubber Pad Forming
Compression-stretched Moldings
Solid-phase Scraplessforming
Solid-phase Pressure Forming
Slip Forming
Foam Molding
Expandable Plastics
Compression Molding
Transfer Molding
Reinforced Plastics
Molds 1291
Expandable Polystyrenes 1294
Laminates 1297
Screw Plunger Transfer Molding 1298
Directional Properties 1301;processes and Products 1301
Stampable Reinforced Plastics
Machining Plastics
Processor Competition
Legal Matters
Accident Reports 1304;acknowledgments 1304;
Chapter 11 Act 1304; Conflicts of Interest
1304;consumer Product Safety Act 1304;copyright 1305; Defendant 1305; Employee Invention Assignment 1305; Expert Witness 1305; Insurance Risk Retention Act 1305; Invention
1305; Mold Contractional Obligation 1305;patent
1305;patentability 1306;patent Information 1306;
Patent Infringement 1306; Patent Pooling With
Competitors 1306; Patent Search 1306; Patent
Term Extension 1306; Patent Terminology 1306;
Plaintiff 1306;processor, Contract 1307;product
Liability Law 1307; Protection Strategies 1307;
Quotations 1307; Right-to-know 1307; Shopright 1307; Software and Patents 1307; Tariff
1307; Term 1307;tort Liability 1308;trademark
1308;trade Name 1308;warranty 1308
17 Summary
The Most Important Forming Technique
Processing Trends
Machine Aging 1315;response to Change
Process and Material Selections
Plastics and Equipment Consumption
Machinery Sales
Trends in Machinery 1318;computers and Injection Molding 1320; Interfacing Machine Performance 1320
Molding in an Industrialized Country
Compromises Must Frequently Be Made
Standard Industrial Classification
Plastic Industry Size
Energy and Plastics
Plastic Data: Theoretical Versus Actual Values
Packaging 1325; Velcro for Flexible Packaging
1327; Building and Construction 1327; Lumber
1327;pallets 1327;automotive Parts 1329;printed
Circuit Boards and Surface Mounted Technology
1330; U.s. Postal Service 1330; Medical Applications 1330;toilets and Water Conservation 1330;
Bearings 1330; Blow Molding Innovations 1330;
Beer Bottles 1331; Collapsible Squeeze Tubes
1331;asthma Inhalers 1331
Automated Production 1334;energy Savings 1335
Discipline 1337; Productivity 1338; Experience
1338;plant Controls 1338
Example 11339;example 2 1339;example 3 1340
Myths and Facts 1341; Limited Oil Resources
1342; Limited Us. Steel Resources 1342; Plastic
Advocates 1342
Statistics: Fact and Fiction 1344;landfill 1345;recycling 1345;incineration 1345;degradable 1346
Economic Control of Equipment
Management and People
Analysis of Plastics Affecting Business Strategies
Correcting Misperceptions About Plastics
Solid Waste Problem and Product Design Solutions
Analyze Failures
Innovations and the Markets 1348;industrial Designers 1348;da Vinci’s Creativity 1348
Target for Zero Defects 1349
Design Successes
Excess Information: So What’s New?
Fabricating Employment
Barrel History 1351; Hopper Magnet 1352;
Blow Molding 1352; Coca-cola Bottle 1353;
Coor’s Beer Bottle 1353;recycling History 1353;
Squeeze Tube 1353;zipper 1353;waste Containers 1354
Shotgun Shells 1354; Water Treatment
Plastics, Cradle-to-grave
Future for Injection Molded Plastics
Injection Molding in the Forefront
Profits and Time 1354
Appendices 1. Abbreviations
2. Conversions
3. Symbols and Signs
4. Web Sites on Plastics
About the Authors
Index 1413
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