Handbook of Thermoset Plastics

Handbook of Thermoset Plastics
اسم المؤلف
Hanna Dodiuk , Sidney H. Goodman
التاريخ
3 أغسطس 2023
المشاهدات
319
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(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Handbook of Thermoset Plastics
Third Edition
Edited by
Hanna Dodiuk , Sidney H. Goodman
Table of contents

  1. Introduction
    History
    Definitions
    Cross-Linking and Curing
    Influence of Time, Temperature, and Mass
    Shelf Life and Pot Life
    Curing
    Staging
    Stoichiometric Considerations
    Prepolymerization and Adducting
    References
    Further Reading
  2. Phenol–Formaldehydes
    Introduction
    Raw Materials
    Phenol
    Resinification (Production) of Phenol–Formaldehyde Resins
    Phenolic Resins in Friction Materials
    References
    Further Reading
  3. Polybenzoxazine–new generation phenolics
    Introduction
    Synthesis of Benzoxazine Monomers (BZ)
    Ring-Opening Polymerization of Benzoxazines
    Regioselectivity and Cross-Linked Structure
    Inter/Intramolecular H-Bonding
    Kinetics of Thermal Cure
    Structure-Property Relationships
    Blends/Composites of Polybenzoxazines
    Green Chemistry Approaches in PBZ
    Click Chemistry in PBZ
    Stability and Degradation
    Outlook
    Acknowledgments
    References
  4. Aminos
    Introduction
    Raw Materials
    Chemistry of UF Resins: Urea–Formaldehyde Condensation
    Chemistry of MF Resins: Melamine–Formaldehyde Condensation
    General Principles of Manufacture and Application
    Applications of Amino Resins
    References
  5. Furans
    Introduction
    Resins from Furfuryl Alcohol and Furfural
    Photocross-Linkable Furan Polyesters
    Furan Polyurethane Foams
    Photoresists from Pending Furan Chromophores
    Ion-Exchange Resins Based on 2-Vinylfuran
    Networks Based on Diels-Alder Polycondensations
    References
  6. Unsaturated Polyesters and Vinyl Esters
    Unsaturated Polyesters
    Vinyl Ester Resins
    Compounding of Unsaturated Polyester and Vinyl Ester Resins
    Property Modification of Unsaturated Polyesters
    Applicable Manufacturing Processes
    References
  7. Allyls
    Introduction
    Polydiallyldiglycolcarbonate (CR-39)
    Polydiallyl Phthalates
    References
  8. Epoxies
    Introduction
    Detailed Chemistry
    Characterization of Epoxies
    Applications
    References
    Further Reading
  9. Polyurethanes
    Introduction
    General Characteristics of Polyurethanes
    Raw Materials Used in the Synthesis of Cross-Linked Polyurethanes
    Synthesis and Cross-Linking Reactions of Polyurethanes
    Morphology of Linear/Branched vs. Cross-Linked Polyurethanes
    Manufacturing Methods and Technical and Functional Properties of Thermosetting Polyurethanes
    References
  10. High-Performance Polyimides and High Temperature Resistant Polymers
    Historical Perspective
    Polyimides from Condensation Reactions
    Thermoplastic Polyimides
    Addition-Curable Polyimides and Other Polymers
    Nadimide-Terminated Thermosetting Polyimides
    Maleimide-Terminated Thermosetting Polyimides
    Cyanate-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers
    High-Temperature Thermosetting Resins Based on Phthalonitrile
    Acetylene-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers
    Propargyl-Terminated Oligomers
    Phenylethynyl-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers
    Applicability of Thermoset Isoimides/Imides to Resin Transfer Molding Processing
    Galvanic Corrosion Resistance of Polyimide Composites
    High-Performance Polymers for Lightning Strike Protection
    Ultrahigh Temperature Resistant Polymers
    Chemical Structures Suitable for Ultrahigh Temperature Use
    Novel Cross–Linking Mechanisms for Stability at Ultrahigh Temperatures
    Thermosets as Dielectric Interlayers in Integrated Circuit (IC) Fabrication
    Polymer-Ceramic Materials
    Acknowledgments
    References
    Further Reading
  11. Cyanate Esters
    Introduction
    Chemistry
    Characterization and Reaction Monitoring
    Processing of Cyanate Ester Resins
    Properties of Cyanate Esters
    Properties of Cyanate Ester Blends with Epoxy and BMI
    Recent Developments
    Applications
    Trade Names
    References
  12. Maleimide-Based Alder-Enes
    Introduction to Bismaleimides
    Maleimide-Based Alder-Ene Polymers
    Alder-Ene Polymers from Various Allyl-Maleimide Compounds
    Alder-Ene Polymer Blends
    Nano-Modified Alder-Ene Polymers
    Shape Memory Alder-Ene Polymers
    Kinetics of Alder-Ene Polymerization
    Outlook
    Acknowledgments
    References
  13. Syntactic Foams
    Introduction
    Syntactic Foams Based on Thermosets
    Recent Advances in Syntactic Foams
    Applications of Syntactic Foams
    Outlook
    Acknowledgments
    References
  14. Silicones
    Introduction
    Silicone Elastomers
    Silicone Laminates
    Silicones in the Medical Device Industry
    Special Silicones
    Silicone Fluids
    Other Fluid Types/Copolymers
    References
  15. Biobased Thermosets
    Polymers from Renewable Sources
    Determination of Bio-Based Content in Polymers
    Raw Materials for Renewable Sources Polymers
    Thermoset from Renewable Sources
    ReferencesBiobased Thermosets
    Polymers from Renewable Sources
    Determination of Bio-Based Content in Polymers
    Raw Materials for Renewable Sources Polymers
    Thermoset from Renewable Sources
    References
  16. Nanotechnology Based Thermosets
    Introduction
    Nanoclays
    POSS
    Nano Silica
    Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)
    Graphene and Expanded Graphite
    Tungsten Disulfide
    References
  17. Crosslinked Thermoplastics
    Introduction
    Radiation Cross-Linking of Thermoplastics
    Effects of Radiation Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers
    Chemical Cross-Linking with Organic Peroxides
    Effects of Peroxide Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers
    Cross-Linking of Thermoplastics Using Silane Grafting Reagents
    Effects of Silane Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers
    Comparison of Cross-Linking Methods
    Applications of Cross-Linked Thermoplastics
    References
  18. Processing
    Introduction
    Processing of Monomers: Online Monitoring of Resin Synthesis
    Processing of Pre-Polymers: Online Monitoring of Resin Flow and Resin Cure During Composite Manufacture
    References
    Appendix. Polybenzoxazines – Commercial Information
    Commercial Benzoxazine Marketed by Huntsman
    Products by Henkel
    Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” indicate figures and tables, respectively.
    A
    Abietic-type acids, 597598, 598f
    Acenaphthylene, 401
    Acetoxy cure, for silicones, 558560, 559t
    Acidic Ion Exchange Resin (AIER), 581
    Acrylation, of epoxidized triglycerides,
    582583, 583f
    Addition cure, RTV silicones, 561, 562t
    vs. condensation cure systems, 563t
    Adhesives
    phenolic bio-based, 41
    PRF, 3940
    reduced resorcinol content, 4041
    resorcinol, 37
    Aerospace industry, syntactic foams in, 546
    Albumin, 593
    Alder-ene polymer
    allyl compounds, 463486
    blends, 486495
    high-performance blends, 486491
    nano-modified, 495497
    overview, 462463
    polymerization
    kinetics, 499504
    reaction sequence, 462463, 463f
    shape memory, 497498
    thermoplastic-toughened, 491495
    Alkoxy cure, for silicones, 558559, 559t
    Alkyd resins, bio-based, 610611
    Allyls
    overview, 173174
    polydiallyldiglycolcarbonate
    (PDADGC), 174180
    applications, 178180
    formulation, 176
    polymerization, 176
    properties, 176177
    trade names, 180
    polydiallyl phthalates, 180187
    applications, 185187
    chemistry, 181
    formulation, 183
    general aspects, 180181
    polymerization, 181183
    properties, 183185
    trade names, 187
    Aluminium phosphate, 411412
    Amide cure, for silicones, 558
    Amino resins
    adhesive and bonding, 8283, 88
    composite wood materials, 88
    medium density fiberboard
    (MDF), 88
    particle board, 88
    coatings, 8384
    application, 88
    paper treatment, 88
    protective, 88
    textile treatment, 88
    laminating, 84
    application, 8889
    manufacturing, 8087
    mixed melamine resins, 7980
    molding, 8487
    application, 8990
    overview, 8889
    Anhydride, for curing epoxy syntactic
    foams, 523, 523f
    Animal proteins, 592593
    Applications, 142144
    cross-linked thermoplastics, 716734
    acrylates, 730733, 731t
    fluoride-containing polymers,
    733734
    heat-shrinkable tubing, 723730, 725t
    polyolefin foams, 716719
    rotational molding, 719723
    cyanate ester resins, 448450
    phenolic resins
    coating applications, 35
    laminating applications, 3132
    molding applications, 3234
    syntactic foams, 545548
    aerospace industry, 546
    buoyancy, 545546
    furniture, 547
    military, 547
    miscellaneous, 547548
    plug-assist materials, 547
    radomes, 546
    shielding electronic components, 548
    sports industry, 546547
    synthetic marble, 547
    thermal insulation materials, 546
    Art objects, 161
    ASTM D6866-11, 578
    B
    Baekeland, Leo, 2
    Beetle grades, 8384
    Benzocyclobutene, 399400
    Benzoxazines, 514, 514f
    curable moieties, 5156
    curing, 47, 47f
    ortho positions, 48, 48f
    regioselectivity, 4749
    ring-opening polymerization, 47, 47f
    4,40-biamaleimido diphenyl methane
    (BMPM), 459
    Bio-based content
    defined, 578
    in polymers, 578579
    Bio-based phenolic resins, 611615
    Biopolymers, 2
    4,40-bis(4-cyanatobenzyl) biphenyl
    (BBPCy), 442, 443f
    2,20-bis(4-cyanatophenyl)isopropylidene
    (DCBA), 433435
    Bismaleimide (BMI), 514515
    blends with epoxy resins, cyanate ester
    resins, 435437
    description, 459462
    drawbacks, 461
    flammability, 461
    glass transition temperatures, 514
    modification approaches, 462
    reaction mechanism, 459, 460f
    structure, 532f
    synthesis, 459462, 460f, 515f
    thermo-mechanical properties,
    compared to other high-performing
    resin, 461t
    761BMI. See Bismaleimide (BMI)
    Bulk molding compounds (BMC),
    155156
    Buoyancy applications, syntactic foams
    in, 545546
    C
    Carbohydrates, 588589
    polyols from, 607
    Carbon-carbon syntactic foams, 535
    applications, 548
    Carbon dioxide (CO2), 578
    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer
    (CFRP), 546
    Carbon nanotubes (CNT)
    epoxy resin, 656659
    overview, 654665
    phenolic resin, 659665
    polyimides, 659665
    polyurethanes, 659665
    Cardanol, 592
    structure, 592f
    Cardanol-formaldehyde resins, 613
    Casted giftware, 161
    Celluloid, 577
    CEN/TS 16137, 578579
    CFRP. See Carbon fiber-reinforced
    polymer (CFRP)
    Chemometrics, 742744
    Chemosets, 3
    Clay-polymer nanocomposites, 413
    Coating applications, phenolic
    resins in, 35
    Co-condensation, between phenol and
    urea, 36
    Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)
    of epoxy syntactic foams, 525
    Cold box process, phenolic resin, 31
    Collagen, 593
    Composite wood products, phenolic
    resins, 27
    fiber board, 27
    particle board, 27
    plywood, 2527
    strand board, 27
    water board, 27
    Compression, syntactic foams, 519520,
    519f
    Condensation cure RTV silicones,
    560561, 562t
    DBT, 560
    STO, 561
    vs. addition cure systems, 563t
    Core sandwich composites, syntactic
    foams, 542543
    closed-pore structure, 543
    low moisture absorption, 543
    one-step compression molding, 543
    Cornerstone Research Group (CRG),
    544545
    Cow milk, 592593
    CRG. See Cornerstone Research Group
    (CRG)
    Cross-linked acrylates, 730733, 731t
    Cross-linking, 34
    applications, 716734
    acrylates, 730733, 731t
    fluoride-containing polymers,
    733734
    heat-shrinkable tubing, 723730, 725t
    polyolefin foams, 716719
    rotational molding, 719723
    comparison methods, 715716
    defined, 3
    dimensional behavior upon, cyanate
    ester, 433
    molecular functionality, 4
    silane grafting reagents, 712715
    effects, 715
    wih peroxides, 708
    polyethylene, 708711, 709f
    polypropylene, 711712
    wih radiation. See Radiation crossLinking
    Cultured marble and onyx, 161162
    Cumene process, for phenol, 15
    Cure schedule, 7, 8f
    Curing, 78
    defined, 5
    Curing agent
    defined, 56
    Cyanate ester resins
    applications, 448450
    blends with epoxy and BMI,
    435437, 436t
    curing, 427429
    cyclo-trimerization, 430
    dimensional behavior upon crosslinking, 433
    distinctive features, 426t
    epoxy resins, 435436
    gelation, 433
    glass transition temperature
    and tensile elongation-at-break,
    431, 432f
    heterocyclic aromatic structure, 427
    hydrolysis behavior, 433435
    industrial demand, 426, 426f
    metal catalyst, 430, 431t
    monomers, 427, 428t
    bio-based raw materials, 442445
    conferring flame retardance,
    440442
    modifying flexibility, 437440
    novel, 437445
    optical spectroscopy, 429
    overview, 437445
    processing, 430431
    catalyst composition, 430
    frontal polymerization, 445446
    microwave-assisted polymerization,
    446447
    nanoconfinement, 448
    plasma polymerization, 448
    properties, 425, 431435
    electrical, 431433
    mechanical, 431
    physical, 434t
    thermal, 431, 432f
    Raman spectroscopy, 429
    reaction scheme illustrating
    formation, 426f
    structural unit, 427, 427f
    thermal analysis, 429430
    trade names, 451, 451t
    viscosity, 427
    Cyanate esters syntactic foams, 514,
    530531
    Cymel grades, 84
    D
    DBT. See Dibutyl tin dilaurate (DBT)
    Denaturation, proteins, 592593
    Diallyl Bisphenol A (DABA), 532f
    Diamines, 459460
    Dianhydrohexytols, 588589
    Diazine, 401402
    Dibutyl tin dilaurate (DBT), 560
    Dielectric analysis sensors, 746748, 747f
    Differential scanning calorimetry
    (DSC), 750751
    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
    (DGEBA), 512, 512f
    9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-
    phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide
    (DOPO), 442, 443f
    Dimethylsilicone fluids, 571, 571t
    Dow process, for phenol, 15
    Drying oils, 581
    DSC. See Differential scanning
    calorimetry (DSC)
    E
    EAS. See Epoxidized allyl soyate (EAS)
    Eco-Core, 525526
    Elastomeric syntactic foams, 535
    as stress relief coatings, 535, 548
    Elmet GmbH, 567568
    Engel Austria GmbH, 567568
    Engineering thermosets, 2
    Enone-containing triglycerides, 585, 586f
    EPB syntactic foam, 531, 532f
    modulus, 532, 533f
    strength, 532, 533f
    Epon resin, 595596
    Epoxidation
    of catechin using epichlorohydrin,
    596597, 597f
    of triglycerides, 582, 582f
    Epoxidized allyl soyate (EAS), 595596
    762 INDEXEpoxidized linseed oil, 597, 597f
    Epoxidized oils, 595
    chemical modification, 595596
    Epoxidized soybean oil (EBSO), 595
    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO),
    524525, 525f
    Epoxy/nanoclay compositions, 625628
    Epoxy resins, 8
    acid-curing agents, 206210
    cyclic anhydrides, 207209
    Lewis acids, 206
    mercaptans, 209210
    organic acids, 207
    phenols, 206207
    polysulfides, 209210
    alkaline curing agents, 201206
    aliphatic amines, 202203
    amine adducts, 203
    aromatic amines, 204205
    cyclic amines, 203204
    Lewis bases, 201202
    polyamides, 205206
    applications, 243247
    blends with BMI, cyanate ester, 435437
    carbon nanotubes (CNT), 656659
    characterization, 216243
    chemoviscosity, 239240
    colorants, 214216
    cross-link density, 232240
    cross-linking, 200
    curing, 199200
    curing agents, 200
    differential scanning calorimetry
    (DSC), 234
    temperature-modulated, 234236
    diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
    (DGEBA), 192195
    diluents
    nonreactive, 212213
    reactive, 210211
    dyes, 214216
    Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, 237238
    α-epoxy (or 1,2-epoxy), 192
    ethylene oxide, 192f
    fillers, 213214
    formulation principles, 210216
    gass transition, 232240
    gelation, 240241
    glycidyl group, 192f
    graphene and expanded graphite,
    667671
    heat, 220232
    historical development, 299314
    hydantoin resins, 196
    molecular weight, 232240
    nanoclays compositions, 625628
    novolacs, 195
    overview, 297299
    peracid resins, 195196
    POSS nanocomposites, 638641
    resinous modifiers, 211212
    rheological additives, 216
    stoichiometry, 200201
    structure, 532f
    Thermally Stimulated Depolarization,
    238239
    thermomechanical analysis (TMA),
    236237
    vitrification, 241243
    Epoxy syntactic foams, 512, 520525
    bulk density, 520521, 521f
    coefficient of thermal expansion
    (CTE), 525
    compressive strength, 520521, 521f
    curing agents, 523, 523f
    fracture toughness, 523
    glass transition temperature,
    523524, 523f
    materials and process details, 524t
    neat resins, 523524, 524f
    tensile properties with microballoon
    volume fraction, 520, 521f
    ESO. See Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO)
    Expanded graphite
    epoxy resin, 667671
    overview, 665674
    phenolic resin, 671674
    polyimides, 671674
    polyurethanes, 671674
    F
    Fatty acids, 579581, 580t
    Fevernova, 546547, 547f
    FGSF. See Functionally graded syntactic
    foams (FGSF)
    Fiber board, 27
    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs), 749750,
    750f
    Fiber optics
    embedded, 748749
    measurement, 748750
    Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams,
    535538
    flexural strength, 536, 536f
    length of fiber, 537538, 538f
    short carbon fiber (SCF), 538, 539f
    storage modulus, 538, 539f
    tensile and flexural properties, 537,
    538f
    thermal stability, 538, 539f
    mechanical properties, 536, 537f
    silica fiber, 536, 537f
    tensile strength, 536, 536f
    Young’s modulus, 537
    Fillers, phenolic resins, 2324
    Fluoride-containing polymers, 733734
    trade names, 734t
    Formaldehyde, 1516
    Formalin, 1516
    impurities, 16
    Frontal polymerization, cyanate ester
    resins, 445446
    Functionalized vegetable oils (FVO),
    524525
    Functionally graded syntactic foams
    (FGSF), 542
    RR-type, 542, 543f
    VF-type, 542, 543f
    Furan resins
    chromophores, 101103
    Diels-Alder (DA) reaction,
    95, 95f
    polycondensations, 105107
    hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (HMF),
    9495, 95f
    overview, 9396
    photocross-linkable, 100
    polyurethane foams, 101
    2-vinylfuran (VF), 103105
    Furfural (F)
    condensation, derivatives with
    aldehydes and ketones, 94f
    furfuryl alcohol (FA), 93
    mechanism of formation, 94f
    monomers prepared from, 94f
    overview, 93
    resins from, 96100
    Furfuryl alcohol (FA), 93
    resins from, 96100
    Furniture, syntactic foams in, 547
    FVO. See Functionalized vegetable
    oils (FVO)
    G
    Gelation, cyanate ester resins, 433
    General purpose thermosets, 2
    Geniomer, 568569, 569f
    Gliadin, 593
    Global warming, 578
    Glycerol, 588
    Glycerolysis, 585587, 587f
    Graphene and expanded graphite
    epoxy resin, 667671
    overview, 665674
    phenolic resin, 671674
    polyimides, 671674
    polyurethanes, 671674
    Graphite, expanded
    epoxy resin, 667671
    overview, 665674
    phenolic resin, 671674
    polyimides, 671674
    polyurethanes, 671674
    Guaiacol, 614f
    H
    Hand layup, 150151
    HCR. See High consistency silicone
    rubber (HCR)
    Heat-shrinkable tubing, 723730, 725t
    INDEX 763HEXA. See Hexamethylene tetramine
    (HEXA)
    Hexamethylene tetramine (HEXA), 16
    Hexamine. See Hexamethylene tetramine
    (HEXA)
    High consistency silicone rubber
    (HCR), 561563
    High temperature vulcanization (HTV),
    561566
    silicones, 561566
    Hydroformylation, of triglycerides, 583, 584f
    Hydrolysis behavior, cyanate ester resins,
    433435
    Hydroxylated oils, maleinization, 585, 586f
    Hydroxylation, of triglycerides, 583584
    Hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (HMF),
    9495, 95f
    I
    Impranil, 546547
    International Confederation for Thermal
    Analysis and Calorimetry
    (ICTAC), 753
    Isocyanate, and phenolic resins, 3637
    Isoidide, 588589, 588f
    Isomannide, 588589, 588f
    Isosorbide, 588589, 588f
    K
    Kienle, R. H., 610
    L
    Laccain, 14. See also Phenolic resins
    Laminates, silicones, 566
    Laminating applications, phenolic resins
    in, 3132
    LCA. See Life cycle assessment (LCA)
    Life cycle assessment (LCA), 577578
    Lignin, 443, 444f, 612613, 613f
    as additives, 590
    in epoxy resin networks, 596
    generic structure, 591f
    grafting of, 590591
    hydrolysis, 590
    methylolation, 614615
    nonphenolic hydroxypropyl, 590
    phenolation or phenolysis, 614615
    Lignins, and phenolic resins, 36
    Linear polymer, 3, 4f
    Lipids, 579
    Liquid Silicone Rubbers (LSR), 565
    Litidionite, organically modified, 412413
    Low dielectric constants, syntactic
    foams, 520
    LSR. See Liquid Silicone Rubbers (LSR)
    M
    Maleates, 585587
    Maleinization
    acrylated epoxidized oils, 583, 584f
    hydroxylated oils, 585, 586f
    Mannich bridge (CH2-N-CH2), 4849
    Mat molding, for UPR and VER, 157
    MCR ALS. See Multivariate curve
    resolution calculated by alternating
    least squares (MCR ALS)
    Medical device industry, silicones in,
    566567
    Melamine, 76
    Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins
    as adhesives, 7576
    condensation, 7880
    overview, 75
    raw materials, 75
    Melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF)
    resins, 7980
    copolymerization, 7980
    phenol, 80
    UF and MF mixtures, 7980
    Methacrylation, monoglycerides, 587
    Methylphenylpolysiloxane fluids,
    571573, 572t
    Methylpolysiloxane fluids, 569, 570t
    Methyl-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride
    (MTHPA), 524525, 525f
    Microballoon, in syntactic foams,
    515517, 517f
    Microspheres syntactic foams, 515517
    Microwave-assisted polymerization,
    cyanate ester resins, 446447
    Military, syntactic foams in, 547
    Moisture absorption, syntactic foams, 520
    Molding applications, phenolic resins in,
    3234
    Monoglycerides, 585587
    methacrylation, 587
    Monolithic flooring, 162
    Monomers, cyanate ester resins, 427, 428t
    bio-based raw materials, 442445
    conferring flame retardance, 440442
    modifying flexibility, 437440
    novel, 437445
    MTHPA. See Methyl-tetrahydrophthalic
    anhydride (MTHPA)
    Multivariate curve resolution calculated
    by alternating least squares (MCR
    ALS), 744
    N
    Nanoclays
    compositions
    epoxy, 625628
    phenolic resins, 631633
    polyimide, 635637
    polyurethane, 633635
    unsaturated polyesters, 628631
    nanocomposites, 625
    overview, 623625
    Nanoconfinement, cyanate ester
    resins, 448
    Nano reinforcement, in syntactic foams,
    539540
    Nano silica. See Silica nanocomposites
    NASA Ames Research Center, 546
    Natural oils, 579587. See also
    Triglycerides
    direct polymerization, 581
    double bonds, chemical modification
    of, 581585
    Natural rubber, 2
    Network polymer, 3, 4f
    NMR spectroscopy, 750
    Novocardt, 598
    Novolak phenolic resins, 1920
    vs. resole, 20
    O
    One-component RTV silicones, 557560
    acetoxy cure, 558560, 559t
    alkoxy cure, 558559, 559t
    amide cure chemistry, 558
    oxime cure chemistry/by-product, 558
    primers, 560
    Si-O-Si bonds, 557558
    Online monitoring tools
    overview, 739
    resin flow/cure, 744753
    dielectric analysis sensor, 746748
    embedded fiber optics, 748749
    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG),
    749750
    other methods, 750
    SMARTweave sensor, 746
    thermal analysis, 750753
    ultrasonic sensors, 748
    resin synthesis, 740744
    chemometrics, 742744
    general aspects, 740
    optical spectroscopy, 740744
    Raman spectroscopy, 742
    Optical fibers. See Fiber optics
    Optical spectroscopy, 740744
    FTIR, 741742
    infrared (IR), 741742
    nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),
    741742
    Optical spectroscopy, cyanate ester
    resins, 429
    Organically modified litidionite, 412413
    Organic peroxides, chemical cross-linking
    with, 708
    Oxime cure chemistry/by-product,
    silicones, 558
    Ozonolysis, triglycerides, 583, 585f
    P
    [2.2]Paracyclophane, 397398
    Partially stabilized zirconium oxide
    (PSZ), 412
    Particle board, 27
    764 INDEXPeroxide cross-linking, 708
    polyethylene, 708711, 709f
    polypropylene, 711712
    Peroxide curing agents, silicone, 564t, 565
    Phenol, 1516
    cumene process, 15
    Dow process, 15
    Raschig process, 15
    urea and, co-condensation between, 36
    Phenol-formaldehyde resins. See Phenolic
    resins
    Phenolic microballoons, in syntactic
    foams, 517
    Phenolic (P1) and PN resin (PNM),
    527, 527f
    Phenolic resins
    bio-based, 611615
    carbon nanotubes (CNT), 659665
    coating applications, 35
    co-condensation between phenol and
    urea, 36
    composite wood products, 27
    fiber board, 27
    particle board, 27
    plywood, 2527
    strand board, 27
    water board, 27
    description, 1415
    differences between resole and
    novolac, 20
    fillers, 2324
    friction materials, 2941
    graphene and expanded graphite,
    671674
    hexamethylene tetramine (HEXA), 16
    as insulation materials, 29
    isocyanate, addition of, 3637
    laminating applications, 3132
    lignins, addition of, 36
    modification, 3537
    molding applications, 3234
    nanoclay compositions, 631633
    nanoclays compositions, 631633
    novolak, 1920
    plywood, 2527
    POSS nanocomposites, 641646
    PRF. See Phenol-resorcinolformaldehyde (PRF)
    processing methods, 2425
    properties, 2023
    raw materials for, 15
    resinification, 1629
    polymerization process, 1619
    reaction mechanism, 16
    resole, 19
    silica nanocomposites, 650654
    tannins, addition of, 3637
    urea, addition of, 3536
    Phenolic syntactic foams, 512514,
    525528
    aldehyde groups, 528, 528f
    hollow carbon microspheres, 528,
    528f, 529f
    mechanical properties, 526527, 526t
    microballoon-based, 528
    PN resin (PNM), 527, 527f
    tensile and flexural strength, 526527
    Phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF), 37
    adhesives, 3940
    Plant oil, 579581
    fatty acids, 579581, 580t
    polymers, 581
    triglycerides, 579581, 579f
    Plasma polymerization, cyanate ester
    resins, 448
    Plasticization, proteins, 592593
    Plug-assist materials, syntactic
    foams as, 547
    Plywood, 2527
    Polybenzimidazole syntactic foams, 534
    Polybenzoxazines (PBz), 514
    bio-based products, 6768
    blends, 6167
    co-reactive, 6164
    non-reactive, 6164
    chemical bridge structures, 48, 48f
    click chemistry, 6869
    composites
    fiber, 6566
    micro, 6566
    cross-linked structure, 4749, 49f
    inter/intramolecular H-bonding, 49
    main chain, 6061
    nanocomposites, 6667
    stability and degradation, 69
    syntactic foams
    mechanical strength, 529, 529f
    thermal curing, 4951
    unfunctionalized, 5660
    Polyester syntactic foams, 534
    Polyethylene
    peroxide cross-linking, 708711
    radiation cross-linking, 703
    silane cross-linking, 712715
    Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes
    (POSS)
    epoxy, 638641
    isocyanate groups, 642643
    N-phenylaminomethyl, 643
    octa(aminophenyl)-POSS, 644
    OpePOSS, 642
    overview, 637646
    phenolic resin, 644
    polyimides (PI), 644645
    polyurethanes, 641643
    silanols, 646
    silsesquioxanes, 644
    unsaturated polyester, 643644
    Polyimides
    acetylene-terminated, 361374
    imide oligomers, 364367
    oligomers, cure mechanism,
    369374
    quinoxalines, 362364
    sulfones, 364
    addition-curable, 335336
    adhesive formulations, 388
    AFR700B resins, 344
    aromatic characteristics, 298f
    carbon nanotubes (CNT), 659665
    coatings
    high-temperature resistant, 388
    insulative, 386
    condensation reactions, 299314
    conductive paint, 388
    conductive polymer blends, 386
    corrosion
    galvanic, 385387
    mechanism, 385386
    cyanate esters
    polyimide-based, 355356
    semi-interpenetrating polymer
    network (SIPN), 355
    cyanate-terminated, 351356
    graphene and expanded graphite,
    671674
    historical perspective, 297299
    hydrogen-free, 393395
    imide structural analogs, 387
    isoimide modification, 367369
    low-viscosity SIPN imide blends,
    384385
    maleimide-terminated, 344350
    modified nadimide end-caps, 343344
    nanoclay compositions, 635637
    nanoclays compositions, 635637
    nonmetallic conductive materials, 388
    NR-150 (DuPont), 318
    phenylethynyl-terminated, 374382
    phthalonitrile, 356361
    polyamic acid converted to, 298f
    polycyanurates
    electronic industry, 356
    flame retardancy, 356
    POSS nanocomposites, 641646
    propargyl-terminated oligomers, 374
    resin transfer molding (RTM)
    aerospace resins, 383384
    isoimides/imides applicability,
    382385
    polyimides, relevance of, 384
    silica nanocomposites, 650654
    thermoplastic, 314334
    Torlon®, 325328
    Ultem®, 318324
    ultrahigh temperature resistant
    polymers, 388389
    XU 218 (XIV), 329332
    Polyimide syntactic foams, 531532
    Polymer-ceramic materials, 409413
    INDEX 765Polymer-clay nanocomposites, 625
    Polymer concretes, 162164
    Polymeric microballoons, in syntactic
    foams, 517
    Polymerization, cyanate ester resins
    frontal, 445446
    microwave-assisted, 446447
    plasma, 448
    Polymerization process, phenolic
    resins, 1619
    Polymers
    biphenylene, 396397
    bisazoles, 390393
    phthalocyanine, 393
    ultrahigh temperature resistant,
    388389
    Polyolefin foams, 716719
    Polyols
    from carbohydrates, 607
    from lignocellulosic materials, 606
    from natural polyphenols, 607
    Polyols, from carbohydrates, 607
    Polyphenols, 589592
    Polypropylene
    peroxide cross-linking, 711712
    radiation cross-linking, 703707
    Polyurethanes (PU), 633635
    adhesives, 286287
    auxiliary agents, 264266
    bio-based, 601610
    from vegetable oils, 602606
    blowing agents, 264
    carbon nanotubes (CNT), 659665
    catalysts, 263264
    chain extenders, 263
    characteristics, 254258
    coatings, 286287
    cross-linked, 276277
    medicine, 287289
    cross-linking, 266274
    radical reactions, 272274
    via allophanate or biuret bonds,
    269
    via cross-linkers, 267269
    via isocyanates dimerization or
    trimerization, 270272
    via polyols, 266267
    foams, 284286
    graphene and expanded graphite,
    671674
    isocyanates, 258261
    health hazard evaluation, 258261
    linear/branched, 275276
    manufacturing methods, 277289
    nanoclays compositions, 633635
    oligomerols, 261263
    derived from glycolysates, 262
    other types, 263
    from renewable raw materials, 262
    unsaturated, 262
    overview, 253254
    POSS nanocomposites, 641646
    raw materials, 258266
    silica nanocomposites, 650654
    vegetable oils, 602606
    Polyurethane syntactic foams, 533534
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 707708
    Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC)
    microspheres, 547
    ultra low-density, 547
    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 733734
    Pot life, 7
    Preform molding, for UPR and VER, 157
    Premix molding, for UPR and VER, 157
    Pre-preg process, 153
    Pressure-bag process, 153154
    PRF. See Phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde
    (PRF)
    Primasetr PT-30, 439440, 441f
    Prolamine proteins, 593
    Propargyl ether novolac (PN)
    mechanical properties, 526t
    synthesis, 513, 513f
    Proteins, 592594
    albumin, 593
    animal and vegetable, 592593
    collagen, 593
    cow milk, 592593
    denaturation, 592593
    gliadin, 593
    gluten, 593
    plasticization, 592593
    prolamine, 593
    soy, 593594
    whey, 593
    zein, 593
    Prototype molding, for UPR and VER,
    156157
    Pultrusion, UPR and VER in, 158
    R
    Radiation cross-linking, 698703
    oxidation, 701702
    polyethylene, 703, 706t
    polymers, 702t
    polypropylene, 703707, 706t
    polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 707708
    Radomes, syntactic foams in, 546
    Raman spectroscopy, 742
    Raman spectroscopy, cyanate ester
    resins, 429
    Rapid Thermal Processing, 613
    Raschig process, for phenol, 15
    Renewable sources polymers
    bio-based polymers, 577578
    crbon content, 578579
    bio-based polyurethanes, 601610
    bio-based unsaturated polyester,
    598601
    epoxy, 594615
    natural oils, 579587. See also
    Triglycerides
    direct polymerization, 581
    double bonds, chemical modification,
    581585
    raw materials for, 579594
    Resin, defined, 56
    Resin cure modeling, 750753
    Resin flow/cure analysis, online
    monitoring tools for, 744753
    dielectric analysis sensor, 746748
    embedded fiber optics, 748749
    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG), 749750
    other methods, 750
    SMARTweave sensor, 746
    thermal analysis, 750753
    ultrasonic sensors, 748
    Resin infusion process, 153154
    Resin synthesis, online monitoring tools,
    740744
    chemometrics, 742744
    general aspects, 740
    optical spectroscopy, 740744
    Raman spectroscopy, 742
    Resin transfer molding (RTM), 154155
    Resole phenolic resins, 19
    vs. novolak, 20
    Resorcinol adhesives, 37
    Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins, 37
    chemistry, 3739
    Room-temperature-vulcanizing (RTV)
    silicones, 557561
    addition cure, 561, 562t
    condensation cure, 560561, 562t
    DBT, 560
    STO, 561
    one-component, 557560
    acetoxy cure, 558560, 559t
    alkoxy cure, 558559, 559t
    amide cure chemistry, 558
    oxime cure chemistry/by-product, 558
    primers, 560
    Si-O-Si bonds, 557558
    two-component, 560
    vs. one-component, 560
    Rosin, 597598
    Rotational molding, 719723
    RR-type FGSF, 542, 543f
    RTV. See Room-temperature-vulcanizing
    (RTV) silicones
    Rubberized syntactic foams, 540542,
    542f
    S
    Saccharides, 588589
    Saran microballoons, 517, 547
    Sensors
    dielectric analysis, 746748, 747f
    SMARTweave, 746, 746f
    ultrasonic, 748, 748f
    766 INDEXSFRSF. See Short fiber-reinforced
    syntactic foams (SFRSF)
    Shape memory, UPR with, 164
    Shape memory polymer (SMP)-based
    syntactic foams, 543545
    compressed and expanded forms, 545f
    DMA studies, 543544, 544f
    durability, 544
    glass transition temperature, 543544
    thermomechanical properties, 544, 545f
    ultraviolet radiation, 544
    Sheet molding compounds (SMC), 155156
    Shelf life, 7
    Shell molding process, phenolic resin in, 31
    Shielding electronic components, syntactic
    foams in, 548
    Shirasu microballoons, 517
    Shock absorbers, syntactic foams as, 547
    Short carbon fiber (SCF), 538, 539f
    Short fiber-reinforced syntactic foams
    (SFRSF), 538, 539f
    Silane cross-linking, 712715
    effects, 715
    Silica nanocomposites
    epoxy resin, 646650
    overview, 646
    phenolic resin, 650654
    polyimides, 650654
    polyurethanes, 650654
    unsaturated polyesters, 650654
    Silicon alkoxide-derived polymer ceramic
    materials, 410411
    Silicone fluids, 569573
    copolymers, 573
    dimethylsilicone, 571, 571t
    methylphenylpolysiloxane, 571573,
    572t
    methylpolysiloxane, 569, 570t
    temperature on viscosity, effects on,
    569, 571t
    Silicone/glass microbubble foam, 535
    Silicones
    compounding, 564
    curing, 565566
    elastomers, 557
    thermoplastic, 568569
    fluids. See Silicone fluids
    high temperature vulcanization (HTV),
    561566
    laminates, 566
    medical device industry, 566567
    overview, 555557
    room-temperature-vulcanizing (RTV),
    557561
    addition cure, 561
    condensation cure, 560561
    one-component, 557560
    two-component, 560
    trade names, 573, 573t
    UV-activated, 567568
    Silicone syntactic foams, 534535
    SMARTweave sensors, 746, 746f
    Soccer balls, 546547
    Soft sensors, 744
    Solgel-derived polyimide-silica
    nanocomposites, 413
    Soy proteins, 593594
    Specialty thermosets, 2
    Sports industry, syntactic foams in,
    546547
    Spray layup, 151153
    Staging, 810, 8f
    Stannous tin octoate (STO), 561
    STO. See Stannous tin octoate (STO)
    Strand board, 27
    Structural reaction injection molding
    (S-RIM), 155
    Styrene monomer, 111112
    Sugar, 588589
    Sugar-based epoxy systems, 596
    Sulfonalion process, 15
    Syntactic foams
    applications, 545548
    aerospace industry, 546
    buoyancy, 545546
    furniture, 547
    military, 547
    miscellaneous, 547548
    plug-assist materials, 547
    radomes, 546
    shielding electronic components, 548
    sports industry, 546547
    synthetic marble, 547
    thermal insulation materials, 546
    bismaleimides, 514515
    carbon-carbon, 535
    core sandwich composites, 542543
    cyanate esters, 514, 530531
    elastomeric, 535
    epoxy, 512, 520525
    features, 519520
    fiber-reinforced, 535538
    functionally graded, 542
    matrices used, 511515
    microspheres, 515517
    nano reinforcement, 539540
    overview, 511520
    phenolic, 512514, 525528
    polybenzimidazole, 534
    polybenzoxazines, 529
    polyester, 534
    polyimide, 531532
    polyurethane, 533534
    preparation, 518519
    coating method, 519
    impregnation techniques, 518
    properties, 519
    compression, 519520, 519f
    low dielectric constants, 520
    mechanical, 519
    moisture absorption, 520
    thermal, 520
    rubberized, 540542
    silicone, 534535
    SMP-based, 543545
    stress-strain curve for compression
    testing, 519520, 519f
    structure, 517518
    three-phase, 518, 518f
    two-phase, 517518, 518f
    Synthetic marble, syntactic foams in, 547
    Syringol, 614f
    T
    Tannins, 589, 613614
    condensed, 590f
    hydrolyzable, 589
    Tannins, and phenolic resins, 3637
    Tectosil, 561, 563f, 569
    Terpene-derived acid anhydride
    (TPAn), 597
    Thermal insulation materials, syntactic
    foams as, 546
    Thermal properties, syntactic foams, 520
    Thermosets
    categories of, 2, 3t
    defined, 1
    engineering, 2
    general purpose, 2
    historical milestones of, 3t
    relationship in chemistry, 2f
    specialty, 2
    Three-phase syntactic foams, 518, 518f
    Trans-anethol, and cyanate ester
    monomers, 443445, 445f
    Trelleborg Emerson & Cuming, Inc., 547
    2,2,4-tri(4-cyanatophenoxy)-
    4,6,6-tris-phenoxy-2?5,4?5,6?5-
    [1,3,5,2,4,6]-triazatriphosphine,
    442, 442f
    Triglycerides, 579581, 579f
    acrylation of epoxidized, 582583,
    583f
    conversion into mono/diglycerides/
    simple fatty acids, 585587
    double bonds, 581
    enone-containing, 585, 586f
    epoxidation, 582, 582f
    hydroformylation, 583, 584f
    hydroxylation, 583584
    maleinization
    acrylated epoxidized oils, 583, 584f
    hydroxylated oils, 585, 586f
    oxypolymerization, 581f
    ozonolysis, 583, 585f
    1,2,3-tris(4-cyanatophenyl) propane,
    439440, 441f
    Tungsten disulfide
    epoxy resin, 675
    overview, 674675
    INDEX 767Two-component RTV silicones, 560
    addition cure, 561, 562t
    vs. condensation cure systems, 563t
    condensation cure, 560561, 562t
    DBT, 560
    STO, 561
    vs. addition cure systems, 563t
    curing, 565566
    vs. one-component, 560
    U
    Ultrasonic sensors, 748, 748f
    Unsaturated polyesters
    applicable manufacturing processes
    overview, 148149
    work place safety, 149
    bio-based and recycled raw materials,
    120122
    carbonanotubes, 137139
    carbon nanofibers, 137139
    cross-linking by copolymerization with
    co-monomers, 116118
    cured, 123125
    chemical resistance, 124125
    flexible, 123124
    hydrolytical stability, 124125
    rigid general purpose (GP), 123
    embedding matrix for magnetostrictive
    materials, 166
    fiber-reinforced, 150160
    flame retardance, 139144
    inorganic filler materials, 139140
    structural modification, 140142
    foamed, 166
    general aspects, chemistry, 112
    in luminescent solar concentrators,
    165166
    manufacturing, 112116
    market situation, 112, 113f
    nanoclays as fillers, 137
    nanoclays compositions, 628631
    nanocomposites, 136139
    nanofibrous fillers, 137139
    nanoparticles, 139
    neat, 122
    overview, 111112
    polymeric capacitators in printed circuit
    boards, 166
    POSS nanocomposites, 641646
    processing equipment and
    manufacturing, 118119
    process intensification, 120
    property modification, 136148
    raw materials, 114t
    shrinkage, 144148
    anti-shrink additives, 148
    anti-shrink units, 148
    silica nanocomposites, 650654
    styrenated, 122123
    trade names & manufacturers, 167t
    ultrafine, 166
    vinyl ester resins, compounding with,
    129136
    aromatic tertiary amine/benzoyl
    peroxide-based catalysts, 131
    commercial pre-promoted resins,
    131132
    curing systems, 130132
    fiber reinforcements, 136
    fillers, 134136
    handling catalysts and promoters, 132
    heat curing systems, 132
    inhibitors, 132
    ketone peroxide-based catalysts,
    130131
    metal soaps, 130131
    overview, 129130
    room temperature (RT) curing,
    130132
    thickening agents, 136
    thixotropic/flow control agents,
    132134
    ultraviolet absorbers, 132
    vs. saturated polyesters, 112
    Unsaturated polyesters, bio-based,
    598601
    Unsaturated polyesters (UP), 628631
    Urea, 76
    phenol and, co-condensation between, 36
    phenolic resin and, 3536
    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins
    condensation, 7678
    overview, 75
    raw materials, 76
    Urethane elastomer/glass microbubble
    foam, 535
    V
    Vacuum-bag process, 153
    Vegetable oils, 579
    copolymerization, 581
    polyurethanes from, 602606
    Vegetable proteins, 592593
    Veriflex SMP, 543
    Verilyte®, 544545
    VF-type FGSF, 542, 543f
    Vinyl ester resins, 125129
    overview, 125126
    special qualities, 127129
    trade names & manufacturers, 167t
    with unsaturated polyster,
    compounding, 129136
    aromatic tertiary amine/benzoyl
    peroxide-based catalysts, 131
    commercial pre-promoted resins,
    131132
    curing systems, 130132
    fiber reinforcements, 136
    fillers, 134136
    handling catalysts and
    promoters, 132
    heat curing systems, 132
    inhibitors, 132
    ketone peroxide-based catalysts,
    130131
    metal soaps, 130131
    overview, 129130
    room temperature (RT) curing,
    130132
    thickening agents, 136
    thixotropic/flow control agents,
    132134
    ultraviolet absorbers, 132
    Vulcanization, 2
    W
    Wacker Chemie AG, 568
    Water board, 27
    Water extended polyester (WEP), 161
    WEP. See Water extended polyester
    (WEP)
    Whey proteins, 593
    Wood products, composite, phenolic
    resins, 27
    fiber board, 27
    particle board, 27
    plywood, 2527
    strand board, 27
    water board, 27
    Working life. See Pot life
    Z
    Zein proteins, 593

Handbook of Thermoset Plastics
Third Edition
Edited by
Hanna Dodiuk , Sidney H. Goodman
Table of contents

  1. Introduction
    History
    Definitions
    Cross-Linking and Curing
    Influence of Time, Temperature, and Mass
    Shelf Life and Pot Life
    Curing
    Staging
    Stoichiometric Considerations
    Prepolymerization and Adducting
    References
    Further Reading
  2. Phenol–Formaldehydes
    Introduction
    Raw Materials
    Phenol
    Resinification (Production) of Phenol–Formaldehyde Resins
    Phenolic Resins in Friction Materials
    References
    Further Reading
  3. Polybenzoxazine–new generation phenolics
    Introduction
    Synthesis of Benzoxazine Monomers (BZ)
    Ring-Opening Polymerization of Benzoxazines
    Regioselectivity and Cross-Linked Structure
    Inter/Intramolecular H-Bonding
    Kinetics of Thermal Cure
    Structure-Property Relationships
    Blends/Composites of Polybenzoxazines
    Green Chemistry Approaches in PBZ
    Click Chemistry in PBZ
    Stability and Degradation
    Outlook
    Acknowledgments
    References
  4. Aminos
    Introduction
    Raw Materials
    Chemistry of UF Resins: Urea–Formaldehyde Condensation
    Chemistry of MF Resins: Melamine–Formaldehyde Condensation
    General Principles of Manufacture and Application
    Applications of Amino Resins
    References
  5. Furans
    Introduction
    Resins from Furfuryl Alcohol and Furfural
    Photocross-Linkable Furan Polyesters
    Furan Polyurethane Foams
    Photoresists from Pending Furan Chromophores
    Ion-Exchange Resins Based on 2-Vinylfuran
    Networks Based on Diels-Alder Polycondensations
    References
  6. Unsaturated Polyesters and Vinyl Esters
    Unsaturated Polyesters
    Vinyl Ester Resins
    Compounding of Unsaturated Polyester and Vinyl Ester Resins
    Property Modification of Unsaturated Polyesters
    Applicable Manufacturing Processes
    References
  7. Allyls
    Introduction
    Polydiallyldiglycolcarbonate (CR-39)
    Polydiallyl Phthalates
    References
  8. Epoxies
    Introduction
    Detailed Chemistry
    Characterization of Epoxies
    Applications
    References
    Further Reading
  9. Polyurethanes
    Introduction
    General Characteristics of Polyurethanes
    Raw Materials Used in the Synthesis of Cross-Linked Polyurethanes
    Synthesis and Cross-Linking Reactions of Polyurethanes
    Morphology of Linear/Branched vs. Cross-Linked Polyurethanes
    Manufacturing Methods and Technical and Functional Properties of Thermosetting Polyurethanes
    References
  10. High-Performance Polyimides and High Temperature Resistant Polymers
    Historical Perspective
    Polyimides from Condensation Reactions
    Thermoplastic Polyimides
    Addition-Curable Polyimides and Other Polymers
    Nadimide-Terminated Thermosetting Polyimides
    Maleimide-Terminated Thermosetting Polyimides
    Cyanate-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers
    High-Temperature Thermosetting Resins Based on Phthalonitrile
    Acetylene-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers
    Propargyl-Terminated Oligomers
    Phenylethynyl-Terminated Thermosetting Polymers
    Applicability of Thermoset Isoimides/Imides to Resin Transfer Molding Processing
    Galvanic Corrosion Resistance of Polyimide Composites
    High-Performance Polymers for Lightning Strike Protection
    Ultrahigh Temperature Resistant Polymers
    Chemical Structures Suitable for Ultrahigh Temperature Use
    Novel Cross–Linking Mechanisms for Stability at Ultrahigh Temperatures
    Thermosets as Dielectric Interlayers in Integrated Circuit (IC) Fabrication
    Polymer-Ceramic Materials
    Acknowledgments
    References
    Further Reading
  11. Cyanate Esters
    Introduction
    Chemistry
    Characterization and Reaction Monitoring
    Processing of Cyanate Ester Resins
    Properties of Cyanate Esters
    Properties of Cyanate Ester Blends with Epoxy and BMI
    Recent Developments
    Applications
    Trade Names
    References
  12. Maleimide-Based Alder-Enes
    Introduction to Bismaleimides
    Maleimide-Based Alder-Ene Polymers
    Alder-Ene Polymers from Various Allyl-Maleimide Compounds
    Alder-Ene Polymer Blends
    Nano-Modified Alder-Ene Polymers
    Shape Memory Alder-Ene Polymers
    Kinetics of Alder-Ene Polymerization
    Outlook
    Acknowledgments
    References
  13. Syntactic Foams
    Introduction
    Syntactic Foams Based on Thermosets
    Recent Advances in Syntactic Foams
    Applications of Syntactic Foams
    Outlook
    Acknowledgments
    References
  14. Silicones
    Introduction
    Silicone Elastomers
    Silicone Laminates
    Silicones in the Medical Device Industry
    Special Silicones
    Silicone Fluids
    Other Fluid Types/Copolymers
    References
  15. Biobased Thermosets
    Polymers from Renewable Sources
    Determination of Bio-Based Content in Polymers
    Raw Materials for Renewable Sources Polymers
    Thermoset from Renewable Sources
    References
  16. Nanotechnology Based Thermosets
    Introduction
    Nanoclays
    POSS
    Nano Silica
    Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)
    Graphene and Expanded Graphite
    Tungsten Disulfide
    References
  17. Crosslinked Thermoplastics
    Introduction
    Radiation Cross-Linking of Thermoplastics
    Effects of Radiation Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers
    Chemical Cross-Linking with Organic Peroxides
    Effects of Peroxide Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers
    Cross-Linking of Thermoplastics Using Silane Grafting Reagents
    Effects of Silane Cross-Linking on Thermoplastic Polymers
    Comparison of Cross-Linking Methods
    Applications of Cross-Linked Thermoplastics
    References
  18. Processing
    Introduction
    Processing of Monomers: Online Monitoring of Resin Synthesis
    Processing of Pre-Polymers: Online Monitoring of Resin Flow and Resin Cure During Composite Manufacture
    References
    Appendix. Polybenzoxazines – Commercial Information
    Commercial Benzoxazine Marketed by Huntsman
    Products by Henkel
    Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” indicate figures and tables, respectively.
    A
    Abietic-type acids, 597598, 598f
    Acenaphthylene, 401
    Acetoxy cure, for silicones, 558560, 559t
    Acidic Ion Exchange Resin (AIER), 581
    Acrylation, of epoxidized triglycerides,
    582583, 583f
    Addition cure, RTV silicones, 561, 562t
    vs. condensation cure systems, 563t
    Adhesives
    phenolic bio-based, 41
    PRF, 3940
    reduced resorcinol content, 4041
    resorcinol, 37
    Aerospace industry, syntactic foams in, 546
    Albumin, 593
    Alder-ene polymer
    allyl compounds, 463486
    blends, 486495
    high-performance blends, 486491
    nano-modified, 495497
    overview, 462463
    polymerization
    kinetics, 499504
    reaction sequence, 462463, 463f
    shape memory, 497498
    thermoplastic-toughened, 491495
    Alkoxy cure, for silicones, 558559, 559t
    Alkyd resins, bio-based, 610611
    Allyls
    overview, 173174
    polydiallyldiglycolcarbonate
    (PDADGC), 174180
    applications, 178180
    formulation, 176
    polymerization, 176
    properties, 176177
    trade names, 180
    polydiallyl phthalates, 180187
    applications, 185187
    chemistry, 181
    formulation, 183
    general aspects, 180181
    polymerization, 181183
    properties, 183185
    trade names, 187
    Aluminium phosphate, 411412
    Amide cure, for silicones, 558
    Amino resins
    adhesive and bonding, 8283, 88
    composite wood materials, 88
    medium density fiberboard
    (MDF), 88
    particle board, 88
    coatings, 8384
    application, 88
    paper treatment, 88
    protective, 88
    textile treatment, 88
    laminating, 84
    application, 8889
    manufacturing, 8087
    mixed melamine resins, 7980
    molding, 8487
    application, 8990
    overview, 8889
    Anhydride, for curing epoxy syntactic
    foams, 523, 523f
    Animal proteins, 592593
    Applications, 142144
    cross-linked thermoplastics, 716734
    acrylates, 730733, 731t
    fluoride-containing polymers,
    733734
    heat-shrinkable tubing, 723730, 725t
    polyolefin foams, 716719
    rotational molding, 719723
    cyanate ester resins, 448450
    phenolic resins
    coating applications, 35
    laminating applications, 3132
    molding applications, 3234
    syntactic foams, 545548
    aerospace industry, 546
    buoyancy, 545546
    furniture, 547
    military, 547
    miscellaneous, 547548
    plug-assist materials, 547
    radomes, 546
    shielding electronic components, 548
    sports industry, 546547
    synthetic marble, 547
    thermal insulation materials, 546
    Art objects, 161
    ASTM D6866-11, 578
    B
    Baekeland, Leo, 2
    Beetle grades, 8384
    Benzocyclobutene, 399400
    Benzoxazines, 514, 514f
    curable moieties, 5156
    curing, 47, 47f
    ortho positions, 48, 48f
    regioselectivity, 4749
    ring-opening polymerization, 47, 47f
    4,40-biamaleimido diphenyl methane
    (BMPM), 459
    Bio-based content
    defined, 578
    in polymers, 578579
    Bio-based phenolic resins, 611615
    Biopolymers, 2
    4,40-bis(4-cyanatobenzyl) biphenyl
    (BBPCy), 442, 443f
    2,20-bis(4-cyanatophenyl)isopropylidene
    (DCBA), 433435
    Bismaleimide (BMI), 514515
    blends with epoxy resins, cyanate ester
    resins, 435437
    description, 459462
    drawbacks, 461
    flammability, 461
    glass transition temperatures, 514
    modification approaches, 462
    reaction mechanism, 459, 460f
    structure, 532f
    synthesis, 459462, 460f, 515f
    thermo-mechanical properties,
    compared to other high-performing
    resin, 461t
    761BMI. See Bismaleimide (BMI)
    Bulk molding compounds (BMC),
    155156
    Buoyancy applications, syntactic foams
    in, 545546
    C
    Carbohydrates, 588589
    polyols from, 607
    Carbon-carbon syntactic foams, 535
    applications, 548
    Carbon dioxide (CO2), 578
    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer
    (CFRP), 546
    Carbon nanotubes (CNT)
    epoxy resin, 656659
    overview, 654665
    phenolic resin, 659665
    polyimides, 659665
    polyurethanes, 659665
    Cardanol, 592
    structure, 592f
    Cardanol-formaldehyde resins, 613
    Casted giftware, 161
    Celluloid, 577
    CEN/TS 16137, 578579
    CFRP. See Carbon fiber-reinforced
    polymer (CFRP)
    Chemometrics, 742744
    Chemosets, 3
    Clay-polymer nanocomposites, 413
    Coating applications, phenolic
    resins in, 35
    Co-condensation, between phenol and
    urea, 36
    Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)
    of epoxy syntactic foams, 525
    Cold box process, phenolic resin, 31
    Collagen, 593
    Composite wood products, phenolic
    resins, 27
    fiber board, 27
    particle board, 27
    plywood, 2527
    strand board, 27
    water board, 27
    Compression, syntactic foams, 519520,
    519f
    Condensation cure RTV silicones,
    560561, 562t
    DBT, 560
    STO, 561
    vs. addition cure systems, 563t
    Core sandwich composites, syntactic
    foams, 542543
    closed-pore structure, 543
    low moisture absorption, 543
    one-step compression molding, 543
    Cornerstone Research Group (CRG),
    544545
    Cow milk, 592593
    CRG. See Cornerstone Research Group
    (CRG)
    Cross-linked acrylates, 730733, 731t
    Cross-linking, 34
    applications, 716734
    acrylates, 730733, 731t
    fluoride-containing polymers,
    733734
    heat-shrinkable tubing, 723730, 725t
    polyolefin foams, 716719
    rotational molding, 719723
    comparison methods, 715716
    defined, 3
    dimensional behavior upon, cyanate
    ester, 433
    molecular functionality, 4
    silane grafting reagents, 712715
    effects, 715
    wih peroxides, 708
    polyethylene, 708711, 709f
    polypropylene, 711712
    wih radiation. See Radiation crossLinking
    Cultured marble and onyx, 161162
    Cumene process, for phenol, 15
    Cure schedule, 7, 8f
    Curing, 78
    defined, 5
    Curing agent
    defined, 56
    Cyanate ester resins
    applications, 448450
    blends with epoxy and BMI,
    435437, 436t
    curing, 427429
    cyclo-trimerization, 430
    dimensional behavior upon crosslinking, 433
    distinctive features, 426t
    epoxy resins, 435436
    gelation, 433
    glass transition temperature
    and tensile elongation-at-break,
    431, 432f
    heterocyclic aromatic structure, 427
    hydrolysis behavior, 433435
    industrial demand, 426, 426f
    metal catalyst, 430, 431t
    monomers, 427, 428t
    bio-based raw materials, 442445
    conferring flame retardance,
    440442
    modifying flexibility, 437440
    novel, 437445
    optical spectroscopy, 429
    overview, 437445
    processing, 430431
    catalyst composition, 430
    frontal polymerization, 445446
    microwave-assisted polymerization,
    446447
    nanoconfinement, 448
    plasma polymerization, 448
    properties, 425, 431435
    electrical, 431433
    mechanical, 431
    physical, 434t
    thermal, 431, 432f
    Raman spectroscopy, 429
    reaction scheme illustrating
    formation, 426f
    structural unit, 427, 427f
    thermal analysis, 429430
    trade names, 451, 451t
    viscosity, 427
    Cyanate esters syntactic foams, 514,
    530531
    Cymel grades, 84
    D
    DBT. See Dibutyl tin dilaurate (DBT)
    Denaturation, proteins, 592593
    Diallyl Bisphenol A (DABA), 532f
    Diamines, 459460
    Dianhydrohexytols, 588589
    Diazine, 401402
    Dibutyl tin dilaurate (DBT), 560
    Dielectric analysis sensors, 746748, 747f
    Differential scanning calorimetry
    (DSC), 750751
    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
    (DGEBA), 512, 512f
    9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-
    phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide
    (DOPO), 442, 443f
    Dimethylsilicone fluids, 571, 571t
    Dow process, for phenol, 15
    Drying oils, 581
    DSC. See Differential scanning
    calorimetry (DSC)
    E
    EAS. See Epoxidized allyl soyate (EAS)
    Eco-Core, 525526
    Elastomeric syntactic foams, 535
    as stress relief coatings, 535, 548
    Elmet GmbH, 567568
    Engel Austria GmbH, 567568
    Engineering thermosets, 2
    Enone-containing triglycerides, 585, 586f
    EPB syntactic foam, 531, 532f
    modulus, 532, 533f
    strength, 532, 533f
    Epon resin, 595596
    Epoxidation
    of catechin using epichlorohydrin,
    596597, 597f
    of triglycerides, 582, 582f
    Epoxidized allyl soyate (EAS), 595596
    762 INDEXEpoxidized linseed oil, 597, 597f
    Epoxidized oils, 595
    chemical modification, 595596
    Epoxidized soybean oil (EBSO), 595
    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO),
    524525, 525f
    Epoxy/nanoclay compositions, 625628
    Epoxy resins, 8
    acid-curing agents, 206210
    cyclic anhydrides, 207209
    Lewis acids, 206
    mercaptans, 209210
    organic acids, 207
    phenols, 206207
    polysulfides, 209210
    alkaline curing agents, 201206
    aliphatic amines, 202203
    amine adducts, 203
    aromatic amines, 204205
    cyclic amines, 203204
    Lewis bases, 201202
    polyamides, 205206
    applications, 243247
    blends with BMI, cyanate ester, 435437
    carbon nanotubes (CNT), 656659
    characterization, 216243
    chemoviscosity, 239240
    colorants, 214216
    cross-link density, 232240
    cross-linking, 200
    curing, 199200
    curing agents, 200
    differential scanning calorimetry
    (DSC), 234
    temperature-modulated, 234236
    diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
    (DGEBA), 192195
    diluents
    nonreactive, 212213
    reactive, 210211
    dyes, 214216
    Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, 237238
    α-epoxy (or 1,2-epoxy), 192
    ethylene oxide, 192f
    fillers, 213214
    formulation principles, 210216
    gass transition, 232240
    gelation, 240241
    glycidyl group, 192f
    graphene and expanded graphite,
    667671
    heat, 220232
    historical development, 299314
    hydantoin resins, 196
    molecular weight, 232240
    nanoclays compositions, 625628
    novolacs, 195
    overview, 297299
    peracid resins, 195196
    POSS nanocomposites, 638641
    resinous modifiers, 211212
    rheological additives, 216
    stoichiometry, 200201
    structure, 532f
    Thermally Stimulated Depolarization,
    238239
    thermomechanical analysis (TMA),
    236237
    vitrification, 241243
    Epoxy syntactic foams, 512, 520525
    bulk density, 520521, 521f
    coefficient of thermal expansion
    (CTE), 525
    compressive strength, 520521, 521f
    curing agents, 523, 523f
    fracture toughness, 523
    glass transition temperature,
    523524, 523f
    materials and process details, 524t
    neat resins, 523524, 524f
    tensile properties with microballoon
    volume fraction, 520, 521f
    ESO. See Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO)
    Expanded graphite
    epoxy resin, 667671
    overview, 665674
    phenolic resin, 671674
    polyimides, 671674
    polyurethanes, 671674
    F
    Fatty acids, 579581, 580t
    Fevernova, 546547, 547f
    FGSF. See Functionally graded syntactic
    foams (FGSF)
    Fiber board, 27
    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs), 749750,
    750f
    Fiber optics
    embedded, 748749
    measurement, 748750
    Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams,
    535538
    flexural strength, 536, 536f
    length of fiber, 537538, 538f
    short carbon fiber (SCF), 538, 539f
    storage modulus, 538, 539f
    tensile and flexural properties, 537,
    538f
    thermal stability, 538, 539f
    mechanical properties, 536, 537f
    silica fiber, 536, 537f
    tensile strength, 536, 536f
    Young’s modulus, 537
    Fillers, phenolic resins, 2324
    Fluoride-containing polymers, 733734
    trade names, 734t
    Formaldehyde, 1516
    Formalin, 1516
    impurities, 16
    Frontal polymerization, cyanate ester
    resins, 445446
    Functionalized vegetable oils (FVO),
    524525
    Functionally graded syntactic foams
    (FGSF), 542
    RR-type, 542, 543f
    VF-type, 542, 543f
    Furan resins
    chromophores, 101103
    Diels-Alder (DA) reaction,
    95, 95f
    polycondensations, 105107
    hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (HMF),
    9495, 95f
    overview, 9396
    photocross-linkable, 100
    polyurethane foams, 101
    2-vinylfuran (VF), 103105
    Furfural (F)
    condensation, derivatives with
    aldehydes and ketones, 94f
    furfuryl alcohol (FA), 93
    mechanism of formation, 94f
    monomers prepared from, 94f
    overview, 93
    resins from, 96100
    Furfuryl alcohol (FA), 93
    resins from, 96100
    Furniture, syntactic foams in, 547
    FVO. See Functionalized vegetable
    oils (FVO)
    G
    Gelation, cyanate ester resins, 433
    General purpose thermosets, 2
    Geniomer, 568569, 569f
    Gliadin, 593
    Global warming, 578
    Glycerol, 588
    Glycerolysis, 585587, 587f
    Graphene and expanded graphite
    epoxy resin, 667671
    overview, 665674
    phenolic resin, 671674
    polyimides, 671674
    polyurethanes, 671674
    Graphite, expanded
    epoxy resin, 667671
    overview, 665674
    phenolic resin, 671674
    polyimides, 671674
    polyurethanes, 671674
    Guaiacol, 614f
    H
    Hand layup, 150151
    HCR. See High consistency silicone
    rubber (HCR)
    Heat-shrinkable tubing, 723730, 725t
    INDEX 763HEXA. See Hexamethylene tetramine
    (HEXA)
    Hexamethylene tetramine (HEXA), 16
    Hexamine. See Hexamethylene tetramine
    (HEXA)
    High consistency silicone rubber
    (HCR), 561563
    High temperature vulcanization (HTV),
    561566
    silicones, 561566
    Hydroformylation, of triglycerides, 583, 584f
    Hydrolysis behavior, cyanate ester resins,
    433435
    Hydroxylated oils, maleinization, 585, 586f
    Hydroxylation, of triglycerides, 583584
    Hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (HMF),
    9495, 95f
    I
    Impranil, 546547
    International Confederation for Thermal
    Analysis and Calorimetry
    (ICTAC), 753
    Isocyanate, and phenolic resins, 3637
    Isoidide, 588589, 588f
    Isomannide, 588589, 588f
    Isosorbide, 588589, 588f
    K
    Kienle, R. H., 610
    L
    Laccain, 14. See also Phenolic resins
    Laminates, silicones, 566
    Laminating applications, phenolic resins
    in, 3132
    LCA. See Life cycle assessment (LCA)
    Life cycle assessment (LCA), 577578
    Lignin, 443, 444f, 612613, 613f
    as additives, 590
    in epoxy resin networks, 596
    generic structure, 591f
    grafting of, 590591
    hydrolysis, 590
    methylolation, 614615
    nonphenolic hydroxypropyl, 590
    phenolation or phenolysis, 614615
    Lignins, and phenolic resins, 36
    Linear polymer, 3, 4f
    Lipids, 579
    Liquid Silicone Rubbers (LSR), 565
    Litidionite, organically modified, 412413
    Low dielectric constants, syntactic
    foams, 520
    LSR. See Liquid Silicone Rubbers (LSR)
    M
    Maleates, 585587
    Maleinization
    acrylated epoxidized oils, 583, 584f
    hydroxylated oils, 585, 586f
    Mannich bridge (CH2-N-CH2), 4849
    Mat molding, for UPR and VER, 157
    MCR ALS. See Multivariate curve
    resolution calculated by alternating
    least squares (MCR ALS)
    Medical device industry, silicones in,
    566567
    Melamine, 76
    Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins
    as adhesives, 7576
    condensation, 7880
    overview, 75
    raw materials, 75
    Melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF)
    resins, 7980
    copolymerization, 7980
    phenol, 80
    UF and MF mixtures, 7980
    Methacrylation, monoglycerides, 587
    Methylphenylpolysiloxane fluids,
    571573, 572t
    Methylpolysiloxane fluids, 569, 570t
    Methyl-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride
    (MTHPA), 524525, 525f
    Microballoon, in syntactic foams,
    515517, 517f
    Microspheres syntactic foams, 515517
    Microwave-assisted polymerization,
    cyanate ester resins, 446447
    Military, syntactic foams in, 547
    Moisture absorption, syntactic foams, 520
    Molding applications, phenolic resins in,
    3234
    Monoglycerides, 585587
    methacrylation, 587
    Monolithic flooring, 162
    Monomers, cyanate ester resins, 427, 428t
    bio-based raw materials, 442445
    conferring flame retardance, 440442
    modifying flexibility, 437440
    novel, 437445
    MTHPA. See Methyl-tetrahydrophthalic
    anhydride (MTHPA)
    Multivariate curve resolution calculated
    by alternating least squares (MCR
    ALS), 744
    N
    Nanoclays
    compositions
    epoxy, 625628
    phenolic resins, 631633
    polyimide, 635637
    polyurethane, 633635
    unsaturated polyesters, 628631
    nanocomposites, 625
    overview, 623625
    Nanoconfinement, cyanate ester
    resins, 448
    Nano reinforcement, in syntactic foams,
    539540
    Nano silica. See Silica nanocomposites
    NASA Ames Research Center, 546
    Natural oils, 579587. See also
    Triglycerides
    direct polymerization, 581
    double bonds, chemical modification
    of, 581585
    Natural rubber, 2
    Network polymer, 3, 4f
    NMR spectroscopy, 750
    Novocardt, 598
    Novolak phenolic resins, 1920
    vs. resole, 20
    O
    One-component RTV silicones, 557560
    acetoxy cure, 558560, 559t
    alkoxy cure, 558559, 559t
    amide cure chemistry, 558
    oxime cure chemistry/by-product, 558
    primers, 560
    Si-O-Si bonds, 557558
    Online monitoring tools
    overview, 739
    resin flow/cure, 744753
    dielectric analysis sensor, 746748
    embedded fiber optics, 748749
    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG),
    749750
    other methods, 750
    SMARTweave sensor, 746
    thermal analysis, 750753
    ultrasonic sensors, 748
    resin synthesis, 740744
    chemometrics, 742744
    general aspects, 740
    optical spectroscopy, 740744
    Raman spectroscopy, 742
    Optical fibers. See Fiber optics
    Optical spectroscopy, 740744
    FTIR, 741742
    infrared (IR), 741742
    nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),
    741742
    Optical spectroscopy, cyanate ester
    resins, 429
    Organically modified litidionite, 412413
    Organic peroxides, chemical cross-linking
    with, 708
    Oxime cure chemistry/by-product,
    silicones, 558
    Ozonolysis, triglycerides, 583, 585f
    P
    [2.2]Paracyclophane, 397398
    Partially stabilized zirconium oxide
    (PSZ), 412
    Particle board, 27
    764 INDEXPeroxide cross-linking, 708
    polyethylene, 708711, 709f
    polypropylene, 711712
    Peroxide curing agents, silicone, 564t, 565
    Phenol, 1516
    cumene process, 15
    Dow process, 15
    Raschig process, 15
    urea and, co-condensation between, 36
    Phenol-formaldehyde resins. See Phenolic
    resins
    Phenolic microballoons, in syntactic
    foams, 517
    Phenolic (P1) and PN resin (PNM),
    527, 527f
    Phenolic resins
    bio-based, 611615
    carbon nanotubes (CNT), 659665
    coating applications, 35
    co-condensation between phenol and
    urea, 36
    composite wood products, 27
    fiber board, 27
    particle board, 27
    plywood, 2527
    strand board, 27
    water board, 27
    description, 1415
    differences between resole and
    novolac, 20
    fillers, 2324
    friction materials, 2941
    graphene and expanded graphite,
    671674
    hexamethylene tetramine (HEXA), 16
    as insulation materials, 29
    isocyanate, addition of, 3637
    laminating applications, 3132
    lignins, addition of, 36
    modification, 3537
    molding applications, 3234
    nanoclay compositions, 631633
    nanoclays compositions, 631633
    novolak, 1920
    plywood, 2527
    POSS nanocomposites, 641646
    PRF. See Phenol-resorcinolformaldehyde (PRF)
    processing methods, 2425
    properties, 2023
    raw materials for, 15
    resinification, 1629
    polymerization process, 1619
    reaction mechanism, 16
    resole, 19
    silica nanocomposites, 650654
    tannins, addition of, 3637
    urea, addition of, 3536
    Phenolic syntactic foams, 512514,
    525528
    aldehyde groups, 528, 528f
    hollow carbon microspheres, 528,
    528f, 529f
    mechanical properties, 526527, 526t
    microballoon-based, 528
    PN resin (PNM), 527, 527f
    tensile and flexural strength, 526527
    Phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF), 37
    adhesives, 3940
    Plant oil, 579581
    fatty acids, 579581, 580t
    polymers, 581
    triglycerides, 579581, 579f
    Plasma polymerization, cyanate ester
    resins, 448
    Plasticization, proteins, 592593
    Plug-assist materials, syntactic
    foams as, 547
    Plywood, 2527
    Polybenzimidazole syntactic foams, 534
    Polybenzoxazines (PBz), 514
    bio-based products, 6768
    blends, 6167
    co-reactive, 6164
    non-reactive, 6164
    chemical bridge structures, 48, 48f
    click chemistry, 6869
    composites
    fiber, 6566
    micro, 6566
    cross-linked structure, 4749, 49f
    inter/intramolecular H-bonding, 49
    main chain, 6061
    nanocomposites, 6667
    stability and degradation, 69
    syntactic foams
    mechanical strength, 529, 529f
    thermal curing, 4951
    unfunctionalized, 5660
    Polyester syntactic foams, 534
    Polyethylene
    peroxide cross-linking, 708711
    radiation cross-linking, 703
    silane cross-linking, 712715
    Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes
    (POSS)
    epoxy, 638641
    isocyanate groups, 642643
    N-phenylaminomethyl, 643
    octa(aminophenyl)-POSS, 644
    OpePOSS, 642
    overview, 637646
    phenolic resin, 644
    polyimides (PI), 644645
    polyurethanes, 641643
    silanols, 646
    silsesquioxanes, 644
    unsaturated polyester, 643644
    Polyimides
    acetylene-terminated, 361374
    imide oligomers, 364367
    oligomers, cure mechanism,
    369374
    quinoxalines, 362364
    sulfones, 364
    addition-curable, 335336
    adhesive formulations, 388
    AFR700B resins, 344
    aromatic characteristics, 298f
    carbon nanotubes (CNT), 659665
    coatings
    high-temperature resistant, 388
    insulative, 386
    condensation reactions, 299314
    conductive paint, 388
    conductive polymer blends, 386
    corrosion
    galvanic, 385387
    mechanism, 385386
    cyanate esters
    polyimide-based, 355356
    semi-interpenetrating polymer
    network (SIPN), 355
    cyanate-terminated, 351356
    graphene and expanded graphite,
    671674
    historical perspective, 297299
    hydrogen-free, 393395
    imide structural analogs, 387
    isoimide modification, 367369
    low-viscosity SIPN imide blends,
    384385
    maleimide-terminated, 344350
    modified nadimide end-caps, 343344
    nanoclay compositions, 635637
    nanoclays compositions, 635637
    nonmetallic conductive materials, 388
    NR-150 (DuPont), 318
    phenylethynyl-terminated, 374382
    phthalonitrile, 356361
    polyamic acid converted to, 298f
    polycyanurates
    electronic industry, 356
    flame retardancy, 356
    POSS nanocomposites, 641646
    propargyl-terminated oligomers, 374
    resin transfer molding (RTM)
    aerospace resins, 383384
    isoimides/imides applicability,
    382385
    polyimides, relevance of, 384
    silica nanocomposites, 650654
    thermoplastic, 314334
    Torlon®, 325328
    Ultem®, 318324
    ultrahigh temperature resistant
    polymers, 388389
    XU 218 (XIV), 329332
    Polyimide syntactic foams, 531532
    Polymer-ceramic materials, 409413
    INDEX 765Polymer-clay nanocomposites, 625
    Polymer concretes, 162164
    Polymeric microballoons, in syntactic
    foams, 517
    Polymerization, cyanate ester resins
    frontal, 445446
    microwave-assisted, 446447
    plasma, 448
    Polymerization process, phenolic
    resins, 1619
    Polymers
    biphenylene, 396397
    bisazoles, 390393
    phthalocyanine, 393
    ultrahigh temperature resistant,
    388389
    Polyolefin foams, 716719
    Polyols
    from carbohydrates, 607
    from lignocellulosic materials, 606
    from natural polyphenols, 607
    Polyols, from carbohydrates, 607
    Polyphenols, 589592
    Polypropylene
    peroxide cross-linking, 711712
    radiation cross-linking, 703707
    Polyurethanes (PU), 633635
    adhesives, 286287
    auxiliary agents, 264266
    bio-based, 601610
    from vegetable oils, 602606
    blowing agents, 264
    carbon nanotubes (CNT), 659665
    catalysts, 263264
    chain extenders, 263
    characteristics, 254258
    coatings, 286287
    cross-linked, 276277
    medicine, 287289
    cross-linking, 266274
    radical reactions, 272274
    via allophanate or biuret bonds,
    269
    via cross-linkers, 267269
    via isocyanates dimerization or
    trimerization, 270272
    via polyols, 266267
    foams, 284286
    graphene and expanded graphite,
    671674
    isocyanates, 258261
    health hazard evaluation, 258261
    linear/branched, 275276
    manufacturing methods, 277289
    nanoclays compositions, 633635
    oligomerols, 261263
    derived from glycolysates, 262
    other types, 263
    from renewable raw materials, 262
    unsaturated, 262
    overview, 253254
    POSS nanocomposites, 641646
    raw materials, 258266
    silica nanocomposites, 650654
    vegetable oils, 602606
    Polyurethane syntactic foams, 533534
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 707708
    Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC)
    microspheres, 547
    ultra low-density, 547
    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 733734
    Pot life, 7
    Preform molding, for UPR and VER, 157
    Premix molding, for UPR and VER, 157
    Pre-preg process, 153
    Pressure-bag process, 153154
    PRF. See Phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde
    (PRF)
    Primasetr PT-30, 439440, 441f
    Prolamine proteins, 593
    Propargyl ether novolac (PN)
    mechanical properties, 526t
    synthesis, 513, 513f
    Proteins, 592594
    albumin, 593
    animal and vegetable, 592593
    collagen, 593
    cow milk, 592593
    denaturation, 592593
    gliadin, 593
    gluten, 593
    plasticization, 592593
    prolamine, 593
    soy, 593594
    whey, 593
    zein, 593
    Prototype molding, for UPR and VER,
    156157
    Pultrusion, UPR and VER in, 158
    R
    Radiation cross-linking, 698703
    oxidation, 701702
    polyethylene, 703, 706t
    polymers, 702t
    polypropylene, 703707, 706t
    polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 707708
    Radomes, syntactic foams in, 546
    Raman spectroscopy, 742
    Raman spectroscopy, cyanate ester
    resins, 429
    Rapid Thermal Processing, 613
    Raschig process, for phenol, 15
    Renewable sources polymers
    bio-based polymers, 577578
    crbon content, 578579
    bio-based polyurethanes, 601610
    bio-based unsaturated polyester,
    598601
    epoxy, 594615
    natural oils, 579587. See also
    Triglycerides
    direct polymerization, 581
    double bonds, chemical modification,
    581585
    raw materials for, 579594
    Resin, defined, 56
    Resin cure modeling, 750753
    Resin flow/cure analysis, online
    monitoring tools for, 744753
    dielectric analysis sensor, 746748
    embedded fiber optics, 748749
    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG), 749750
    other methods, 750
    SMARTweave sensor, 746
    thermal analysis, 750753
    ultrasonic sensors, 748
    Resin infusion process, 153154
    Resin synthesis, online monitoring tools,
    740744
    chemometrics, 742744
    general aspects, 740
    optical spectroscopy, 740744
    Raman spectroscopy, 742
    Resin transfer molding (RTM), 154155
    Resole phenolic resins, 19
    vs. novolak, 20
    Resorcinol adhesives, 37
    Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins, 37
    chemistry, 3739
    Room-temperature-vulcanizing (RTV)
    silicones, 557561
    addition cure, 561, 562t
    condensation cure, 560561, 562t
    DBT, 560
    STO, 561
    one-component, 557560
    acetoxy cure, 558560, 559t
    alkoxy cure, 558559, 559t
    amide cure chemistry, 558
    oxime cure chemistry/by-product, 558
    primers, 560
    Si-O-Si bonds, 557558
    two-component, 560
    vs. one-component, 560
    Rosin, 597598
    Rotational molding, 719723
    RR-type FGSF, 542, 543f
    RTV. See Room-temperature-vulcanizing
    (RTV) silicones
    Rubberized syntactic foams, 540542,
    542f
    S
    Saccharides, 588589
    Saran microballoons, 517, 547
    Sensors
    dielectric analysis, 746748, 747f
    SMARTweave, 746, 746f
    ultrasonic, 748, 748f
    766 INDEXSFRSF. See Short fiber-reinforced
    syntactic foams (SFRSF)
    Shape memory, UPR with, 164
    Shape memory polymer (SMP)-based
    syntactic foams, 543545
    compressed and expanded forms, 545f
    DMA studies, 543544, 544f
    durability, 544
    glass transition temperature, 543544
    thermomechanical properties, 544, 545f
    ultraviolet radiation, 544
    Sheet molding compounds (SMC), 155156
    Shelf life, 7
    Shell molding process, phenolic resin in, 31
    Shielding electronic components, syntactic
    foams in, 548
    Shirasu microballoons, 517
    Shock absorbers, syntactic foams as, 547
    Short carbon fiber (SCF), 538, 539f
    Short fiber-reinforced syntactic foams
    (SFRSF), 538, 539f
    Silane cross-linking, 712715
    effects, 715
    Silica nanocomposites
    epoxy resin, 646650
    overview, 646
    phenolic resin, 650654
    polyimides, 650654
    polyurethanes, 650654
    unsaturated polyesters, 650654
    Silicon alkoxide-derived polymer ceramic
    materials, 410411
    Silicone fluids, 569573
    copolymers, 573
    dimethylsilicone, 571, 571t
    methylphenylpolysiloxane, 571573,
    572t
    methylpolysiloxane, 569, 570t
    temperature on viscosity, effects on,
    569, 571t
    Silicone/glass microbubble foam, 535
    Silicones
    compounding, 564
    curing, 565566
    elastomers, 557
    thermoplastic, 568569
    fluids. See Silicone fluids
    high temperature vulcanization (HTV),
    561566
    laminates, 566
    medical device industry, 566567
    overview, 555557
    room-temperature-vulcanizing (RTV),
    557561
    addition cure, 561
    condensation cure, 560561
    one-component, 557560
    two-component, 560
    trade names, 573, 573t
    UV-activated, 567568
    Silicone syntactic foams, 534535
    SMARTweave sensors, 746, 746f
    Soccer balls, 546547
    Soft sensors, 744
    Solgel-derived polyimide-silica
    nanocomposites, 413
    Soy proteins, 593594
    Specialty thermosets, 2
    Sports industry, syntactic foams in,
    546547
    Spray layup, 151153
    Staging, 810, 8f
    Stannous tin octoate (STO), 561
    STO. See Stannous tin octoate (STO)
    Strand board, 27
    Structural reaction injection molding
    (S-RIM), 155
    Styrene monomer, 111112
    Sugar, 588589
    Sugar-based epoxy systems, 596
    Sulfonalion process, 15
    Syntactic foams
    applications, 545548
    aerospace industry, 546
    buoyancy, 545546
    furniture, 547
    military, 547
    miscellaneous, 547548
    plug-assist materials, 547
    radomes, 546
    shielding electronic components, 548
    sports industry, 546547
    synthetic marble, 547
    thermal insulation materials, 546
    bismaleimides, 514515
    carbon-carbon, 535
    core sandwich composites, 542543
    cyanate esters, 514, 530531
    elastomeric, 535
    epoxy, 512, 520525
    features, 519520
    fiber-reinforced, 535538
    functionally graded, 542
    matrices used, 511515
    microspheres, 515517
    nano reinforcement, 539540
    overview, 511520
    phenolic, 512514, 525528
    polybenzimidazole, 534
    polybenzoxazines, 529
    polyester, 534
    polyimide, 531532
    polyurethane, 533534
    preparation, 518519
    coating method, 519
    impregnation techniques, 518
    properties, 519
    compression, 519520, 519f
    low dielectric constants, 520
    mechanical, 519
    moisture absorption, 520
    thermal, 520
    rubberized, 540542
    silicone, 534535
    SMP-based, 543545
    stress-strain curve for compression
    testing, 519520, 519f
    structure, 517518
    three-phase, 518, 518f
    two-phase, 517518, 518f
    Synthetic marble, syntactic foams in, 547
    Syringol, 614f
    T
    Tannins, 589, 613614
    condensed, 590f
    hydrolyzable, 589
    Tannins, and phenolic resins, 3637
    Tectosil, 561, 563f, 569
    Terpene-derived acid anhydride
    (TPAn), 597
    Thermal insulation materials, syntactic
    foams as, 546
    Thermal properties, syntactic foams, 520
    Thermosets
    categories of, 2, 3t
    defined, 1
    engineering, 2
    general purpose, 2
    historical milestones of, 3t
    relationship in chemistry, 2f
    specialty, 2
    Three-phase syntactic foams, 518, 518f
    Trans-anethol, and cyanate ester
    monomers, 443445, 445f
    Trelleborg Emerson & Cuming, Inc., 547
    2,2,4-tri(4-cyanatophenoxy)-
    4,6,6-tris-phenoxy-2?5,4?5,6?5-
    [1,3,5,2,4,6]-triazatriphosphine,
    442, 442f
    Triglycerides, 579581, 579f
    acrylation of epoxidized, 582583,
    583f
    conversion into mono/diglycerides/
    simple fatty acids, 585587
    double bonds, 581
    enone-containing, 585, 586f
    epoxidation, 582, 582f
    hydroformylation, 583, 584f
    hydroxylation, 583584
    maleinization
    acrylated epoxidized oils, 583, 584f
    hydroxylated oils, 585, 586f
    oxypolymerization, 581f
    ozonolysis, 583, 585f
    1,2,3-tris(4-cyanatophenyl) propane,
    439440, 441f
    Tungsten disulfide
    epoxy resin, 675
    overview, 674675
    INDEX 767Two-component RTV silicones, 560
    addition cure, 561, 562t
    vs. condensation cure systems, 563t
    condensation cure, 560561, 562t
    DBT, 560
    STO, 561
    vs. addition cure systems, 563t
    curing, 565566
    vs. one-component, 560
    U
    Ultrasonic sensors, 748, 748f
    Unsaturated polyesters
    applicable manufacturing processes
    overview, 148149
    work place safety, 149
    bio-based and recycled raw materials,
    120122
    carbonanotubes, 137139
    carbon nanofibers, 137139
    cross-linking by copolymerization with
    co-monomers, 116118
    cured, 123125
    chemical resistance, 124125
    flexible, 123124
    hydrolytical stability, 124125
    rigid general purpose (GP), 123
    embedding matrix for magnetostrictive
    materials, 166
    fiber-reinforced, 150160
    flame retardance, 139144
    inorganic filler materials, 139140
    structural modification, 140142
    foamed, 166
    general aspects, chemistry, 112
    in luminescent solar concentrators,
    165166
    manufacturing, 112116
    market situation, 112, 113f
    nanoclays as fillers, 137
    nanoclays compositions, 628631
    nanocomposites, 136139
    nanofibrous fillers, 137139
    nanoparticles, 139
    neat, 122
    overview, 111112
    polymeric capacitators in printed circuit
    boards, 166
    POSS nanocomposites, 641646
    processing equipment and
    manufacturing, 118119
    process intensification, 120
    property modification, 136148
    raw materials, 114t
    shrinkage, 144148
    anti-shrink additives, 148
    anti-shrink units, 148
    silica nanocomposites, 650654
    styrenated, 122123
    trade names & manufacturers, 167t
    ultrafine, 166
    vinyl ester resins, compounding with,
    129136
    aromatic tertiary amine/benzoyl
    peroxide-based catalysts, 131
    commercial pre-promoted resins,
    131132
    curing systems, 130132
    fiber reinforcements, 136
    fillers, 134136
    handling catalysts and promoters, 132
    heat curing systems, 132
    inhibitors, 132
    ketone peroxide-based catalysts,
    130131
    metal soaps, 130131
    overview, 129130
    room temperature (RT) curing,
    130132
    thickening agents, 136
    thixotropic/flow control agents,
    132134
    ultraviolet absorbers, 132
    vs. saturated polyesters, 112
    Unsaturated polyesters, bio-based,
    598601
    Unsaturated polyesters (UP), 628631
    Urea, 76
    phenol and, co-condensation between, 36
    phenolic resin and, 3536
    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins
    condensation, 7678
    overview, 75
    raw materials, 76
    Urethane elastomer/glass microbubble
    foam, 535
    V
    Vacuum-bag process, 153
    Vegetable oils, 579
    copolymerization, 581
    polyurethanes from, 602606
    Vegetable proteins, 592593
    Veriflex SMP, 543
    Verilyte®, 544545
    VF-type FGSF, 542, 543f
    Vinyl ester resins, 125129
    overview, 125126
    special qualities, 127129
    trade names & manufacturers, 167t
    with unsaturated polyster,
    compounding, 129136
    aromatic tertiary amine/benzoyl
    peroxide-based catalysts, 131
    commercial pre-promoted resins,
    131132
    curing systems, 130132
    fiber reinforcements, 136
    fillers, 134136
    handling catalysts and
    promoters, 132
    heat curing systems, 132
    inhibitors, 132
    ketone peroxide-based catalysts,
    130131
    metal soaps, 130131
    overview, 129130
    room temperature (RT) curing,
    130132
    thickening agents, 136
    thixotropic/flow control agents,
    132134
    ultraviolet absorbers, 132
    Vulcanization, 2
    W
    Wacker Chemie AG, 568
    Water board, 27
    Water extended polyester (WEP), 161
    WEP. See Water extended polyester
    (WEP)
    Whey proteins, 593
    Wood products, composite, phenolic
    resins, 27
    fiber board, 27
    particle board, 27
    plywood, 2527
    strand board, 27
    water board, 27
    Working life. See Pot life
    Z
    Zein proteins, 593

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