Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills

Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
اسم المؤلف
Viktor P. Astakhov
التاريخ
13 مايو 2020
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Geometry of Single-point Turning Tools and Drills
Fundamentals and Practical Applications
Viktor P. Astakhov
Contents
1 What Does It Mean “Metal Cutting”? .1
1.1 Introduction .1
1.2 Known Results and Comparison with Other Forming Processes 2
1.2.1 Single-shear Plane Model of Metal Cutting .2
1.2.2 Metal Cutting vs. Other Closely Related Manufacturing
Operations .5
1.3 What Went Wrong in the Representation of Metal Cutting? .22
1.3.1 Force Diagram 23
1.3.2 Resistance of the Work Material in Cutting .25
1.3.3 Comparison of the Known Solutions for the Single-shear
Plane Model with Experimental Results .27
1.4 What is Metal Cutting? 28
1.4.1 Importance to Know the Right Answer 28
1.4.2 Definition .28
1.4.3 Relevance to the Cutting Tool Geometry .29
1.5 Fundamental Laws of Metal Cutting .32
1.5.1 Optimal Cutting Temperature – Makarow’s Law 32
1.5.2 Deformation Law .35
References 50
2 Basic Definitions and Cutting Tool Geometry,
Single Point Cutting Tools 55
2.1 Basic Terms and Definitions .55
2.1.1 Workpiece Surfaces .57
2.1.2 Tool Surfaces and Elements 57
2.1.3 Tool and Workpiece Motions .57
2.1.4 Types of Cutting 58
2.2 Cutting Tool Geometry Standards .60
2.3 Systems of Consideration of Tool Geometry 61
2.4. Tool-in-hand System (T-hand-S) 64xviii Contents
2.4.1 Tool-in-hand Coordinate System .64
2.4.2 References Planes 66
2.4.3 Tool Angles 68
2.4.4 Geometry of Cutting Tools with Indexable Inserts 74
2.5 Tool-in-machine System (T-mach-S) 84
2.5.1 Angles 84
2.5.2 Example 2.3 .88
2.6 Tool-in-use System (T-use-S) .90
2.6.1 Reference Planes 91
2.6.2 The Concept .92
2.6.3 Modification of the T-hand-S Cool Geometry .92
2.6.4 Kinematic Angles .98
2.6.5 Example 2.4 .100
2.7 Avalanched Representation of the Cutting Tool Geometry
in T-hand-S 102
2.7.1 Basic Tool Geometry .102
2.7.2 Determination of Cutting Tool Angles Relation
for a Wiper Cutting Insert 108
2.7.3 Determination of Cutting Tool Angles
for a Single-point Tool .110
2.7.4 Flank Angles of a Dovetail Forming Tool .117
2.7.5 Summation of Several Motions 119
References 125
3 Fundamentals of the Selection of Cutting Tool Geometry Parameters .127
3.1 Introduction .127
3.2 General Considerations in the Selection of Parameters
of Cutting Tool Geometry .129
3.2.1 Known Results .129
3.2.2 Ideal Tool Geometry and Constrains 130
3.2.3 Practical Gage for Experimental Evaluation of Tool Geometry .132
3.3 Tool Cutting Edge Angles .132
3.3.1 General Consideration 132
3.3.2 Uncut ChipT in Non-free Cutting 134
3.3.3 Influence on the Surface Finish 142
3.3.4 Tools with ?r > 90° .144
3.3.5 Tool Minor Cutting Edge Angle 147
3.4. Edge Preparation .161
3.4.1 General .161
3.4.2 Shape and Extent 163
3.4.3 Limitations .163
3.4.4 What Edge Preparation Actually Does .169
3.5 Rake Angle 171
3.5.1 Introduction 171
3.5.2 Influence on Plastic Deformation and Generazliations 175Contents xix
3.5.3 Effective Rake Angle .183
3.5.4 Conditions for Using High Rake Angles 189
3.6 Flank Angle .191
3.7 Inclination Angle .193
3.7.1 Turning with Rotary Tools .195
3.7.2 Helical Treading Taps and Broaches 197
3.7.3 Milling Tools 198
References 201
4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills .205
4.1 Introduction .205
4.2 Classification .206
4.3 Basic Terms .208
4.4 System Approach 211
4.4.1 System Objective .212
4.4.2 Understanding the Drilling System 212
4.4.3. Understanding the Tool 212
4.5. Force System Constrains on the Drill Penetration Rate 213
4.5.1 Force-balance Problem in Conventional Drills 213
4.5.2 Constrains on the Drill Penetration Rate 218
4.5.3 Drilling Torque 219
4.5.4 Axial Force .220
4.5.5 Axial Force (Thrust)-torque Coupling .221
4.6 Drill Point 223
4.6.1 Basic Classifications 223
4.6.2 Tool Geometry Measures to Increase the Allowable
Penetration Rate 224
4.7 Common Design and Manufacturing Flaws 259
4.7.1 Web Eccentricity/ Lip Index Error .260
4.7.2 Poor Surface Finish and Improper Tool Material/Hardness .261
4.7.3 Coolant Hole Location and Size .263
4.8 Tool Geometry 267
4.8.1 Straight-flute and Twist Drills Particularities 269
4.8.2 Geometry of the Typical Drill Point 270
4.8.3 Rake Angle .272
4.8.4 Inclination Angle .280
4.8.5 Flank Angle 281
4.8.6 Geometry of a Cutting Edge Located at an Angle
to the y0-plane 292
4.8.7 Chisel Edge 295
4.8.8 Drill Flank is Formed by Two Planes: Generalization .306
4.8.9 Drill Flank Angle Formed by Three Planes .310
4.8.10 Flank Formed by Quadratic Surfaces .313
4.9 Load Over the Drill Cutting Edge .324xx Contents
4.9.1 Uncut Chip Thickness in Drilling 325
4.9.2 Load Distribution Over the Cutting Edge 327
4.10 Drills with Curved and Segmented Cutting Edges 328
4.10.1 Load of the Cutting Part of a Drill with Curved Cutting Edges .329
4.10.2 Rake Angle .332
References 337
5 Deep-hole Tools 341
5.1 Introduction .341
5.2 Generic Classification of Deep-hole Machining Operations .343
5.3 What Does ‘Self-piloting Tool’ Mean? .345
5.3.1 Force Balance in Self-piloting Tools 345
5.4 Three Basic Kinematic Schemes of Drilling .350
5.4.1 Gundrill Rotates and the Workpiece is Stationary .351
5.4.2 Workpiece Rotates and the Gundrill is Stationary .352
5.4.3 Counterrotation 352
5.5 System Approach 353
5.5.1 Handling Tool Failure 353
5.5.2 System Considerations .354
5.6 Gundrills 362
5.6.1 Basic Geometry 362
5.6.2 Rake Surface 365
5.6.3 Geometry of Major Flanks .370
5.6.4 System Considerations in Gundrill Design 390
5.6.5 Examplification of Significance of the High MWF Pressure
in the Bottom Clearance Space 423
5.6.6 Example of Experimental Study 425
5.6.7 Optimization of Tool Geometry .439
References 440
Appendix A
Basic Kinematics of Turning and Drilling .443
A.1 Introduction .443
A.2 Turning and Boring .444
A.2.1 Basic Motions in Turning .444
A.2.2 Cutting Speed in Turning and Boring 448
A.2.3 Feed and Feed Rate 448
A.2.4 Depth of Cut .449
A.2.5 Material Removal Rate 449
A.2.6 Resultant Motion 450
A.3 Drilling and Reaming 450
A.3.1 Basic Motions in Drilling .450
A.3.2 Machining Regime .451
A.4 Cutting Force and Power .453Contents xxi
A.4.1 Force System in Metal Cutting .453
A.4.2 Cutting Power 454
A.4.3 Practical Assessment of the Cutting Force .455
References 461
Appendix B
ANSI and ISO Turning Indexable Inserts and Holders .463
B.1 Indexable Inserts .463
B.1.1 ANSI Code .464
B.1.2 ISO Code 471
B.2 Tool Holders for Indexable Inserts (Single Point Tools) 491
B.2.1 Symbol for the Method of Holding Horizontally Mounted
Insert – Reference Position (1) 492
B.2.2 Symbol for Insert Shape – Reference Position (2) .493
B.2.3 Symbol for Tool Style – Reference Position (3) 493
B.2.4 Letter Symbol Identifying Insert Normal Clearance –
Reference Position (4) 494
B.2.5 Symbol for Tool Hand – Reference position (5) 494
B.2.6 Symbol for Tool Height (Shank Height of Tool Holders
and Height of Cutting Edge) – Reference Position (6) .494
B.2.7 Number Symbol Identifying Tool Holder Shank Width –
Reference Position (7) 495
B.2.8 Number Symbol Identifying Tool Length –
Reference Position (8) 495
B.2.9 Letter Symbol Identifying Indexable Insert Size –
Reference Position (9) 497
Appendix C
Basics of Vector Analysis 499
C.1 Vectors and Scalars .499
C.2 Definition and Representation .500
C.2.1 Definitions 500
C.2.2 Basic Vector Operations 503
C.3 Application Conveniences .509
C.4 Rotation: Linear and Angular Velocities .511
C.4.1 Planar Linear and Angular Velocities 511
C.4.2 Rotation: The Angular Velocity Vector .515
References .518
Appendix D
Hydraulic Losses: Basics and Gundrill Specifics 519
D.1 Hydraulic Pressure Losses – General 519
D.1.1 Major Losses: Friction Factor 520
D.1.2 Minor Losses (Losses Due to Form Resistance) 521xxii Contents
D.2 Concept of the Critical MWF Velocity and Flow Rate .521
D.2.1 MWF Flow Rate Needed for Reliable Chip Transportation .522
D.2.3 Example D.1 .527
D.3 Inlet MWF pressure .528
D.4 Analysis of Hydraulic Resistances 532
D.4.1 Analysis of Hydraulic Resistances Over Which the Designer
Has No or Little Control 532
D.4.2 Variable Resistances Over Which the Designer Has Control 535
D.5 Practical Implementation in the Drill Design 539
References 543
Appendix E
Requirements and Examples of Cutting Tool Drawings 545
E.1 Introduction .545
E.2 Tool Drawings – the Existent Practice 546
E.3 Tool Drawing Requrements 548
E.4 Examples of Tool Drawing .553
References 559
Index
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