Expanded PTFE Applications Handbook – Technology, Manufacturing and Applications

Expanded PTFE Applications Handbook – Technology, Manufacturing and Applications
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Sina Ebnesajjad
28 أكتوبر 2023
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Expanded PTFE Applications Handbook – Technology, Manufacturing and Applications
Sina Ebnesajjad
President, FluoroConsultants Group, LLC
Table of contents
Chapter 1 History of fluoropolymers, PTFE and expanded PTFE
Chapter 2
Polytetrafluoroethylene: properties and structure
Chapter 3
Manufacturing PTFE by emulsion polymerization
Chapter 4
Paste Extrusion of Polytetrafluoroethylene
Chapter 5
Expansion of polytetrafluoroethylene
Chapter 6
Manuf. and Fab. of Various shapes of ePTFE
Chapter 7
Prope, Charact. and Appl. of Expanded PTFE Products
Chapter 8
Applications of ePTFE in Apparels
Chapter 9
Applications of Expanded PTFE in Medical and Surgical Devices
Chapter 10
Filtration and Vent Applications of ePTFE
Chapter 11
Industrial Applications
Chapter 12
Semicon, Elect and Electr App. of ePTFE Membranes
Chapter 13
Surface Treatment and Modification
Chapter 14
ePTFE Membrane Manufacturers
‘Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” indicate figures and “t” indicate tables.’
ABA. See Adsorbent breather assembly
Accordion-shaped crystallites, 45
Activated carbon, 258
adhesive backer, 256e257
adhesive bonding, 260
bond strength, 260e262, 261t, 264e265
surface modification, 263e265
Adjacent reentry model, 12
Adsorbent breather assembly (ABA),
257e258, 257f
AFM. See Atomic force microscopy
AI. See Amorphous index (AI)
Alkali metals, 15
American Society for Testing Materials
(ASTM), 40
ASTM F 316 standard, 122e123
ASTM Method D4441, 62
ASTM Method D4895, 60e61
ASTM method D4935, 257
ASTM Method D6611, 242, 243f, 243t
3-Aminopropyl, 265
Ammonium carbonate, 52e53
Ammonium perfluoro-3,
6-dioxaoctanoate (APFDO), 43
Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO),
32e33, 41
alternatives to, 33e35
anionic surfactants, 33f
effect of surface tension, 46f
polymerization conditions and polymer
properties with, 43t
TFE emulsion polymerization with
replacements, 42e44
Ammonium persulfate (APS), 35e36
Ammonium sulfite (AMS), 42, 53
Amorphous index (AI), 49e50
Amorphous locking process, 122
Amorphous phase, 121
Amorphously locked PTFE, 165
AMS. See Ammonium sulfite (AMS)
Anastomosis, 140
Anhydrous liquid ammonia, 260
Anionic ring-opening oligomerization of
hexafluoropropylene oxide, 33f
Anionic surfactants, 33f
Aortoiliac occlusive disease, 207
APFDO. See Ammonium perfluoro-3,
6-dioxaoctanoate (APFDO)
APFO. See Ammonium
perfluorooctanoate (APFO)
APMW. See Atmospheric pressure
microwave (APMW)
APS. See Ammonium persulfate (APS)
Arrhythmias, 206
Arteriovenous fistula graft (AVF graft),
201, 201fe202f
Arteriovenous graft (AV), 201
Artery disease, 140
Asahi Glass Company, 58
Asian Manufacturers, 277
ASTM. See American Society for Testing
Materials (ASTM)
Atmospheric plasma treatment,
262e263, 263f
Atmospheric pressure microwave
(APMW), 265, 265t
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 19
Autoclave, 37e43
stainless steel, 35, 47
AV. See Arteriovenous graft (AV)
AVF graft. See Arteriovenous fistula graft
(AVF graft)
Azelaic acid, 266
Balloon-expandable stents, 207
BHA Group, 275e276
Biaxial expansion process, 107e111
biaxial laboratory stretcher, 108f
coarse and highly porous uniaxially
ePTFE, 111t
multiple oven arrangements in Karo IV
biaxial stretcher, 109f
photograph of stretch frame, 108f
properties of PTFE film, 110t
Biaxial orientation, 131e133, 132f
Biaxial stretching process, 245e246
agent, 266e267
coating, 266
molecule, 266
Biocompatible ePTFE, 6
Biological products, 194
Biomaterials, 196
Blending lubricant and pigment and
performing, 87, 90
Blocking process, 102
Bolt-load retention, 244, 245f
Bond strength, 261e262, 262f
Bottle blending, 74e76
Branched TFE chains, 12e14
Branching mechanism, 11
Break strength, 56
Breathable and moisture-repellent fabric
construction, 181, 181f
Breathable ePTFE fabric structure,
172e178, 172f
coating perfluoroalkyl acrylic
copolymer, 177f
construction of breathable and moisture
repellent layers, 173f
methods for measurement of
breathability of films and coatings,
model of moisture vapor transmission,
polymerization reaction, 175f
scanning electron micrographs, 177f
structure of water repellent, 173f
water vapor transmission, 174f, 176f
Bubble Point, 227te228t
test, 123e124, 129
C.R. Bard Corporation, 276
C2F5(VDF)2I, 33e34
C8. See Ammonium perfluorooctanoate
and cable assemblies, 168
coaxial, 254e255, 254f
Calendared extrudate, 105
Calendaring, 92e94, 93f
equipment, 92e94
fish-tail guide, 94f
operation, 94
279Capillary force, 178
Cardiac resynchronization therapy device
(CRT device), 205, 206f
Cardiac rhythm management devices
(CRM devices), 205
CARMEDA BioActive Surface (CBAS),
200, 200f
Cartridges, 237
Surface (CBAS)
CBER. See Center for biologics
evaluation and research (CBER)
CCT. See Critical cracking thickness
CD. See Cross direction (CD)
CDER. See Center for drug evaluation
and research (CDER)
Cell membrane, 241e242, 242f
Center for biologics evaluation and
research (CBER), 194
Center for drug evaluation and research
(CDER), 194
Center for veterinary medicine (CVM),
CeF bonds on properties of PTFE, 9e11
CHClF2. See Chlorodifluoromethane
Chemically treated activated carbon, 258
Chlorendic acid, 36f
Chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2), 26
conversion, 28t
preparation, 26
Chloroform preparation, 26
Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), 39
CMC. See Critical micelle concentration
Coagulated dispersion, 29e31, 59e60
polymerized tetrafluoroethylene, 65
powder, 65
Coaxial cables, 254e255, 254f
Common air contaminants, 218, 219f
Cooling rate experiments, 115t
Coreeshell polymer, 39
Costello process, 263e264
Crack propagation in PTFE, 21
Creep rate, 56e57
Critical cracking thickness (CCT), 41
Critical micelle concentration (CMC), 34
CRM devices. See Cardiac rhythm
management devices (CRM
Cross direction (CD), 131
Cross flow filtration, 223
CRT device. See Cardiac
resynchronization therapy device
(CRT device)
Crushability, 106
Crystalline structure of PTFE, 12, 13f,
CTFE. See Chlorotrifluoroethylene
Cut-through resistance, 255e256, 256t
CVM. See Center for veterinary medicine
Daikin Corporation, 58
Degree of invasiveness, 195
Deionized water, 178
Densified porous PTFE membranes,
149e153, 154f
Garlock’s one-up pump diaphragm, 152f
scanning calorimetry thermogram, 152f
strain vs. time, 153f
Dental floss, 233, 236f
Depth filtration, 214, 214f
DeWal Industries, 276
Dextran (Dex), 268, 268f
DFF. See Direct flow filtration (DFF)
Dichlorodifluoromethane, 26
Die, 81e83
land, 83
Dielectric constant values, 253, 254t
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
49, 49f, 117, 143
Diffusion, 215, 215f
Direct flow filtration (DFF), 223
Disk drive filters, 257e258
polymerization, 99
of PTFE, 62
Dissipation factor, 253
Disuccinic acid peroxide (DSP), 40e41,
DOE. See US Department of Energy
Donaldson Corporation, 276
Drug delivery filter, 229, 229f
Dry curve, 123, 123f
Drying, 83
DSAP. See Disuccinic acid peroxide
DSC. See Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC)
DSP. See Disuccinic acid peroxide (DSP)
DuPont, 1e5, 47
Durably water repellent, 172e173
Electrical and electronic applications
coaxial cables, 254e255
disk drive filters, 257e258
EMI gasket, 256e257
hook-up wire, 255e256
Electromagnetic interference shielding
gasket (EMI gasket), 256e257
Electronic and electrochemical
application, 168e169
Electrophiles, 14
Electrostatic attraction, 215, 215f
EMI gasket. See Electromagnetic
interference shielding gasket
(EMI gasket)
Emulsion polymerization, 25, 32, 35f, 99
with APFO replacements, 42e44
development for ePTFE applications,
PTFE preparation, 35e42
TFE, 44e45
polymerization, 29e31
polymers, 31e35
preparation, 26e29
Emulsion techniques, 32
Endothermic ratio, 49
measurement, 57
ePTFE. See Expanded
polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)
Etching technique, 260, 267e268
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer
(ETFE), 206
Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene
(ePTFE), 4, 9, 25, 99, 129, 171,
196e198, 197f, 197te198t, 214,
253, 259, 270f, 275. See also
Medical and surgical
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE);
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE)
advantages and disadvantages of
insulation materials, 256t
amorphous locking process, 122
aortic arch graft, 141, 142f
cables, 255f
characteristic of membranes pores,
opportunities, 4
of PTFE for applications, 45e58
discovery, 5e7
ePTFE-based filters, 168
fiber, 140e149, 233e244, 233te234t
and fabrics, 169
fishing line, 238e240, 238f
high tensile strength PTFE fiber,
oral care, 233e235, 235f
plastic film slitting machine,
280 INDEXrazor blade slitting, 144f
ropes, 242e244, 242f, 244f
sewing threads, 236e238, 237f, 237t
stressestrain, 146fe147f, 147t
strong core fiber, 149f
sutures, 204, 205f, 235e236, 236f
weaving and knitting fiber, 240e242,
filters, 217e218
for baghouses, 220f
comparison of backing fabrics, 221t
high efficiency particulate arresting
filter, 222f
manufacturing process, 216
microporous membranes, 213
Tetratex filter media, 217
formation, 118e122
DSC thermogram, 119fe120f
Maxwell model, 121, 121f
microstructure of section of
pasteeePTFE film, 120f
SEM of, 120f
joint sealant, 159
lipoatrophy implants, 202e203
advanta ePTFE dual-porosity
configuration, 204f
advanta ePTFE implants, 204f
manufacturing, 129
densified porous PTFE membranes,
ePTFE articles, 99e111
planar ePTFE membranes, 129e133
shapes and applications, 130t
tubular ePTFE shapes, 134e142
membrane, 173e174, 180e181
films, 168
microstructure, 116e118
products, 163, 164t
applications, 166e169, 167te168t
properties and characteristics,
163e166, 166f, 166t
scanning electron micrograph of, 163f
sheets, 153e158
fabricating ePTFE gasket, 155f
low sealing stress gasket, 158f
stacking of ePTFE film layers,
structure of multilayer compressible
ePTFE gasket, 157f
tapes and rods, 159
ePTFE joint sealant gasket, 159f
vents, 248e250, 249f
rolls of ready-to-use, 250f
sound wave transfer, 250f
Extendedechain crystals, 115
“Extruded paste”, 100, 101f
Extruder, 80e81
Davis electric vertical extruder, 81f
Jennings International horizontal
extruder, 82f
master die, 82f
Extrusion. See also Paste extrusion
aid, 61e62, 71e74
isopar solvents properties, 72te73t
lubricant properties, 74t
solvents flammability data, 75t
equipment and process, 79e84
changes in PTFE paste, 81f
die, 81e83
drying, 83
extruder, 80e81
PTFE wire extruder, 80f
reduction ratio, 84, 85te86t, 87f
sintering and cooling, 83e84
pressure, 52, 61, 68, 69fe70f
evaluation, 57
of tubing, 85e90, 87t
blending lubricant and pigment and
performing, 87
extrusion of spaghetti tubing, 87e90,
88f, 89t
F22. See Dichlorodifluoromethane
Fabrics, 184
Fabrics and apparel, ePTFE use in
breathable ePTFE fabric structure,
172e178, 172f
development history, 178e182, 180t
outdoor apparel, 182e188
protective apparel, 188e189, 189te190t
FDA. See Food and Drug Administration
FEP. See Hexafluoroethylene copolymer
FEP polymer. See Fluorinated ethylene
propylene polymer (FEP
Fiber, 233
Fibril(s), 25, 66e69
formation, 22
porous structure, 259
Fibrillation, 25, 68e69
Film stretching, 131e132
Filter(s), 215
bags, 218, 237, 237f
cake, 213
medium, 213
Filtrate, 213
Filtration, 213, 215
applications, 224e230
classification, 213e214
gasesolid filtration, 215e223
solideliquid filtration, 223e224
surface filtration processes, 214
Fine powder, 65, 70e71
polytetrafluoroethylene resins, 60e62
products, 59e60
PTFE fabrication and processing
background, 65e66
blending resin with lubricant, 74e77
extrusion aid, 71e74
extrusion equipment and process,
extrusion of tubing, 85e90
individual PTFE particles, 66f
paste extrusion fundamentals, 66e68
preforming, 77e79
resin handling and storage, 68e71
unsintered tape, 90e96
Fish-tail guide, 94f
Fishing line, 238e240, 238f
differential scanning calorimetry
thermograms, 239f
scanning electron micrograph of fiber
surface, 238f
Flame treatment, 264e265
“Flat lattice” structure, 7
“Floppy” gasket material, 156
Fluon CD-023, 48e49
Fluorescein isothiocyanate, 265
Fluorinated ethylene propylene polymer
(FEP polymer), 12e14, 103,
Fluorinated surfactant, 58
Fluorine (F), 9
bonds on properties of PTFE, 9e11
CeF bonds on properties of PTFE, 9e11
Fluoropolymers, 1, 4, 7, 260, 264
solvents, 15e16
Fluorspar (CaF2), 26
Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
Footwear, testing, 186e187, 188f
Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR),
Fracture of PTFE, 20e22
Friction, 16e18
unfilled fluoropolymers, 17t
FZR. See Forschungszentrum Rossendorf
Garments, 171
Gas filtration, 215, 215f
Gaskets, 244e248, 245f, 248t
complex and simple gasket shapes, 246f
testing, 247e248
INDEX 281Gasesolid filtration, 215e223. See also
Solideliquid filtration
choice of filtration method, 219f
common air contaminants, 218f
comparison of pores sizes of various
filter media materials, 216f
ePTFE filters for baghouses, 220f
filter media comparison in cement finish
mill process, 218t
nonmembrane filter, 216f
pressure difference across filter for
ePTFE, 217f
SEM of ePTFE membranes, 217f
Gauge blocks, 105
General Electric (GE), 275e276
General Motors (GM), 2
Gore, W.L., 216, 275
Gore EU and Japan, 275
Gore Germany, 275
Gore Scotland, 275
Gore Shenzhen, 275
Gore Viabahn endoprosthesis, 207
coats, 173, 182e183, 182f
gasket product, 156
insulated comfort footwear, 186, 187f
membrane, 186
Paclite apparel, 184
performance comfort footwear, 186,
pro products, 184
trademark, 182e183
Gore-Tex. See GORE-TEX
Half dry curve, 123, 123f
Hard disk drive filters (HDD filters), 257,
HCFC-22. See Chlorodifluoromethane
HCl. See Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
HDD filters. See Hard disk drive filters
(HDD filters)
Heat treatment, 142, 146e148
HEPA filter. See High efficiency
particulate arresting filter (HEPA
Heparin, 199e200
Hexafluoroethylene copolymer (FEP),
254, 257
Hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 26, 103
HFP oxide, anionic ring-opening
oligomerization, 33f
High boilers, 26
High efficiency particulate arresting filter
(HEPA filter), 219e220
High molecular weight polyethylene
(HMPE), 242, 244f
High tensile strength PTFE fiber, 142e143
HMPE. See High molecular weight
polyethylene (HMPE)
Hollow ground blades, 144
Hook-up wire, 255e256
high strength toughened, 255f
Horizontal heated console design, 83
Hybrid flexible round cable, 255, 255f
Hydrochloric acid (HCl), 1
Hydrophilic spacer, 266
Hydrophilicity, surface modification for,
Hydrophobic membrane surfaces, 265
ICD devices. See Implantable
cardioverter defibrillator devices
(ICD devices)
ID. See Inner diameter (ID)
Impaction, 215, 215f
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
devices (ICD devices), 205e206,
206f, 208t
Implantable device, 195e196
In vivo environment, 195
Industrial and process filtration
application of ePTFE, 167e168
Inner diameter (ID), 139
Inorganic pigments, 77
Inorganic salts, 59e60
Insufflation, 229
filters, 229, 230f
Interception, 215, 215f
International Standards Organization
(ISO), 60
Invasive, 195
IPA. See Isopropyl alcohol (IPA)
ISO. See International Standards
Organization (ISO)
Isopar solvents properties, 72te73t
Isoparaffin, 61e62
Isopropyl alcohol (IPA), 176
J-integral analysis, 21
Japan Gore-Tex Inc. (JGI), 275
Jar blending, 74e76
JGI. See Japan Gore-Tex Inc. (JGI)
Joint sealants beads, 246, 246f
Knitting fiber, 240e242, 240f
graph of thickness uniformity, 241f
Koo’s model, 113e114
LCP. See Liquid crystal polymer (LCP)
Le Chaˆtelier-Braun principle. See Le
Chaˆtelier’s principle
Le Chaˆtelier’s principle, 27
Lead assembly of implanted devices,
actual implantable cardioverter
defibrillator, 207f
distal portions of Endotak Reliance
0157, 207f
Lennard-Jones potential, 17
filtration, 215
modes, 223, 224f
liquid-Filled Portions, 265
liquid-wetted portions, 265
pigments, 77
splash protection, 189
Liquid crystal polymer (LCP), 242, 244f
Log(POW), 58
Long-term device, 195
Low surface tension liquids, 264, 264t
Low-pressure plasma treatment (LPT),
Lubricant, 61e62, 71e74
blending resin with, 74e77
isopar solvents properties, 72te73t
properties, 74t
solvents flammability data, 75t
Machine direction (MD), 101e102, 130,
Machine direction orientation (MDO),
Manhattan Project, 3
Maquet Cardiovascular, 276
Martindale test, 184e185
Matrix tensile strength (MTS), 151
Matrix-spun fiber, 142
Maxwell model, 121, 121f
linear viscoelasticity model, 121
McCarthy process, 263e264
MD. See Machine direction (MD)
MDO. See Machine direction orientation
Mean flow pore size test, 123
Medical and biological uses of ePTFE,
Medical and surgical applications.
See also Expanded
polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)
ancient Egyptian medical instruments,
biomaterials, 196
282 INDEXclassification of devices, 195e196, 195t
designing medical devices, 196
ePTFE lipoatrophy implants, 202e203
ePTFE sutures, 204
lead assembly of implanted devices,
medical applications, 198, 199t
medical devices, 193e195
patches, 202
stents, 207
vascular grafts, 198e201, 199f
Medical devices, 193e195
classification, 195e196, 195t
designing, 196
Melt creep viscosity, 37
Membranes pores, 122e125
Bubble Point test, 123e124
YoungeLaplace equation, 124
Mercury, 124e125
porosimetry method, 124e125
Microfiltration applications of ePTFE,
Microporous membranes, 229, 229f
of ePTFE, 116e118
DSC scans of PTFE powder, 118f
SEM of biaxially ePTFE, 116f
SEM of uniaxially ePTFE, 116f
structure of uniaxially ePTFE
membra, 116f
of PTFE, 20e22, 111e116
crystalline structure of PTFE, 114f
deformation of PTFE
crystalsearrows, 112f
fringed-micelle model, 115f
SEM of PTFE, 113f
Miller Cuff techniques, 140
Mitral regurgitation, 236
Modified polytetrafluoroethylene, 154
Moisture vapor transmission rate
(MVTR), 174
Molecular interaction of PTFE, 16e18
Molecular weights (MWs), 99
Monofilaments, 241e242
Motorized blender, 74
MTS. See Matrix tensile strength (MTS)
MVTR. See Moisture vapor transmission
rate (MVTR)
MWs. See Molecular weights (MWs)
Naphthalene, 260
NASA. See National Aeronautics and
Space Administration (NASA)
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA), 19e20
National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA), 189
Neto’s technique, 148
NFPA. See National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA)
Non-dewetting, 265
acid, 34f
Nonmembrane filter, 216f
Nontelogenic anionic surfactant, 53
Nucleophiles (Nuc), 14
reaction scheme for nucleophilic attack,
Nylon, 240
O/C ratio. See Oxygen to carbon ratio
(O/C ratio)
OD. See Outer diameter (OD)
Oleophobic fluoropolymer, 175
coating, 175
Oral care, 233e235, 235f
Oral cavity, 235
Outdoor apparel, 182e188
design of eVent fabric, 183f
outdoor footwear, 186, 186f
outdoor gloves, 188, 188f
testing apparel, 184e186, 185f
testing footwear, 186e187, 188f
Outer diameter (OD), 139
Oxy-fluoropolymer, 264
Oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C ratio), 265
Oxygen-free kettle, 42
Pantograph, 107
Paraffin wax, 54
Paste extrusion, 66e68, 142e143
crystalline structure of PTFE, 67f
DSC diagram, 68f
fibrilation of fine powder PTFE, 67f
fibrillation of PTFE, 69f
one PTFE fine powder particle, 66f
pressure, 37, 69fe70f
Patches, 202
Gore ACUSEAL cardiovascular patch,
Gore TAG ePTFE thoracic
endoprosthesis, 204f
Gore’s preclude, 203f
PE. See Polyethylene (PE)
Pedersen, Dr. Charles J., 3f
Peeling, 244
Penetration, 189, 220
Pentamer, 14e15, 15f
PEO. See Polyethylene oxide (PEO)
Perfluoro ethylene, 254
Perfluoroalkoxy polymer, 254
Perfluoroalkyl acrylic copolymer, 175
Perfluorocyclobutane, 27e28
Perfluoroolefins, 14
Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether (PPVE), 37
Perfluorovinyl ether, 41
Pericardial membrane, 202
Petroleum solvents, 71e74
Phillips Scientific, 276e277
addition, 77
dispersions, 77
PIII. See Plasma immersion ion
implantation (PIII)
Planar ePTFE membranes, 129e133
biaxial orientation, 131e133, 132f
uniaxial orientation, 130e131, 131f
plasma-modified membrane, 265
plasma-treated fiber, 238
treatment, 266, 270f
Plasma immersion ion implantation
(PIII), 267, 268f
Platelet adhesion, 268, 269f
Poisson’s ratio, 165, 167f
Polyester, 198, 240
Polyethylene (PE), 9e10, 10f
Polyethylene oxide (PEO), 267
Polykettle, 51, 53
chains, 266e267
coatings, 178
structure, 266, 266f
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 1, 9, 25,
65, 99, 129, 163, 176e178, 196,
215, 224, 253, 259. See also
Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene
(ePTFE); Tetrafluoroethylene
amorphous locking process, 122
biaxial expansion process, 107e111
billet, 139
branched tetrafluoroethylene chains,
characterization, 60e62
commercialization, 3e4
comparison of products and processes,
conformations, 18e20
crystalline structure, 12, 13f, 18f
development for ePTFE applications,
break strength, 56
creep rate, 56e57
endothermic ratio measurement, 57
INDEX 283Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (Continued)
evaluation of extrusion pressure and
stretchability, 57
preparation of test specimen, 47e48
stress relaxation time, 48e51,
56, 58
stretch procedure, 48, 55
stretch test, 51
stretching rate, 48
tensile break strength test, 48, 57
ultimate SR test, 47
electrical properties, 253t
electronic properties of hydrogen and
halogens, 10t
expansion processes, 100e101, 100f
fiber, 142
fibrils, 67
microstructure, 20e22, 111e116
molecular interaction, 16e18
PE vs., 12t
phase diagram, 11f
preparation by emulsion polymerization,
AMS, 42
autoclave, 37e38
coreeshell polymer, 39
polymer properties, 40t
pressure vessel, 36
recipe and properties, 38te39t
stabilizers, 36
TFE consumption, 42
3M Corporation, 41
primary fracture mechanisms, 22f
properties of fine powder, 59t
reaction mechanisms, 14e15
Roy Plunkett’s story, 1e3
solvents on fluoropolymers, 15e16
three chain-folding model in polymer
crystals, 13f
transitions, 18e20, 19t
tubing, 135e136, 135f
uniaxial expansion process, 101e107
X-ray diffraction and AFM
measurements comparison, 20t
yarns, felts, and microporous expanded
membranes, 215e216
Polyurethane (PU), 172, 180
Polyvinylidene fluoride, 238, 253
Porex Corporation, 276
Porosity, 122e123, 129, 135f, 137e138
Porous medium, 213
PPVE. See Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether
“Preformed paste”, 100, 101f
Preforming, 77e79, 78fe79f
compaction rate, 78t
scanning electron micrograph, 79f
Pressure vessel, 36
Pressure Vessel Research Council
(PVRC), 247
Prosthetic graft, 265
Protective apparel, 188e189, 189te190t
PTFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene
PU. See Polyurethane (PU)
PulsePleat filter elements, 218, 222f
PVRC. See Pressure Vessel Research
Council (PVRC)
Pyrolysis, 27e28
R22. See Dichlorodifluoromethane
Ram extruder, 80
mechanisms, 14e15
vessel, 36
Reduction ratio (RR), 61, 66, 84,
85te86t, 134e135
for extruding rods, 92
parameter, 79
Relaxation time, 121e122
Repulsive forces, 17
blending with lubricant, 74e77
blending fine powder PTFE, 76f
pigment addition, 77
PK twin-shell liquid solids blender,
Turbula Shaker Mixer blender, 77f
handling and storage, 68e71
agglomerates of fine powder, 71f
cooling time, 70f
Rheometric pressure. See Extrusion
Room Temperature Operational
Tightness Test (ROTT),
247e248, 247f, 247t, 248f,
Ropes, 242e244, 242f, 244f
ROTT. See Room Temperature
Operational Tightness Test
Round and rectangular bead extrusion,
91e92, 91f, 92t
RR. See Reduction ratio (RR)
Rugged hybrid round cable, 255f
Scaffolding, 207
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM),
100, 259, 259fe260f
high stretch ratios, 260f
PTFE film, 262f
SCCO2. See Supercritical carbon dioxide
SE. See Shielding effectiveness (SE)
Sealants, 169
Seals, 244e248
Seam sealing tape for apparel, 181fe182f
Self-expandable stents, 207
SEM. See Scanning electron micrograph
Sewing threads, 236e238, 237f, 237t
Sewn filter media, 237
Shielding effectiveness (SE), 257
Short-term device, 195
Silica gel, 258
Silicone resin, 175
Silver compounds, 180
and cooling, 83e84
sintered ePTFE, 130
Slurry, 213
etching, 260, 261t, 263
heparin, 261
sodium-etched PTFE surface, 260
Solideliquid filtration, 223e224.
See also Gasesolid filtration
chemical compatibility of common filter
membranes, 225te226t
hydrophobic ePTFE membrane
filter cartridge, 228f
properties, 227te228t
water flow rate vs. pressure, 227f
Solvents on fluoropolymers, 15e16
Spaghetti tubing extrusion, 87e90, 88f,
Sparks, 84
Spherical geometry, 45
SPM. See Scanning probe microscopy
Spooling process, 240
284 INDEXSR. See Stretch ratio (SR)
Standard specific gravity (SSG), 37e38,
62, 99
specimen, 56
Stents, 129, 207
into clogged artery, 208f
ePTFE-covered stents, 209f
Gore Viabahn endoprosthesis stent, 209f
ICD leads, 208t
occlusion in iliac aorta, 208f
self-expandable and balloonexpandable, 207
Stress relaxation time, 48e51, 56, 58
Stretch ratio (SR), 47
Stretch(ing), 57
procedure, 48, 55
PTFE tape, 94e95, 96f, 96t
drying oven for removing lubricant,
rate, 48
test, 51
vascular grafts, 199f, 201, 202f
Stretchability, 179
evaluation, 57
Succinic acid, 52
Sumitomo Electric Industries, 277
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), 178
energy, 16e18, 17t, 176
filtration, 213e214, 214f
lamination of ePTFE membrane, 215f
SEM of ePTFE membrane, 215f
free energy, 264
hydrophobicity, 260
modification of ePTFEs
for hydrophilicity and adhesion,
mechanical alteration of surface,
membrane treatment, 263e271
to reduce thrombogenicity, 265e268
treatment of PTFE, 260e263
treatment of PTFE, 260e263
Surgical smoke filter, 220, 223f
Surgical sutures, 235
Surgically invasive devices, 195
Suspension techniques, 32
Sutures, 235e236, 236f
Swelling, 16
Tangential flow filtration (TFF), 223
Tape wrapping, 255e256
Taylor Patch techniques, 140
TCE. See Trichloroethylene (TCE)
TD. See Transverse direction (TD)
Teflon 6A, 119
Teflon fluoropolymer, 3
Tefzel ETFE, 150
Tensile break strength
measurement, 57
test, 48
Tenter frame, 133, 133f
Tenterhooks, 131e132
Tentering, 132e133
Testing apparel, 184e186, 185f
Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), 1, 10e11, 25,
103, 181e182. See also
Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene
(ePTFE); Polytetrafluoroethylene
emulsion polymerization, 35f, 37t,
polymerization, 29e31
polymers, 31e35
preparation, 26e29
pressure effect, 27t, 29t
temperature effect, 27t, 29f
synthesis, 26
TFE. See Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE)
TFF. See Tangential flow filtration (TFF)
Thermodynamic laws, 45
Thread sealant tape, 90
Three chain-folding model in polymer
crystals, 13f
3M Corporation, 41
Thrombin catalyzes, 265e266
Thrombogenicity, surface modification to
reducing, 265e268
Thrombus, 265e266
Tissue surface, 266
Toughness, 145
Transient device, 195
Transverse direction (TD), 103e104,
132e133, 134t
Trauma, 236
Triboelectric effect, 254
Trichloroethylene (TCE),
Triethoxysilan, 265
Tube extrusion die, 88f
Tubing, 134
Tubular ePTFE shapes, 134e142, 135f
complex shape, 140e142
dual porosity of expanded tubing,
orientation of nodes and fibrils, 137f
PTFE tubing, 135e136, 135f
tube expansion apparatus, 138f
Turbula Shaker Mixer blender, 76, 77f
UHMWPE. See Ultrahigh molecular
weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)
ULPA filter. See Ultralow penetration air
filter (ULPA filter)
Ultimate SR test, 47
“Ultimate” filter cartridge, 224e227
Ultipleat high flow filter, 224, 227f
Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE), 148, 239, 239t
Ultralow particulate filters, 220
Ultralow penetration air filter (ULPA
filter), 219e220
Uniaxial expansion process, 101e107,
asymmetric ePTFE membrane, 107t
coarse and highly porous uniaxially
ePTFE, 106t
ePTFE as filtration membrane, 104t
PTFE tape expansion process, 102f
Uniaxial orientation, 130e131, 131f
Unsintered tape, 90e96
blending lubricant and pigment and
preforming, 90
calendaring, 92e94
extrusion of round and rectangular bead,
91e92, 91f, 92t
final tape product, 95e96, 96f
stretching PTFE tape, 94e95
Urine collection device, 229, 229f
US Department of Energy (DOE), 220
Van der Waals forces, 17, 31
Vascular grafts, 198e201, 263
arteriovenous fistula graft, 201fe202f
CARMEDA bioactive surface heparin
chemistry, 200f
Kink-resistant ePTFE vascular grafts,
scanning electron micrograph, 200f
stretch vascular grafts, 199f, 202f
two-layer structure, 200f
Vent filters and breathers, 168
W.L. Gore & Associates, 173, 178, 198
W.L. Gore TAG endoprosthesis, 202
Wax, 35e36
Weaving fiber, 240e242, 240f
graph of thickness uniformity, 241f
INDEX 285Wet curve, 123, 123f
Wettability, 264
Wetting mechanism of PTFE surface,
“Wetting out” phenomenon,
WHO. See World Health Organization
Wicking, 171
Wire payoff system, 80
Word graft, 129
World Health Organization (WHO),
Wyzenbeek abrasion test, 184e185
XMnO4, 52
Yarn-on-yarn abrasion, 242
Young’s modulus of elasticity, 165e166,
YoungeDupre equation, 176
YoungeLaplace equation, 123e124, 178
Zeus Industrial Products, 276

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