Ethics in Engineering Practice and Research – Second Edition

Ethics in Engineering Practice and Research – Second Edition
اسم المؤلف
Caroline Whitbeck
6 نوفمبر 2017

Ethics in Engineering Practice and Research – Second Edition
Caroline Whitbeck
Case Western Reserve University
Note to Students page xiii
Foreword to the First Edition by Woodie Flowers xv
Preface to the First Edition xvii
Acknowledgment xxi
Acknowledgments to the First Edition xxiii
Introduction to Ethical Reasoning and Engineer Ethics 3
Section 1. Ethics, Values, and Reason 3
Values and Engineering 3
Ethics in Popular Culture and in Reality 5
The Perspective of This Book 6
One Model of Ethics 9
Moral and Amoral Agents 10
Section 2. Values and Value Judgments 11
The Difference between Values and Preferences 11
Opinions and Judgments 14
Types of Value and Value Judgments 16
Religious Value in Relation to Ethical Value 21
Relations among Types of Value 22
Section 3. Ethics and Ethical Justification 23
Ethical Conventionalism and Ethical Relativism(s) 24
Ethical Evaluation, Justification, and Excuses for Actions 31
Examples of Justifications and Excuses for Lying 32
Section 4. Interests and Consequences 35
Interests and Conflicts of Interest 35
Consequences: Harms, Benefits, and Risks 38
Consequences for Whom? Moral Standing 42
Section 5. Moral Obligations and Moral Rules in Engineering 44
Moral Obligations and Moral Rules 44
Prima Facie and Absolute Obligations and Rules: The Burden
of Proof 47
Negative and Positive, and Universal and Special, Obligations and
Rules 48
viiviii Contents
Section 6. Categories of Moral (and Legal and Institutional) Rights 53
Moral Rights 53
Human and Special Rights 55
Alienable/Inalienable and Absolute/Prima Facie Rights 58
Negative/Positive Rights 64
Section 7. Rights of Privacy/Confidentiality and Intellectual Property 68
Rights of Privacy and Confidentiality 68
Intellectual Property Rights 71
Ethics, Conscience, and the Law 74
1. Professional Practice in Engineering 77
Professions and Norms of Professional Conduct 77
How Norms of Ethical Conduct Vary with Profession 79
Responsibilities, Obligations, and Moral Rules in Professional Ethics 85
Which Mistakes Are Culpable? 88
The Autonomy of Professions and Professional Codes of Ethics 92
Does Employee Status Prevent Acting as a Professional? 99
The Limits of Predictability and Responsibilities of the Engineering
Profession 102
Summary 103
2. Two Examples of Professional Behavior: Roger Boisjoly and
William LeMessurier 105
Section 1. Roger Boisjoly’s Attempts to Avert the Challenger Disaster 105
Moral Lessons from Actions Intended to Forestall the Challenger
Explosion 105
The Post-Flight Inspection in January 1985 107
The Significance of the O-Ring Seals and Escape of Hot Gas 107
Pursuing a Hypothesis about the Effect of Cold Temperature 111
Stagnation in the Face of Mounting Evidence about Seal Erosion 112
A Company’s Concern about Its Image 114
Working with Poor Management Support 115
The Day and Evening before the Challenger Flight 116
Preventing Accidents 120
A Note on the Challenger Disaster as a Formative Experience for
Many Engineers and for Popular Culture 120
Section 2. William LeMessurier’s Handling of the “Fifty-Nine
Story Crisis” 121
LeMessurier’s Innovative Design for the Citicorp Tower 122
The Discovery of the Change from Welds to Bolts 124
Investigating the Effects of Quartering Winds 125
Wind Tunnel Evidence of the Danger 126
Informing Those Who Need to Know and Mobilizing Support 127
Accomplishing the Repair without Causing Panic 128
The Insurer’s Response: LeMessurier’s Good Name 129
Section 3. The Mystery of the Misidentified Student 129
Section 4. Comparison of the Stories of Boisjoly and LeMessurier 131ix Contents
3. Ethics as Design – Doing Justice to Moral Problems 135
Design Problems 137
The Design Analogy 138
Four Moral Lessons from Design Problems 143
Implications of the Dynamic Character of Ethical Problems 148
Problems as Experienced by Agents 150
Making and Assessing Ethical Judgments 151
Summary and Conclusion: Improving on Excellence 153
4. Central Professional Responsibilities of Engineers 155
The Centrality of Responsibility in Professional Ethics 155
Ethical Responsibility and Official Responsibility 159
Trust and Responsibility 164
Trustworthy Engineers/Trustworthy Professional Practice 166
Character and Responsibility 168
The Specific Professional Responsibilities of Engineers 170
The Emerging Consensus on the Responsibility for Safety
among Engineers 170
Lessons from the 1979 American Airlines DC-10 Crash and the Kansas
City Hyatt Regency Walkway Collapse 172
“Bugs,” Glitches, and Errors as Central Concerns in Software
Engineering 176
Knowledge, Foresight, and Changing Criteria for Responsible Practice 178
Hazards and Risks 182
The Scope and Limits of Engineering Foresight 185
Matching an Engineer’s Foresight with Opportunities for Influence 189
Summary 191
5. Computers, Software, and Digital Information 192
What Is Different about Digital Systems and Digital Information? 192
Software as Intellectual Property 195
GNU/Free Software/Open Source Movement 197
The Faces of “Hacking” 199
The Changing Culture of Computing 201
Raising Concerns in Cyberspace 205
Privacy in the Information Age 206
Challenges of the Information Age 208
6. Rights and Responsibilities Regarding Intellectual Property 211
Individual Credit and the Ownership of Innovation 211
s, “Fair Use,” and the DMCA 213
Patents and Trade Secrets 215
Property Rights Contrasted with Credit for Invention or Authorship 218
Patenting of Inventions Contrasted with Publication of Research 220x Contents
Benchmarking and Reverse Engineering 222
Conclusion 226
7. Workplace Rights and Responsibilities 227
Engineers and Managers 228
Organizational Complaint Procedures 231
Government Agencies 234
Difference of Professional Judgment within the Nuclear Regulatory
Commission (NRC) 234
Professional Judgment in the American Forestry Service 236
The Hanford Nuclear Reservation 238
Disagreeing with Your Supervisor 240
IEEE “Guidelines for Engineers Dissenting on Ethical Grounds” 240
Employment Guidelines from Engineering and Scientific Societies 246
Organizational Control and Individual Privacy: The Biological Testing
of Workers 248
Limits on Acceptable Behavior and Resources for Resolution of
Problems in a Large Corporation 253
Lockheed Martin’s Gray Matters Ethics Game 254
Advice from the Texas Instruments Ethics Office 258
The Work Environment and Ethical and Legal Considerations 260
Title VII of the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964 261
U.S. Supreme Court Decision on Harris v. Forklift 262
From Overcoming Prejudice to Valuing Diversity 263
Organizational Responses to Offensive Behavior and Harassment 265
Ethics in a Global Context 267
Conclusion 268
8. Ethics in the Changing Domain of Research 273
The U.S. Government-Wide Definition of Research Misconduct 276
Research Misconduct Distinguished from Mistakes and Errors 280
Recent History of Attention to Research Misconduct 281
Distinguishing Falsification from Legitimate “Data Selection” 284
Robert Millikan’s Treatment of the Data for Determination of
Electron Charge 285
The Research Misconduct Cases of Hendrik Schon and Victor Ninov 290 ¨
Fabrication: From Hoaxes to “Cutting Corners” 293
Self-Deception in Research Misconduct 296
Honesty about Method and Results Central to Research Integrity 298
Factors That Undermine Research Integrity 299
The Emerging Emphasis on Understanding and Fostering Responsible
Conduct 301
Responsible Authorship, Reviewing and Editing 302
Conflicts of Interest in Authoring, Editing, or Reviewing Research 305xi Contents
Responsibilities in the Supervisor–Trainee (“Mentor–Mentee”)
Relationship 308
Human Research Subjects/Participants 310
Historical Background 310
Current Requirements Governing Human Subjects/Participants 312
Human Subjects/Participants in Product Testing 314
The Common Rule for the Protection of Human Subjects/
Participants in Research 315
Responsibility for Experimental Animals 318
Raising Ethical Concerns in Research 322
9. Responsible Authorship and Credit in Engineering and
Scientific Research 324
Citation and Acknowledgment 325
Authorship 327
Qualifications for Authorship 327
Responsibilities of Authors 329
Categories of Authors and Their Special Obligations and
Responsibilities 329
Plagiarism 331
Fair Sharing of Credit among Coauthors 332
When Supervisors and Their Supervisees Share Authorship 334
Responsibility for Research Quality 338
Authors’ Responsibility for the Quality of Their Research/Reports 338
Supervisors’ Oversight of the Research of Their Trainees 338
Criteria for Deciding What Credit Trainees Merit 339
Subsidiary Obligations of Authors 340
Do Not Fragment Your Research Reports 340
If You Republish Your Previously Published Work, Cite It 341
Make Available Any Special Research Materials Used in
Reported Research 342
Disclose Any Financial Conflicts of Interest 343
Warn Subsequent Investigators of Any Hazards in Conducting
the Research You Report 344
Disciplinary or Field Differences in Conventions for Authorship 345
Crediting Others When Publishing outside of the Technical Literature 345
Responsibilities of Editors and Reviewers That Authors Should Know 346
10. Responsibility for the Environment 351
The Rise of Ecology and New Ways of Thinking about the Environment 352
Rachel Carson 352
Key U.S. Environmental Legislation, 1969–1986 354
The Concept of an Ecosystem 355
Hazards and Risks to the Environment 356
Illustration from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Case 358xii Contents
Responsible Behavior in Assessing Risk 359
Ecological Thinking and the Question of Who/What Counts 361
Moral Standing and the Environment 362
Some Illustrative Cases 363
The Costs of Environmental Protection: The Case of Timbering
and the Northern Spotted Owl 363
The 1995 Supreme Court Decision on “Taking” of a Threatened
Species 364
Acid Rain and Unforeseen Consequences of Human Action 366
The Discovery of the Effects of Chlorofluorocarbons on
the Ozone Layer 367
Superfund Sites and the Monitoring of Communities for Toxic
Contamination 369
Love Canal 369
Environmental Norms in U.S. Corporations 372
From “Global Warming” to “Climate Change” 374
Technological Innovation in Response to Environmental Challenges 375
The Concern with Sustainability and Sustainable Development 376
Summary and Conclusion 377
11. A Note on End Use and “Macro” Issues 379
The “End-Use Problem” 379
What Are “Macro” Issues? 381
The Use of Human Growth Hormone as an Example of an Issue
for the Whole Society 382
Epilog: Making a Life in Engineering 383
Miguel Barrientos, Building a Water Pump for Andean Alpaca Breeders 383
Jim Melcher, Witnessing against Waste and Violence 386
References 389
Index 40
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