English Grammar – A University Course

English Grammar – A University Course
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Angela Downing and Philip Locke
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20 أغسطس 2021
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English Grammar – A University Course
Second edition
Angela Downing and Philip Locke
CONTENTS
Foreword xi
Preface to the second edition xiii
Acknowledgements xv
Introduction xvii
Table of notational symbols xxi
1 Basic concepts 1
Module 1 Language and meaning 3
Module 2 Linguistic forms and syntactic functions 9
Module 3 Negation and expansion 21
Exercises 28
2 The skeleton of the message: Introduction to clause
structure 32
Module 4 Syntactic functions and structures of the clause 34
Module 5 Subject and Predicator 42
Module 6 Direct, Indirect and Prepositional Objects 50
Module 7 Subject and Object Complements 64
Module 8 Adjuncts 69
Further reading 76
Exercises 76
3 The development of the message: Complementation
of the verb 81
Introduction: Major complementation patterns and valency 83
Module 9 Intransitive and copular patterns 85
Module10 Transitive patterns 90
Module 11 Complementation by finite clauses 100
Module 12 Complementation by non-finite clauses 108
Summary of complementation patterns 114
Further reading 116
Exercises 1164 Conceptualising patterns of experience: Processes,
participants, circumstances 120
Module 13 Conceptualising experiences expressed as situation types 122
Module 14 Material processes of doing and happening 128
Module 15 Causative processes 132
Module 16 Processes of transfer 137
Module 17 Conceptualising what we think, perceive and feel 139
Module 18 Relational processes of being and becoming 144
Module 19 Processes of saying, behaving and existing 151
Module 20 Expressing attendant circumstances 155
Module 21 Conceptualising experiences from a different angle:
Nominalisation and grammatical metaphor 160
Further reading 167
Exercises 167
5 Interaction between speaker and hearer: Linking speech
acts and grammar 174
Module 22 Speech acts and clause types 176
Module 23 The declarative and interrogative clause types 180
Module 24 The exclamative and imperative clause types 190
Module 25 Indirect speech acts, clause types and discourse functions 197
Module 26 Questions, clause types and discourse functions 201
Module 27 Directives: getting people to carry out actions 205
Further reading 212
Exercises 213
6 Organising the message: Thematic and information
structures of the clause 220
Module 28 Theme: the point of departure of the message 222
Module 29 The distribution and focus of information 238
Module 30 The interplay of Theme–Rheme and Given–New 246
Further reading 263
Exercises 263
7 Expanding the message: Clause combinations 270
Module 31 Clause combining 272
Module 32 Types of relationship between clauses 277
Module 33 Elaborating the message 281
Module 34 Extending the message 285
Module 35 Enhancing the message 290
Module 36 Reporting speech and thought 299
Further reading 309
Exercises 309
v i i i CONTENTS8 Talking about events: The Verbal Group 315
Module 37 Expressing our experience of events 317
Module 38 Basic structures of the Verbal Group 323
Module 39 Organising our experience of events 331
Module 40 The semantics of phrasal verbs 336
Further reading 343
Exercises 343
9 Viewpoints on events: Tense, aspect and modality 350
Module 41 Expressing location in time through the verb: tense 352
Module 42 Past events and present time connected: Present Perfect
and Past Perfect 361
Module 43 Situation types and the Progressive aspect 369
Module 44 Expressing attitudes towards the event: modality 379
Further reading 394
Exercises 394
10 Talking about people and things: The Nominal Group 399
Module 45 Expressing our experience of people and things 401
Module 46 Referring to people and things as definite, indefinite,
generic 417
Module 47 Selecting and particularising the referent: the determiner 423
Module 48 Describing and classifying the referent: the pre-modifier 435
Module 49 Identifying and elaborating the referent: the post-modifier 446
Module 50 Noun complement clauses 457
Further reading 462
Exercises 462
11 Describing persons, things and circumstances: Adjectival
and Adverbial groups 473
Module 51 Adjectives and the adjectival group 475
Module 52 Degrees of comparison and intensification 484
Module 53 Complementation of the adjective 494
Module 54 Adverbs and the adverbial group 502
Module 55 Syntactic functions of adverbs and adverbial groups 508
Module 56 Modification and complementation in the adverbial group 515
Further reading 521
Exercises 521
12 Spatial, temporal and other relationships: The Prepositional
Phrase 529
Module 57 Prepositions and the Prepositional Phrase 531
Module 58 Syntactic functions of the Prepositional Phrase 540
Module 59 Semantic features of the Prepositional Phrase 546
CONTENTS ixModule 60 Stranded prepositions; discontinuous prepositional phrases 556
Further reading 559
Exercises 559
Answer Key 564
Select Bibliography 591
Index 59
abbreviated clauses 180, 183–4
abbreviations xxi–xxii
ability 390–2
aboutness 227
Absolute Themes 232
abstract nouns 408–9
abstract use of prepositions 552–4
Accompaniment [circumstance] 157, 551
active/passive voice 7–8, 129, 252–7
Activities and Accomplishments 371
actualised participant 125–7
additionality 157, 285–6
Adjectival Group (AdjG) 16, 18, 436–42,
475–9, 484–8
as Complement 66, 68, 88, 97–8, 536
detached predicative 71, 231–2, 482
as post-modifier 453–4, 481
structure 475, 476, 492
syntactic functions 18, 481–2
adjectives 16, 475, 477–81, 484
and attitude 437–8
central vs peripheral 482–3
comparative and superlative 484–8,
499–501
complement of 494–501
functions 482–3
classifier 404, 426, 435–6, 440–4, 480
connective adjunct 482
degree emphasiser 481, 482–3
descriptor (epithet) 404, 435–9, 442, 480,
492
exclamation 482
modifier in AdjG/AdvG 492–3
post-modifier in NG 453, 481–93
pre-modifier in NG 437–9, 481–93
untypical head of NG 6, 403
modal 380
multiple 438–9, 443–5
participial 478–9
predicative 482
see also degree complement; intensifiers
Adjunct (A) 6–8, 35–6, 69–76, 87, 542
adds end-point 372
Circumstantial 17, 36, 69, 70–2, 542
framing function 71–2, 235–6, 275–6
as Theme 222, 228–9
Connective 17, 36, 69, 74–5, 234, 281–3,
285–6
circumstance 290–1, 542
operator-related 70, 513
with present perfect 363–4
Stance 17, 36, 69, 73–4, 542
epistemic 73, 234
evaluative 73, 234, 482
evidential 73, 234
vs Complement 35–6, 71–2, 87
adverbial clauses 292
Adverbial Group (AdvG) 16, 18, 45–6, 454,
502–3
structure/functions 475, 502–3, 508–9
adverbial particle 336–41, 372
adverbs 16, 230–1, 502–7
complementation 518–21, 536
degree 190
modal 380
modification 515–18
modifying adjectives 492–3
position/scope 509–12, 513, 514
and prepositions 544–5
relative 454
syntactic functions 508–9, 514
see also Complement; grading; intensifiers
INDEX
Terms in brackets are (explanation or equivalent) or [category]; a stroke means either/or. Page
numbers in italics show diagrams.Affected [participant] 5, 7–8, 51, 128–9
affectedness 165
as object 5, 7–8, 51, 128–30
as subject 130–1, 135–6, 252–5
affectivity [process] 139–40, 142–3, 233
Agent [participant] 5, 7–8, 128–31, 146, 165
optional in passive 8, 254–5
already vs still/yet 513
ambiguity 9–10, 193, 443, 456, 533–4
American English see British English (BrE)
analysing text 9–10, 37–9
analytical causatives 134–5, 138
anaphoric (backwards) reference 414, 418,
419
anaphora 227, 229, 415
zero 227, 449–50, 454
and 278–9, 290–1, 295
animacy 130, 140, 449–50
hierarchy 256
antecedent in relative clauses 449–50
anteriority 325, 362, 366–7
anti-causative construction 135, 138
see also ergative pairs
anticipatory it 52
vs extraposition 47–8
any 23–4, 428
in negative 23–4, 202–3
appellatives 234
apposition 278–80, 281–3, 448
and circumstance 290–4
articles 16, 402–4, 417–22
and countability 405–6, 409–10
generic reference 421–2
in/definite 417–22
zero 420, 421–2, 450
aspect 325, 361, 369–70, 378
grammatical 372
im/perfectivity 369–70
iterative 377, 378
lexical 370–5
durative/dynamic [situation/verb]
371–2
habitual 374–5, 377–8
punctual [situation/verb] 371–2, 374,
378
Perfect vs Progressive 325–9, 372
and phasing 112, 331–5, 378
(un)bounded ((no) end-point) 165, 371–2,
374–5
see also Perfect; Progressive
aspectual marker 341
assertive/non-assertive 23–5
biased questions 202–3
attempting/helping [phase] 334
attention 96–7
attenuation 157, 490–1, 493, 538
see also intensifiers
attitude 4, 6, 73–4, 256, 385–90, 437–8
attitudinal marker 203–4
Attribute 4–5, 24, 123, 124, 144–6, 164
circumstantial 146, 150
current/resulting 88, 97–8, 145
resulting 134–5
possessive 146–8
respect 98
see also Object Complement; relational
processes; Subject Complement
attributive adjective 482–3
auxiliary verbs (x) 18, 318–22, 323, 325–8
lexical 21, 318–20
modal 318, 320, 380, 385
shall/will 353
see also be; get; have; primary verbs;
semi-modal verbs
backgrounding 272, 276, 290, 298
backshift 299, 303–4, 359
bare infinitive 12–13, 47, 102, 111–12, 324
be 21–2, 124, 193, 322
as auxiliary 21, 318–19, 325–8, 360
be able/likely/sure to 319, 321
be going to 353, 360
in passive 136, 256
with clefting 249–52
as copula 22, 88–9
with existential there 45, 153, 257–60
as uninflected subjunctive 103
Behalf [circumstance] 156
behavioural processes 122, 142, 151, 152–3
verbs of 85–6, 153
being/becoming 144–6
belief see cognition
Beneficiary [participant] 55–6, 137–8, 146
biased questions 202–3
bibliography 591–5
bivalency see two-place [monotransitive]
verbs
blame-type verbs 95–6
block language 244
bound (grammaticised) prepositions 534
boundedness (verb, contrast) 371–2,
374–5
British English (BrE) vs American English
(AmE) 65, 440, 488
anywhere/place 519
haven’t got/don’t have 382
for as subordinator 110
have just eaten 365
must/have to, gotta 382, 388
prepositions 549, 550
INDEX 597punctuation 274
use of subjunctive 103, 196, 495
British National Corpus xxii
but 278, 287
can, cannot, can’t 21–3, 142, 390–3
can’t 109–10, 112, 392
negative of may/must 388–9
capacity (as) 157
Carrier [participant] 144–7
cataphoric (forwards) reference 414, 419
catenative verbs/complements 108–9
and ellipsis 243
causative processes/verbs 91, 113, 126, 130,
132–6, 138
causation 130, 132–5
Cause [circumstance] 156
certainty 157, 209, 381–5
chance/tendency [phase] 335
circumstance
apposition/coordination 290–1
clauses 296–8
semantic roles 4–5, 123–5, 155–9, 166
enhancement 290–8
Range 158–9
circumstance [Adjuncts] as Theme 228–9
circumstance as clause element 37, 122,
124–5, 166, 280
as Adjunct 4–7, 17, 36, 290–4
as Complement 37–8
locative/goal 86–7, 99
as Entity 164
Circumstantial Adjunct see Adjunct,
Circumstantial
circumstantial adverbs 505–6
clarifying connectives 282–3
classes of units xxi, 12–16
classification criteria 37–9
classifier in NG 404, 435–6, 440–5, 480
multiple 443–4
’s 426
vs noun compound 440–2
clauses 11, 101, 176–9, 177, 277–80
classes of 177–212
comparative 14
finite dependent 14–15, 292–4
finite/non-finite 12–13
in/dependent 13–14, 100–1, 275–6
infinitival 13
main 13–14, 187–8, 272–3, 275–6,
279–80, 288–9, 292–8
matrix 14, 100, 451
nominal 14, 44, 46–8, 59–60
participial 13, 237
reduced 190, 195–6
abbreviated 15, 180, 183–4
echoes 180, 183–4, 190
supplementive 14–15, 71, 196
verbless 15, 46–7, 195, 276
relative 14, 276
subordinate 14–15, 236, 270–3, 275, 283,
292
superordinate 14, 100
clausal negation 22
combining 211–12, 272–6
extraposed 260–1
functions 17–18, 66, 230, 235–7
as adjunct 71, 74, 75
complement of noun 83–99, 114–15
embedded 46–7, 52–6, 66–8, 100–1, 275
in NG 101, 436, 452
in wh-cleft clauses 250–2
interpreted as
interaction/exchange 3–4, 6
organised message 6–7
representing a situation 3, 5, 17, 128–9,
148–9, 161–3
reporting 300–7
sentential antecedent 283
illocutionary force 176, 210–11
initial/final 298
non-clausal material 274–5
structure 17–18, 34–41, 101, 277–9
see also complementation patterns;
declarative; dependent clauses;
exclamative; imperative; interrogative;
mood; negative
clefting 249–52
acting as test 9–10, 58, 70–1
it-cleft 249–50
stranded preposition 556
wh-cleft 159, 249–52, 250–1
and extraposition 261
reversible 251–2
closed conditionals 358
coercion, clauses of 111–12
cognition [process] 102, 139–41
cognitive
representation 96, 210, 407–9
salience/perspective 96–7, 226, 272
coherence and cohesion 298, 337, 421, 441
by ellipsis and substitution 243–5
by use of articles 421
by use of pronouns 414–15
identity chain 226–7, 243, 259, 415
see also topic
commands see directives
communication, see also verbal process
communication and content 3–5
communicative dynamism 240, 257
598 INDEXcomparison of adjectives 484–8, 499–501
comparison of adverbs 515–16
Comparison [circumstance] 156, 290–1
Complement (C) 34–8, 71–2, 229–30
see also Locative Complement; Object
Complement; Subject Complement
complement
of adjective 494–501
vs extraposed clause 495–6
of adverb 19, 518–21
vs modifier 502, 519
circumstantial 34, 37, 62, 71–2
determined by verb 34, 37–8, 100
of noun 404, 457, 460
of preposition (in PP) 19, 531
vs post-modifier 404, 476
complementation patterns of the verb 83–99,
114–15
by finite clauses 100–7
by non-finite clauses 108–15
copular 83, 87–9
intransitive 83, 85–7
transitive 83
complex 90, 97–9
ditransitive 90, 92–6
monotransitive 90–2
valency 83–4
see also -ing clauses; that-clauses;
to-infinitive clauses; wh-clauses
complementisers (subordinators) 100–1
that omitted 102–5
completed events 112, 366
complex sentences 272–4
complex-transitive verbs 90, 97–9, 115
compound
adjectives 477
adverbs 504
prepositions 534–5
see also nouns; sentences
concatenated see catenative
Concession [circumstance] 156, 290–3
concord 43–4, 45, 257
Condition [circumstance] 156, 290–3
condition and conditional clauses 72, 367
pragmatic vs rhetorical 196
and subjunctive 196, 358–9
confrontation 209–10
conjoined VGs 331–2
conjunctions 16, 285, 290, 292–6
conjunctive prepositions 296, 543–4
coordinating 276, 278, 290–2
pragmatic 294–6
subordinating 287–8, 292–4
vs prepositions 543–4, 551
see also connectives; coordinators
conjunctive combination 290–1
connectives [adjuncts] 17, 36, 69, 74–5, 234,
285–6
adjectives 482
adverbs 506–7
clarifying 282–3
enhancing 290–1
connectivity
and discourse cohesion 298
pragmatic/semantic/syntactic 275–6
connectors see conjunctions; connectives
constituents and constituency 9–10, 34,
275–6
order of constituents 224
see also tests
containers (mass/count) 410, 552–3
content clause vs relative clause 457
see also Complement
context 4, 86, 178–9, 195–6, 205–6, 237,
242
co-text 8, 12–16, 22–4, 177
Contingency [circumstance] 156, 292, 293–4
continuation or duration [phase/aspect] 112,
331–5, 378
Continuative Themes see discourse markers;
Theme
contrastive dependency 287–8
contrastive focus in cleft constructions 250
conversation 301–2
coordination 26–7, 331–2
between clauses 236, 278–80, 455–6
and circumstance 290–4
of complements 501
semantics 285–7
as test for constituents 441–2
that-clauses 104
coordinators (conjunctions) 278, 285–6,
291–2
correlative (n)either . . . (n)or 286
copular verbs and clauses 37–8, 228
complementation 64–6, 83, 87–9
core see prototypical
co-referential [pronoun] 232
cost-benefit scale 206
countability 405
count and non-count 405–6, 417
non-count 406–10, 421–2
markers 409–10
cross-transposition 339
current relevance in Present Perfect 361–2,
365–6
declarative mood/clauses 6, 177, 180–2,
211
with attitudinal markers 203–4
INDEX 599explicit performatives 197–9
modalised 20, 208–9
negative (discourse functions) 23, 199
un/marked Theme 224
defining clauses see relative clauses,
restrictive
definite reference 226, 417–18, 419–21
see also articles; determiner
degree adverb 190, 506
Degree [circumstance] 157
degree complement
of adjective 499–501
of adverb 519–20
degree emphasisers 481, 482–3
deictic centre 353
deictics (pointing words) 303, 353, 362, 403,
417
non-deictics 362, 411
pronouns 411–13, 424–5
there 257
see also backshift
demonstrative see determiner; pronouns
deontic [modality] see modality, meanings
dependency 277, 279–80, 285, 292–4
contrastive 287–8
degrees of between clauses 275–6
subordination 26, 27–8
dependent clauses 13–14, 272–3, 292–4
as adjunct 71, 74, 75
finite vs non-finite 12–13, 71, 74, 75
as object 53–4
replaced by Entity 164
sentential relative 283–4
as subject 46–7
and subordinators 292–4
see also clauses, functions; Complement;
nominal clauses; non-finite; relative
clauses
descriptive modifiers of prepositions 539
descriptors see epithets
desideration [process] 139–40, 142–3
detached predicatives 71, 231–2, 482
detached Themes 232–7
determiner (d) 403–4, 423–4, 434
determinatives 404, 424–34
central 404
demonstratives 403, 424, 433
distributives 403, 423, 429–31, 433
exclamative what 190–1, 195, 433
in/definite 403–4, 433
negative 428
possessives 403, 423, 425, 433
quantifiers 403–4, 423, 427–9, 433
wh-type 190, 193, 403, 426–7, 433
post-determinatives 404
pre-determinatives 404
semi-determinatives 423, 431–3
see also articles
dialogue 301–2
written 301–3, 307–8
Direct Object (Od) 6–8, 17, 34, 50–4
extraposed 53
non-/finite clauses 53–4
and passivisation 51, 53
position 50, 51, 60–2
realisations 50, 52–4
semantic/syntactic roles 50–2
thematised 229–30
unactualised (implied) 91
untypical 51, 52, 112
direct (quoted) speech 299–305
say and tell 105, 152, 301–2
thought 302–3
direction and directional 62, 155, 538
adjuncts 155
complements 62, 72
Direction or Path [circumstance] 72, 155–6
see also Location; Locative
directives 192, 205–10
commands 177
quoted or reported 305–7
responding to 208
discontinuity 323, 329–30, 500–1, 519–20
stranding 59, 534, 556–8
discourse connectivity and cohesion 298
discourse markers 75, 234
dislocations see Theme, detached
distance, statements about 126
Distribution [circumstance] 155
distribution of information 223
distributors see determiner
ditransitive patterns/verbs 90, 92–6, 262
atypical 103
do 158–9
do-operator 22–3, 182–3
see also Finite element; operator
doing, verbs of 126, 128–30, 138
domain adjuncts 73–4
double Themes 233–4
doubt see cognition
dummy it 44, 250
durative processes 371–2
dynamic [process, use or verb] 123, 142
vs stative 370–2
each vs every 429–30
echo questions 180, 183–4, 190
egress/termination [phase/aspect] 112,
331–5, 378
elaboration 279–80, 281–4
600 INDEXelements of structure see structure
ellipsis 238, 243–4, 245
quantifiers 428, 429, 430
textual 243–4
yes/no questions 183–4, 204
see also clauses, classes of, reduced
embedding 26, 28, 101, 275–6, 447–8
layered/multiple 105, 273, 455–6
prepositions 533, 541
emotive overlay 241–2
emotive verbs 113
empathy hierarchy 226, 256
emphasis 157, 325
emphatic imperative 194
-en/ed (past participle) 12–13
as adjective 436, 478–9
clauses 13, 102, 108, 115, 237, 276
meanings 113–14, 297
post–modifiers 448, 452
end-focus 241–2, 252–5, 257, 512
end-point 165, 371–2, 374–5
end-position 246, 254
end-weight 47, 52, 254, 257, 512
enhancement 279–80, 290–8
entailment 111–12
Entities 401–2
realising process 163–5
episodes in talk 225
epistemic
parentheticals 301
see also adjunct, stance; modality, meanings
Epithets (descriptors) 404, 435–9, 442
multiple 439, 444–5
equality, degrees of 500, 501
equivalence/non–equivalence between
clauses 277–9
ergative pairs (alternation) 91, 132–4, 138
evaluative (attitudinal)
adjectives 437–9
parentheticals 301
see also adjunct, stance; modality, meanings
Event 317, 352–3
utterances 242–3
every vs each/all 429–30
see also pronouns, indefinite
Evidence [circumstance] 158
evidential
parentheticals 301
see also adjunct, stance; modality, meanings
exclamative mood/clauses 177, 190–1
directive 209
embedded [indirect] 105, 107, 191
exclamations 3, 199–200, 211
rhetorical questions 201
exemplifying to clarify 282
Existent [participant] 153, 257
existential clauses 257–60
derived 258
extended 259
short 258
states of affairs 259–60
existential processes 122, 125, 151, 153–4
existential or unstressed there 45, 153–4,
257–60
and concord 257
expansion (semantics of clause combining)
277, 279–80
elaboration 279–80, 281–4
enhancement 279–80, 290–8
extension 279–80, 285–9
experience, first–time 364–5
Experiencer [participant] 139–43
experiential meaning 4, 7, 222–3, 401–2,
437–8
explicit performatives 197–9
extended now 362–3
extension 279–80, 285–9
Extent [circumstance] 71–2, 155
extraposition 46, 47–8
of clauses 260–1, 495–6
extrinsic modality see modality, meanings
factual or not? 24, 379–81
see also assertive/non-assertive
fairly as intensifier 490
Figure and Ground 337, 340, 546, 547–8
final position 246, 254
finite clauses 12, 14–15, 46, 53
as adjunct 71, 74, 75
apposition 281–3
as complement 100–7, 495–6
dependent 292–4
see also that-clauses
Finite element or operator (o) 6, 180–3,
185–6
finite operator 18, 21–2
ordering with Subject 43
finiteness 6, 325
auxiliary verbs 48
and person/number 6
and tense 12, 48
focus of attention 96–7, 370, 373, 376
Focus of information 238–42
by clefting 250–1
contrastive 241–2
emotive 241–2
marked 230–1, 238, 241–2
unmarked (end-focus) 241–2, 252–5, 257,
511–12
focusing adverb or modifier 505–6, 539
INDEX 601for as subordinator 110
force see illocutionary force
Force [agent] 130
foregrounding 272
frame, perspective and attention 96–7
framing function of circumstantials 223–4,
228–9, 235–6
free in/direct speech 307–8
indirect thought 308–9
free (lexical) prepositions 534
freestanding subordinate clause 15, 196, 274,
283, 451
fronting see thematic, fronting
functions 20
discourse/pragmatic 6–8, 207, 250
semantic 4–5, 19–20
syntactic 7–8, 19–20
see also adjectives; adverbs; clauses;
clefting; existential clauses; nominal
group; question tags; verbal group
future events 352–3, 359–60
future perfect 360
gender-neutral pronouns 412–13
generic reference 421–2
genitive determiner see ’s possessive
get-passive 136, 138, 256–7, 332
give [verb] 92–3, 106
use for Range 94, 158–9
Given–New information 60–1, 238, 240–2,
420–1
New–Given pattern 255–6
Theme–Rheme 252–7
Goal see Location; Locative; see also Affected
grading
adjectives 484–6
adverbs 519–20
PP modifiers 538
grammatical metaphor 160–5
grammatical status 193, 532
grammaticised (bound) prepositions 534, 547,
551, 554–5
Ground see Figure and Ground
groups (within clauses) 11
classes of 16
syntactic elements 18–19
habit and habituality 356, 374–5, 377–8
happening [verbs/processess] 126, 130–1,
138
have 21, 323–30
as auxiliary 318–19
had better 320
have been/gone to 365
have (got) to 320, 382, 388, 393
as primary verb 21, 318
use for Range 94, 158–9
as verb of possession 147
see also aspect; Perfect; Progressive
head (h) and headword 402–3
adjectival 403, 422, 475–6
adverbial 502–3
common nouns 405–10
nominal 401–2, 405
taking complement 457–8
pronouns 411–16
proper nouns 410–11
substitute 403, 416
hedged see performatives
help [verb] 108–9, 112, 332
historic present 356
how, exclamative 107, 191
hypertheme (global topic) 248–9, 249
hyphenation 441
hypothetical uses of modals 393
see also should and ought
I and we 411–12
Identified/Identifier 144, 148–50
and Token/Value 144, 149
identifying clause 230
identifying relationship 148–50
identity chains 226–7, 243, 259, 415
idiomatic usage 45, 48, 189
modal verbs 384–5, 393
phrasal verbs 60, 61–2, 337
prepositional verbs 56–7, 59
see also spoken English
illocutionary force 176, 178, 210–11
see also speech acts
imminent events 360
imperative mood/clauses 177, 190, 191–5,
205–7, 211
directives 192, 205–7
with dynamic process 123
reported 306–7
stative verbs 140, 354
Theme 225
imperfective see perfective/imperfective
implied sense inferred 91, 258, 288–9
impoliteness see politeness
indefinite see articles; determiner (d)
indefinite reference 417–19, 420–1
pronouns 413–14
proper nouns and NGs 150, 419
specific 418–19
time-frame 361–4
independent clauses 13, 270–4, 278
indeterminacy 179, 418–19
indicative [mood] 6, 103, 177
602 INDEXIndirect Object (Oi) 6–7, 34, 50–1, 55–6
semantic roles 50, 55
indirect (reported) speech 102–3, 299–300,
303–9
backshift 359
say and tell 105, 152
speech acts 178–9
thought 305, 308–9
indirectness 209–10
individuation (countability) 405–10
inference 207, 281–4, 291
infinitive see bare infinitive; to-infinitive
information 93, 238–46
presupposed 249, 250–1
units 238–40
see also Focus of information
informativeness 254
-ing (present participle) 12–13, 436, 478–9
clauses 13, 54, 101–2, 276
and affectivity 143
as complement 54, 56, 112–13, 115,
536–7
as Direct Object 53–4
expanding NG 259
initial as Theme 237
meanings 112–13, 288–9, 297
of + -ing 459
as Predicator 48
restrictive 452
as Subject 47
as supplementives 284, 447–8, 452
vs to-infinitive 108, 113, 332, 537
ingress or initiation [phase/aspect] 112,
331–5, 378
inherent circumstance 124–5
inherent participants 122, 125–7
see also obligatory elements
initial position see thematic, fronting
initiation or ingress [phase/aspect] 112,
331–5, 378
Instrument [circumstance] 156, 551
integration
of classifier and noun 440–2
of preposition and verb 59–60
intended events 360
intensifiers, interrogatives 207
intensifiers and intensification 488
of adjectives 488–90
of adverbs 516–18
attenuation 490–1, 493
in discontinuous VGs 329–30
-ever in wh-words 186
of prepositions 531, 538
intensive relationship 68
intention 386–7, 393
interdependency [clauses] 275–6
interpersonal meaning 4–7, 178, 223, 234
interrogative mood/clauses 6, 22–3, 177–8,
180–9, 211, 225
alternative 180, 185
double 186–7
exclamations 200
in/dependent 106
indirect 105–6
intensifiers 207
modalised as directive 208
negative 21–4, 182–3
position of Subject 43, 180, 182–3
wh- (non-polar) 22–3, 100, 105–6, 185–7
yes/no (polar) 22, 177, 201–2, 225
see also queclaratives; questions
intonation 193, 195, 196, 199, 203, 207
contour 276
questions 176, 181, 186, 187
see also nucleus; tone units
intransitive patterns/verbs 37–8, 91, 126–7
complementation 83, 85–7
copular verbs 37–8
pseudo-intransitive 132, 135–6
intrinsic modality see modality, meanings
inversion of subject–verb 230–1, 300–1
interrogatives 22–3, 182–4, 321–2
not always possible 243, 287
so/neither/nor 244–5
involuntary processes 130–1, 152
involvement of speaker in get-passive 256
it 413
anticipatory 47–8, 52, 260–1
dummy 44, 250
iterativity (of aspect) 377, 378
just [aspectual marker] 508
just [intensifier] 508–9, 516
keep [verb] 88, 97–9, 332–3, 340, 378
know [verb] 102, 104–7, 141
don’t know 105
Landmark 546
laugh at 57–9
left-dislocations 232–3
let’s/let us/let 194–5
discourse functions 194, 207
lexical auxiliaries 21, 319–20
see also verbs, lexical
lexical density 162
lexical (free) prepositions 534, 546–8
like [verb] 108–10, 142–3
Location [circumstance] 71, 86, 155–6
with be and put 124
INDEX 603Goal 72, 155–6
space or time 146
Time 292, 293–4
verb tense 353–4
Locative [space/time] 37–8, 155
adjuncts 155
adverbs 505–6
change of location 549
prepositions 546, 548–51
Locative/Goal Complement (Cloc) 17, 37–8,
99
intransitive verbs 86–7
logical necessity 382–3, 385
look after 57–9
loving/hating see affectivity
make, use for Range 94, 158–9
Manner [circumstance] 37, 72, 156, 292,
293–4, 553
phrasal verbs 337–40
manner-of-motion verbs 86, 337–40
manner/attitude [phase] 334–5
marked vs unmarked see Focus; tense; Theme
markers
attitudinal 203–4
discourse 222
of countability 409–10
mass noun see countability, non-count
material processes 122, 125, 138
causative 132–4
doing/happening 128–31
Matter [circumstance] 157
may and may not 323–4, 388–9, 392
Means 146, 156
mental processes 122, 125, 139–43
metaphor 146
grammatical 160–5
prepositions 552–3
metonymy 420, 552–3
might and mightn’t 392
hypothetical 385, 393
might/must have 327–8
modal auxiliaries [verbs] 21, 318, 320,
325–8, 385
negation of may/must 388–9
past time ref. 386, 388, 391, 392
have + -en 383, 385, 390
with perfect + passive 327–8
with perfect/progressive 318, 325–6
semi-modals 21–2, 318, 380
should for subjunctive 103, 393
modality 325, 379–94
adjectives/adverbs/nouns 380–1
as circumstance 157
meanings 379–81, 385, 393
deontic or intrinsic 385–90, 393
dynamic 390–2
epistemic or extrinsic 157, 209, 381–5
hypothetical 393
modal harmony 381
modal tags 207
modalised declarative/interrogative 208–9
modifier (m) 18–19, 403, 492
of adjectives 492–3
of adverbs 515–18
of nouns 404
of prepositions 531–2, 538–9
quantified 491
see also post-modifier; pre-modifier
momentary verbs/acts see aspect, lexical
monotransitive patterns/verbs 90–2, 101
atypical 103
monovalency 126
mood 6, 176, 181, 196, 207
see also declarative; exclamative; imperative; interrogative; subjunctive
morphs and morphemes 11, 16, 26
Motion Events/verbs 231, 336–9
and Cause 338–9
and Manner 86, 337–40
and Path 72, 337–41
translation of 339
movement see Motion Events/verbs
mustn’t vs needn’t/don’t have to 387–9
necessity 385–90, 393
logical 157, 209, 381–5
need [semi-modal] 21–2, 380
needn’t as negative of must 389, 393
negation and negative clauses 21–6, 230–1
cumulative 23
declaratives 199
imperative 194
interrogative 21–4, 183
inversion of subject–operator 230–1,
510–11
must/need 388–9, 393
no/none/no-one 258, 428
not + any 23, 428
not 22, 182
nuclear 23, 203
question tags 187
transferred 26, 199
negative objects 231
neither [substitutive] 230, 244
see also coordination; determiner, distributives
new information see Given–New
NICE properties 321
no and not see negation
nominal clauses 14–15, 106
604 INDEXsee also that-clauses; wh-interrogative
clauses
Nominal Group (NG) 16, 18, 44, 52, 403–5
appositive as post-modifier 455
Complement of Subject/Object 66, 68, 98,
420
complement of preposition 531
functions 404–5, 460–1
divisible 110–12
in/definite 417–21
structure 18, 403, 403–5, 416, 438, 444
order of elements 435
unmarked for count 407
nominalisation 162–5, 461–2
non-agentive verbs 244
non-assertion see assertive/non-assertive
non-clausal material 274–5
non-count nouns 405–9
markers 409–10
non-declarative see imperative; interrogative
non-defining see relative clauses, restrictive
non-factual see factual or not?
non-finite (dependent) clauses 12–14, 47,
53–4
as complement 108–15, 496–7
see also bare infinitive; -en/ed; -ing;
to-infinitive
adjuncts/variants 71, 74, 75, 106
supplementive 284
non-finite verb forms 12–13, 324, 328–9
non-restrictive see relative clauses, restrictive
non-specific vs indefinite 418–19
notational symbols xxi–xxii
noun complement clauses 457–62
nouns 16, 380, 405–11
compound 440–2
nominalisation 162–5, 461–2
proper 410–11
see also pronouns
nuclear negative 23, 203
nucleus (intonation) 239, 242
numerals, cardinal/ordinal 427
Object 35–6, 229–30, 231
see also Direct Object; Indirect Object;
Object Complement; Prepositional
Object
Object Complement (Co) 17, 36, 38, 64,
67–8
Attributive 68, 97–8
oblique 56, 68, 105
vs adjunct 68
object-to-subject raising 38, 50, 321
objective/subjective (case) 437–8
pronouns 43, 50, 64
obligation 385–90, 393
obligatory elements 37–8, 64, 83, 86, 238
occurrence, verbs of 85–6
offers reported 305–7
one-to-one correspondence 20, 40
one/ones [pronoun] 403, 416
operator/finite operator 21–2, 181–2,
317–18, 321–2, 324
the do-operator 21
extended VGs 325–8
optative mood 195
order (sequence) 224
adjectives 438–9, 444–5
AdjG 438–9, 444–5
determinatives 434
determiners 434
Finite and Subject 43
NG 403, 435, 438
ought 21, 318, 383, 387, 390
parenthetical clauses 105, 283–5, 300–3, 451
participants (semantic roles) 4–5, 123, 124,
129, 166
un/actualised 125–7
see also Affected; Agent; Beneficiary;
Carrier; Existent; Experiencer; Force;
Phenomenon; Possessor/ed; Range;
Recipient; Sayer/Said
participials (adj) 478–9
pseudo-participials 436, 478
participles 13; see also -en/ed; -ing
particle (p) 18–19, 22, 341
let’s 194
in phrasal verbs 60–2, 336–41
partitive [determiner] 428–9
Passage 549
passive voice 7–8, 252–7
active/passive 10, 38, 64, 93, 98, 111–12,
252–7
with Affected subject 43, 129, 252–5
bare infinitive 111–12
in complex transitives 97–8
discourse motivation 253, 255–6
and end-focus 246, 252–3
get 136, 138, 256–7
and prepositional object/verb 95–6
raised object 38, 50, 110–11, 252–4
rare with Beneficiary 55
with Recipient subject 43, 55, 253–5
with two objects 93
in VG structures 325–9
without Agent 254–5
passivisation see passive voice, active/passive
past participle see -en/ed
past tense 353–4, 358–60, 372
INDEX 605distancing 359, 381
and Present Perfect 361–3
see also Perfect; Progressive; tense
Path or Direction [circumstance] 72, 155, 549
Passage 549
phrasal verbs 337–41
Patient see Affected
pauses, symbols xxii
perception [process] 111–12, 139–40, 142
the senses 146
see also cognition
Perfect [aspect/form] 361
non-finite 368
Past Perfect 361, 366–7, 372
progressive 372, 377
Present Perfect 361–6, 372
progressive 372, 376–7
time–frame 361–4
continuous 365, 376–7
first time 365
vs past tense 362–3
perfective/imperfective 369, 370
performatives [verbs] 197–9
explicit 197–9
hedged (indirect) 198
permission 385–92, 393
personal pronouns see pronouns
perspective 96–7, 162–3, 421, 547–8
persuade-type verbs 110
phase 112, 331–5, 378
Phenomenon [participant] 139–43
phrasal quantifiers 429, 433
phrasal verbs 60–3, 336–43
idiomatic 86, 342–3
semi-idiomatic 341–2
non-idiomatic 337–40
phrasal-prepositional 62
syntactic features 60–1
vs prepositional verbs 61–2, 338
see also Figure and Ground;
manner-of-motion verbs; Motion
Events; Path
pitch (intonation) 228, 239, 489
place-frame 155, 228–9
place-holders see dummy it; there unstressed
as Subject
plural forms of nouns 405–10
point of departure in message 224, 226
point of reference in time 352–3
polarity (positive/negative) 182, 242, 325
see also question tags; yes/no interrogatives
politeness and polite forms 203–4, 211–12,
359, 489
directives 206, 207–8
position 38, 145, 223–37, 252–3
positive/negative see polarity
possession 144, 146–8
possessive forms 425–6, 535
Possessor/ed [participants] 147
possibility 157, 209, 381–5, 390–2
post-determinative 404
post-head elements 402–4, 447
post-modifier (m) 403–4, 446–56
realisations 446–8
embedded or integrated (restrictive)
446–50
mixed or other 452–6
supplementives (non–restrictive) 404,
446, 448, 451
vs complement 404, 476
postponement 262
potentiality 113, 359–60, 379
power (factor) 177, 199
pragmatic inference 86–7, 180, 294–6
pre-determinative 404
predicate 35, 101, 421
predicatives 482
detached 71, 231, 231–2, 482
Predicator (P) 35, 42, 48–9, 101, 182
predicted/required elements 37–8
prediction 359, 380–1, 382, 385
pre-head 402–4, 476, 509
pre-modifier in NG (m) 403–4, 435–45, 444
multiple items 443–5
Prepositional Object (Op) 56–60
fronted 58
with passive 59–60
with phrasal-/prepositional verbs 62, 91–2,
95–6
in wh-questions 58
Prepositional Phrase (PP) 19, 531–4, 532,
535–55
as Adjunct or Complement 62, 68, 460,
497–9, 533, 541–2
complement element 531–2, 536–7
embedded 533, 541
as post-modifiers 452–3
as Subject 45
see also discontinuity
prepositional verbs 56–9, 92, 95
phrasal-prepositional verbs 62
vs phrasal verbs 61–2, 338
prepositions 16, 296, 504–5, 531–2, 534–5,
540–1
free vs bound 534, 547
bound (grammaticised) 554–5
free (lexical) 547–53
modifiers 538–9
stranded 59, 534, 556–8
and that-clauses 104
606 INDEXverbs that take 92, 95
vs adverb particles 338, 504, 544
vs homographs 543–5
present participle see -ing
present tense 354–7, 372
habitual 356, 374–5, 377–8
past events 356–7
stative 355–6
see also Perfect; Progressive; tense
presupposition 242–3, 249, 358
primary verbs 21, 318
see also operator
probability 157, 209, 381–5, 390–2
processes (lexical aspect) 370–2
processes (semantic types) 4–5, 49, 122–7,
163, 166
dynamic/stative 1, 123, 141, 354–5
see also behavioural; existential; material;
mental; relational; verbal
programmed events 359–60
progression see thematic progression
Progressive [aspect/form] 123, 142, 325,
369, 372–5
discourse functions 294–5, 375–6
durative un/bounded verbs 371–2, 374–5
future events 360
iterativity 377, 378
non-progressive 325, 355, 369, 372–3, 376
passive 327–8
Perfect aspect 326–8, 376–7
and tense 372
prominence (tonic) 239
pronouns/pronominal forms 16, 104,
411–16
backshift 303–5
demonstrative 414–15, 424–5
personal 43–4, 50, 64–5, 255, 411–13
gender-neutral 412–13
indefinite 413–14
one/ones 403, 416
reflexive 192, 413
wh-type 185–6, 413
propensity 390–2
proper names/nouns 227, 410
(proto)typical forms 40–1, 44–8, 52–4, 88, 226
correspondence 178
pseudo-cleft clause see clefting
pseudo-intransitive 132, 135–6, 138
pseudo-participials [adjectives] 436, 478
punctuation 274–5, 281, 283, 441, 447
Purpose [circumstance] 156, 235–7, 297, 548,
558
put and location 124
qualifier see modifier; post-modifier
quantifier 403–4, 427–9, 491, 538
non-count nouns 408–10
queclaratives 201, 203–4
question tags 43, 181, 187–9, 207
questions 201–4
echo 180, 183–4, 190
see also interrogative
quotation see direct (quoted) speech
quotative verbs 302–3, 356–7
raised elements 109, 111, 261, 321, 496
Range [participant] 51, 94, 152, 158–9
rank-scale 11
real, appearing [phase] 334
realisations 19–20, 39, 40–1, 160–6
Adjuncts 71, 74–5
Complements 66, 68
modal meanings 380–1
Objects 56, 59–60
prepositional complements 536–9
Subjects 44–8
verb complementation 114–15
VGs 318–19, 326
Reason [circumstance] 156
Recipient [participant] 5, 7–8, 55–6, 137–8,
151
recursive links 108, 455
reduced clauses see clauses, classes of,
reduced
reference and referent 95, 111, 417–22
anaphoric (backwards) 227, 414, 419
cataphoric (forwards) 414, 419
chains and coherence 226–7, 243, 259,
415
exophoric 414
generic 421–2
partitive 428–9
reflexive/emphatic pronouns 192, 413
relational processes 122, 125, 144–50
Attributive 144–5
attributive 145–6
circumstantial 146
possessive 146–8
Identifying 144, 148–50
see also Token/Value
relative [circumstances] 155
relative clauses 449–52
adverbial 454
non-restrictive (supplementive) 283–4, 404,
448, 451
restrictive (defining) 404, 447–8, 450
relativisers 449–50
relevance in Present Perfect 365–6
relevance time (R) 361–2
reporting speech/thought 299–309
INDEX 607representation see clauses, functions,
interpreted
respect (as + NG) 98
restating to clarify 282
restrictive/non-restrictive 447–8
Result 294, 366, 553
retrospection, verbs of 112–13
reversibility 145–6, 148–50, 251, 278–9
Rheme 223–4, 246–9
rhetorical questions 201
right-dislocations 232–3
Role [circumstance] 157
’s possessive 425–6, 535
salience (cognitive) 226
say [verb] 103
and tell 105, 152, 301–2, 305
Sayer/Said [participants] 151–2
saying, communicating [process] 151–2
scope see Range
selective quantifier 427
semantic functions xxi, 4–5
vs syntactic 114–15, 125, 160–2
see also Affected; Agent; Attribute;
Beneficiary; Carrier; Experiencer;
Force; Locative; Phenomenon; Range;
Recipient; Sayer/Said
semantic valency 83–4
semantic–syntactic transfer see grammatical
metaphor
semi-determinatives 423, 431–3
semi-modal verbs 21–2, 318, 380
semi-negatives 24
semi-auxiliaries see lexical auxiliaries
Senser see Experiencer
sensing see perception
sentences 272–5, 277–9, 298
sentential relative clauses 283–4
sequencing events 331–3
shall/shan’t 21, 182, 386–7, 388, 393
should/shouldn’t 21, 383, 385, 390, 393
situation types 122, 287, 369, 371–2, 371
see also Attributes; circumstance; participants; processes
situational ellipsis 244
so [conjunction] 295
so [substitutive] 230, 244
some and derived forms 202–3, 427–9
Source [circumstance] 72, 155, 549
space, spatial see Location; Locative
specific vs definite 418–19
speech acts 176–9, 206, 207
verbs 92, 109–10
see also direct (quoted); indirect (reported)
speech time 352–5, 353
spoken English 104, 162, 195–6, 256, 283,
488–90, 513–14
concord 45, 257
conversation 179, 195–6, 293–4, 301–3,
335
examples 3–4, 240, 260, 520–1
dialogue 301–3
novels 26, 209–10, 307–8, 393–4
plays 75–6, 184, 415
ellipsis 183, 204
interview 48
prepositional phrases 533, 537
question tags 187–9
see also idiomatic usage
stance see Adjunct, Stance
stance adverbs 506
statement 177–9, 181–2
states of affairs 259–60
stative process/use/verb 123, 140, 141,
354–5
vs dynamic 370–2
still vs already/yet 513
stranded prepositions 59, 534, 556–8
stressed/unstressed 228, 238–42, 488–9
question tag 187–8
there 45, 153–4, 228, 257–60
see also any; some
structure xxi, 20
AdjG 475, 476, 492
AdvG 475, 502–3, 508–9
clause 17–18, 34–41, 101, 277–9
NG 18, 403, 403–5, 416, 435
PP 531–2, 532
VG 18–19, 317–18, 321–2, 324–9, 335
style adjuncts 73–4
Subject (S) 35, 42–8, 181, 225–7
Affected 129, 135–6
embedded clause 46–7
implicit 109, 191–2
see also extraposition
Subject Complement (Cs) 17, 36, 64–7, 88
Identifying 66, 230
subject–operator inversion see inversion
subjective/objective [case] 437–8
subjunctive mood/form 103, 196, 358–9,
393, 495
subordination 26, 27–8, 279
subordinate clauses 292
see also dependency
subordinators see complementisers; conjunctions
substitution 238, 244–5
such 431–2
sufficiency, degrees of 500
suggestions, reported 305–7
608 INDEXsuperordinate clauses 14, 100
supplementives 14–15, 71
detached predicative 71, 231–2, 482
non-finite clause 284, 288–9
non-restrictive 283–4, 446, 448, 451
parenthetical 404
verbless clauses 15, 190, 195, 453, 482
suppletive [adjectival form] 485
swear words 518
symbols xxi–xxii
syntactic functions xxi, 7, 17–19, 39–40
vs semantic 114–15, 125, 160–2
tag see question tags
take, use for Range 94, 158–9
Target [participant] 152
tell [verb] 105–6
tense 325, 352–4
deictic function 353
marked/unmarked 354
past 357–60, 374–8
habitual 374–5, 377–8
for hypothetical 358–9
for present 358–9
see also backshift
present 354–7
for future 358–60
see also be going to
habitual 356, 374–5, 377–8
for past 356–7
state 355–6
tensed forms 12, 181–2, 352
termination [phase] 334
tests for constituents 9–10, 58, 129, 133, 138
textual component/meaning 223, 234
textual ellipsis 243–4
textual/pragmatic functions see Given–New;
Theme, and Rheme; Topic
that [complementiser] 102–5
that [demonstrative] 414–15, 424–5
that-clauses 46, 100, 101–5, 196, 449–50,
457–8
extraposed 260–1
relative 449–50, 456
thematic 6–7
equative 251
fronting (thematisation) 145, 223–37,
510–11
progression 246–9
Theme 222–5, 226–37, 261, 542
absolute 232
constant 247–8
continuative 75, 234
derived 248–9
detached 232–4
dislocation 232–3
marked/unmarked 224–5
multiple 235
negative 230–1
non-experiential 234–5
and Rheme 6–7, 223–4, 228, 235, 246–9
and Subject/Topic 225–7
there [existential] 45, 153–4, 228, 257–60
there/then [anaphora] 229
think [verb] 103–4, 141
this/that [demonstratives] 414–15, 424–5
this/that (of quantity) 491
thoughts reported 302–3
three-place [ditransitive] verbs 90, 92–6, 126,
137–8
Time [circumstance] see Location; Locative
time-frame 126, 155, 228–9, 353–4
prepositions 551–2
present/past perfect 362, 367
progressive 375–6
to-infinitive clauses 12–13, 47, 54, 143,
297, 452
as complement/object 53–4, 101–2,
109–11, 332, 459, 496–7, 519–20
extraposed 260–1
with lexical auxiliaries 319–20
of purpose 236–7
vs bare infinitive 112
vs -ing clause 108, 113, 332, 537
togetherness 157
Token/Value 144, 149–50
tone units xxii, 238–40
tonic prominence (syllable) 238–9
Topic and topicality 35, 222, 225–8
cognitive features 42, 226, 272
continuity 227, 255–6
Trajector 546
transfer of verb/process 92–3, 128, 137–8
transferred negation 199
transitivity 5, 90–9, 122
hypothesis (high–low) 160, 165
in/transitive verbs 37–8, 126
types see complex-transitive; copular;
ditransitive; intransitive; monotransitive
see also complementation patterns
translation 339
trivalency see three-place [ditransitive] verbs
two-place [monotransitive] verbs 90–2, 126,
128–36
unactualised (unexpressed) element 91,
125–7, 141
unbounded see boundedness
units 11–20
INDEX 609unreal/hypothetical [past] 367
upgrading to clarify 282–3
used to (habituality) 369, 377–8
valency 83–4, 126
reduction 94, 122, 127
Value/Token 144, 149–50
Verbal Group (VG) 16, 18–19, 317–18, 318,
321–9
complementation 18–19, 317–18, 321–2,
324–9, 335
discontinuous 323, 329–30
experiential structure 323–4
phased 54, 112, 331–5, 378
realisations 318–19, 326
verbal process (saying) 151–2
verbless clauses 195–6, 204, 210, 212, 276,
307
supplementive 15, 190, 195, 453, 482
verbs 16, 37–8, 85–91, 193, 297, 318
bounded/unbounded 372
catenative 108–9
dynamic/stative 154–5, 354–5, 371–2
finite/non-finite 12–13
intransitive (one-place) 85–9, 91
copular 37–8, 88–9
lexical (v) 18, 318, 370–2
vs operator 321–2
meanings
behaviour 85–6, 152–3
being/becoming 88, 144–6
causative/ergative 91, 113, 126, 130,
132–6, 138
cognitive/factual 102, 111, 141
doing/happening 126, 128–31, 138
expectation 102
finding/leaving 113
motion 231, 336–9
perception/suggestion 102–4, 114
possession 147
reciprocal/reflexive 91
saying 92, 109–10, 151–2, 301–2, 305
transfer 92–3, 128, 137–8, 138
volitional 113, 142, 152–3
and prepositions 91–2, 543
punctual or momentary 372
quotative 302–3, 356–7
transitive 90–1
three-place (ditransitive) 90, 92–6
two-place (monotransitive) 83, 90–2
see also auxiliary verbs; complementation
patterns; ergative pairs; modal
auxiliaries; performatives; phrasal
verbs; prepositional verbs; primary
verbs; valency
viewpoint 370
vocatives 192, 234
voice (active/passive) 7–8, 129, 252–7
volition 385–90, 393
verbs of 113, 142, 152–3
want-type verbs 98, 108–11, 142–3
see also desideration
weather, verbs of 85, 126
wh-clauses 10–12, 46, 105–7, 195
complement 100–2, 105–7, 191, 536
wh-nominal 100, 101, 106, 260–1,
459–60, 537–8
exclamative 100, 107, 191
interrogative 22–3, 46, 100, 105–6
wh-cleft see clefting
wh-determinatives 190, 193, 403, 426–7, 433
wh-interrogatives 22–3, 100, 105–6, 185–7,
225
wh-words 100, 185, 449–5

ever 186
will/won’t/will have 21, 381–2, 386–7, 390–1,
393
willingness 385–90, 392–3
words 11, 16
would 143, 382, 391
would have + -en participle 393
would rather/sooner 318, 320
yes/no (polar) interrogatives 22, 177, 201–2,
225
yet 24, 290–2
vs still/already 513
zero anaphora 227, 449–50, 454
zero articles 420, 421–2, 450
zero plural 405
610 INDEX
Index written by
Angela Downing and Gerard M-F.

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