English Grammar – A University Course

English Grammar – A University Course
اسم المؤلف
Angela Downing
التاريخ
25 أغسطس 2021
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English Grammar – A University Course
Third Edition
Angela Downing
CONTENTS
List of figures ix
Preface to the third edition xi
Acknowledgements xii
Introduction to the third edition xiv
Table of notational symbols xviii
1 Basic concepts 1
Unit 1 Language and meaning 3
Unit 2 Linguistic forms and syntactic functions 9
Unit 3 Negation and expansion 21
Exercises 28
2 The skeleton of the message: introduction to
clause structure 31
Unit 4 Syntactic elements and structures of the clause 33
Unit 5 Subject and Predicator 40
Unit 6 Direct, Indirect and Prepositional Objects 47
Unit 7 Subject and Object Complements 60
Unit 8 Adjuncts 65
Further reading 72
Exercises 72
3 The development of the message: complementation
of the verb 77
Introduction: Major complementation patterns and valency 79
Unit 9 Intransitive and copular patterns 81
Unit10 Transitive patterns 85
Unit 11 Complementation by finite clauses 94
Unit 12 Complementation by non-finite clauses 101
Summary of major verb complementation patterns 107
Further reading 108
Exercises 108v i E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
4 Interaction between speaker and hearer: linking
speech acts and grammar 111
Unit 13 Speech acts and clause types 113
Unit 14 The declarative and interrogative clause types 117
Unit 15 The exclamative and imperative clause types 126
Unit 16 Indirect speech acts, clause types and discourse functions 133
Unit 17 Questions, clause types and discourse functions 137
Unit 18 Directives: getting people to carry out actions 141
Further reading 148
Exercises 149
5 Conceptualising patterns of experience: processes,
participants, circumstances 153
Unit 19 Conceptualising experiences expressed as situation types 155
Unit 20 Material processes of doing and happening 160
Unit 21 Causative processes 164
Unit 22 Processes of transfer 169
Unit 23 Conceptualising what we think, perceive and feel 171
Unit 24 Relational processes of being and becoming 176
Unit 25 Processes of saying, behaving and existing 182
Unit 26 Expressing attendant circumstances 186
Unit 27 Conceptualising experiences from a different angle:
Nominalisation and grammatical metaphor 190
Further reading 197
Exercises 197
6 Organising the message: thematic and information
structures of the clause 203
Unit 28 Theme: the point of departure of the message 205
Unit 29 The distribution and focus of information 220
Unit 30 The interplay of Theme–Rheme and Given–New 227
Further reading 242
Exercises 243
7 Combining clauses into sentences 247
Unit 31 Clause combining: the complex sentence 249
Unit 32 Relationships of equivalence between clauses 253
Unit 33 Relationships of non-equivalence between clauses 258
Unit 34 Subordination and subordinators 261
Unit 35 Discourse functions of conjunctions 267
Unit 36 Reporting speech and thought 271
Further reading 279
Exercises 280C O N T E N T S v i i
8 Talking about events: the Verbal Group 285
Unit 37 Expressing our experience of events 287
Unit 38 Basic structures of the Verbal Group 293
Unit 39 Organising our experience of events 300
Unit 40 The semantics of phrasal verbs 303
Further reading 310
Exercises 311
9 Viewpoints on events: tense, aspect and modality 315
Unit 41 Expressing location in time through the verb: tense 317
Unit 42 Past events and present time connected: Present Perfect
and Past Perfect 326
Unit 43 Situation types and the Progressive aspect 334
Unit 44 Expressing attitudes towards the event: modality 343
Further reading 355
Exercises 356
10 Talking about people and things: the Nominal Group 359
Unit 45 Expressing our experience of people and things 361
Unit 46 Referring to people and things as definite, indefinite, generic 375
Unit 47 Selecting and particularising the referent: the determiner 381
Unit 48 Describing and classifying the referent: the pre-modifier 392
Unit 49 Identifying and elaborating the referent: the post-modifier 401
Unit 50 Noun complement clauses 410
Further reading 414
Exercises 414
11 Describing persons, things and circumstances:
adjectival and adverbial groups 419
Unit 51 Adjectives and the adjectival group 421
Unit 52 Degrees of comparison and intensification 428
Unit 53 Complementation of the adjective 437
Unit 54 Adverbs and the adverbial group 443
Unit 55 Syntactic functions of adverbs and adverbial groups 448
Unit 56 Modification and complementation in the adverbial group 455
Further reading 459
Exercises 459
12 Spatial, temporal and other relationships: the
Prepositional Phrase 465
Unit 57 Prepositions and the Prepositional Phrase 467
Unit 58 Syntactic functions of the Prepositional Phrase 475v i i i E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
Unit 59 Semantic features of the Prepositional Phrase 479
Further reading 487
Exercises 487
Answer Key 491
Select Bibliography 509
Index 51
INDEX
a(n) 375, 376, 378, 379
abbreviated clauses 15, 117, 120–1, 126
ability 353
was able 354
about 439, 485
aboutness 209
above 483
abroad 451
Absolute Theme 214–15
Accompaniment 187
Accomplishments 336
acronyms 398–9
across 451, 482
across from 483
active voice 8
active–passive alternative 232–3
choosing to be informative 234–5
get-passive 236–7
making smooth transitions 236
passives without an Agent 235
promoting one participant, demoting
another 233–4
Activities 336
actualised participants 159
additive connectives 255
adjectival complementation 437
degree complements 440–2
by finite clauses 437–8
by non-finite clauses 438–9
prepositional phrase complements 439–40
Adjectival Groups (AdjG) 421
adjectival NG head 45
as post-modifiers 407–8
structure and uses 422
syntactic functions 426–7
adjectives 422–3
affective meanings 438
appreciative adjectives 394
attitudinal adjectives 394
attributive adjectives 427
central adjectives 427, 428
classifiers 395–6, 425–6
comparative and superlative degrees
428–32
compound adjectives 435
degree emphasisers 426
descriptive modifiers 435–6
descriptors 393–4, 395, 425, 428
as exclamations 427
gradability 428
intensifying the attribute 431, 432–5
multiple descriptors 394
ordering of multiple adjectives 395
participial adjectives 423–5
pejorative adjectives 394
peripheral adjectives 427
predicative adjectives 427
prefixes 423
process-oriented use 426–7
quantifying modifiers 435
sub-modifying 436
suffixes 423
Adjuncts (A) 34, 65
Circumstantial Adjuncts 35, 65, 66–8, 475
Connective Adjuncts 36, 65, 70–1, 217, 476
operator-related adjuncts 66
Stance Adjuncts 35, 65, 68–70, 216, 427, 476
syntactic and semantic features 65–6
time Adjuncts 328–9
adverbial clauses 262–3, 408
adverbial complementation 458
adverbs taking direct complements 459
of comparison and excess 458–9
Adverbial Groups (AdvG) 443
as post-modifiers 408
structure and characteristics 443–4
types of meanings 446–7
adverbial particles 18, 56–8, 304, 307–9, 444
adverbs:
circumstantial adverbs 446
comparative and superlative uses 455–6
compound forms 4455 1 4 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
connective adverbs 447
degree adverbs 446, 447
deictic adverbs 275
derived forms 444–5
emotive modification 457
focusing adverbs 446, 447, 457
of frequency 66, 451
function and type 454
functions 448–9
in initial position 449–50
intensifying the adverbial meaning 456–8
-ly adverbs 435–6, 444–5, 452
of manner 450, 451–2
of modality, evidence, degree 452
modifying prepositional phrases 473–4
negative adverbs 212–13
phrasal adverbs 446
of place 450
position in the clause 449–50
prepositional adverbs 477–8
scope of reference as adjuncts 450
simple forms 444
spatial adverbs 451, 457
stance 446
sub-modifying 458
of time 450–1, 453, 457

  • verbs of motion 213–14
    advise 134
    Affected 5, 161, 162–3
    affective processes 171, 174–5
    after 476, 485
    agency 162
    Agent 5, 7, 160–1
    alike 483–4
    all 386, 387, 388
    All (that) 231
    all of 387
    almost 434
    along 482
    already 24, 138, 451, 453
    although 268
    altogether 454
    always 138, 451
    among 483
    anaphoric reference 372, 373, 376, 377
    and 254, 268
    another 389
    anti-causative structure 165
    any 23–4, 138–9, 384–5
    any longer 24
    any more 24
    not . . . any 23, 386
    anybody 24, 138–9, 372
    anyone 24, 138–9, 372
    anyplace 24, 458
    anything 24, 372
    anywhere 24, 138–9, 458
    appellatives 217
    apply + for 54
    appositive nominal groups 408–9
    appreciative adjectives 394
    approve + of 54
    approximately 434
    approximation 262–3
    around 483
    articles 363, 375, 377–80
    as 455, 484
    as . . . as 441, 458
    as far as 471
    as well as 444
    aspect 308, 326, 334–5
    adjuncts 66
    grammatical aspects 337, 338
    habituality: past habit or state 341–2
    lexical aspect 335–7, 338–9
    Perfect aspect 326–33, 337
    perfectivity vs imperfectivity 335
    Present Perfect and Progressive combined
    340–1
    Progressive 337–40
    summary 342
    aspectual markers 308
    assertive forms 24, 138, 139
    assumption 345
    at 439, 481, 484, 486
    at all 434
    not at all 435
    attention 91
    attenuation 434–5, 457
    attitudinal adjectives 394
    attitudinal markers 139–40
    Attribute 4, 157, 177
    attributive adjectives 427
    away from 482
    awfully 432
    back 451
    in back of 483
    in phrasal verbs 307–8
    backshift in reporting 275–6, 324, 332
    bad, worse, worst 429
    bare infinitive 12
    bare-infinitive clauses 104
    V + NG + bare infinitive 104
    barely 435
    be 83
  • lexical item + to-infinitive 289–90
    be like (in quoted speech) 273–4, 322
    be used to + -ing 341
    have been to 330
    because 267
    before 268, 485
    behalf: on behalf of 471
    behavioural processes 158, 174, 182, 184, 196I N D E X 5 1 5
    behind 483
    being:
    types of 176–7
    verbs of 37, 83
    beliefs 96
    below 483
    Beneficiary 51–2, 169–70
    beside 483
    best 429
    better 429
    had better 291
    between 483, 485
    beyond 440
    biased declaratives 139–40
    biased questions 138–9
    bit: a bit 434
    bivalency 159
    both 386, 387
    both of 387
    bound: be bound to 345, 347
    but 254
    but for the fact that 260
    by 439, 483, 485, 486–7
    by means of 471
    can 344, 348, 353, 354
    can’t 351
    cardinal numerals 384
    Carrier 177
    cataphoric reference 372, 377
    catenative complements 101–2
    catenative verbs 101–2, 301–2
    catenatives 50
    causative processes 164
    analytical causatives with resulting
    Attribute 166–7
    anti-causative structure 165
    ergative alternation (ergative pairs) 165–6
    pseudo-intransitives 167–8
    transitive-causative structure 164–5
    Cause 187, 306
    certain 389
    certainty
    degrees of 438
    modal certainty 345–6
    chaining 50, 101–2, 301–2
    circumstances 4, 5–6, 157–8, 186–8
    place and time 186–7
    Range 188–9
    Circumstantial Adjuncts 35, 65, 66–7
    functioning as central clause elements 67–8
    ordering in discourse 68
    prepositional phrases 475
    realisations 67
    as Themes 211–12
    circumstantial adverbs 446
    circumstantial clauses 14, 269–70
    circumstantial meanings
    explicit markers 268
    initial vs final circumstantial clauses
    269–70
    verb forms as circumstantial markers
    268–9
    circumstantial relational processes 178
    clarifying connectives 255–6
    classifiers 364
    adjectives 395–6, 425–6
    coordinated classifiers 397, 398
    functions and properties 395
    modified classifiers 397, 398
    multiple classifiers 398–9
    nouns 396–7
    other classes of units 397
    participles 396
    words as descriptors and classifiers 397
    clause classes:
    dependent clauses 13–14, 94, 250
    finite clauses 12, 13, 14
    independent clauses 13, 249–50
    non-finite clauses 12–13, 101, 218–19, 259,
    268–70
    supplementive units 14
    clause elements: classification
    ability to become the subject 37–8
    determination by the verb 36–7
    position 37
    realisations of clausal elements 37–8
    clause structure 5
    active vs passive voice 8
    basic syntactic structures 38–9
    interaction: mood structures 6
    message: thematic structures 6–7
    negation 22–3
    situations: transitivity structures 5–6, 170
    syntactic elements 7, 17, 33–9
    clause types (moods) 6, 114, 117
    abbreviated clauses 15, 117, 120–1, 126
    clause combinations 147–8
    declarative clauses 114, 115, 117, 118–19,
    207
    echo questions 117, 121
    exclamative clauses 114, 126, 127
    freestanding subordinate clauses 126, 132,
    147
    imperative clauses 114, 115, 126, 127–31
    indicative mood 6
    in indirect speech 275, 277–8
    interrogative clauses 6, 21, 114, 115, 117,
    119–25
    mood element: subject–finite variation 118
    question tags 118
    reduced clauses 126
    and speech act force 113–16, 146–8
    verbless clauses 15, 126, 131, 1475 1 6 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
    clauses 11
    adverbial clauses 262–3, 408
    circumstantial clauses 14, 269–70
    combining clauses 249–52
    conditional clauses 263–6
    content clauses 364, 410–11
    coordinated clauses 218
    embedding 14, 27–8, 94–5
    extraposition 44, 240–1
    finite dependent clauses 13, 14, 94, 261–2
    non-finite supplementive clauses 259
    as prepositional complements 472
    sentence relative clauses 258–9
    subordinate clauses 218, 250–1, 261–2, 322
    syntactic relationships of equivalence
    253–7
    syntactic relationships of non-equivalence
    258–60
    as Themes 218–19
    clefting 230
    it-clefts 230–1
    wh-clefts 230, 231–2
    cognitive processes 171, 173
    cognitive salience 209
    coherence 373
    cohesion
    anaphoric reference 372, 373, 376, 377
    connectives 255
    discourse cohesion 269–70
    semantic cohesiveness 304
    commands see directives
    communication
    content 4–5
    speech acts 3–4
    verbs 96
    communicative acts see speech acts
    comparative clauses 14
    comparatives 441
    adjectives 428–32
    adverbs 455–6
    correlative forms 456
    degree of sufficiency 431–2
    -er and -er construction 431, 456
    functions 430–1
    nice and construction 431
    suppletive forms 429
    Complement (C) 17, 34–5
    Locative/Goal Complement (Cloc) 36, 37,
    58, 82, 93
    Object Complement (Co) 35, 63–4
    Subject Complement (Cs) 35, 60–3, 212
    as Theme 212
    complementation of the verb 79
    copular complementation 79
    by finite clauses 94–100
    intransitive complementation 79, 81–4
    by non-finite clauses 101–6
    semantic valency 79–80
    transitive complementation 79, 85–93
    summary 107–8
    compound adjectives 435
    compound adverbs 445
    compound nouns 396–7
    compound participials 424
    compound sentences 249, 250
    Concession 187, 266
    Condition 187, 266
    conditional clauses 263
    condition-concession 266
    counterfactual conditional clauses 265–6
    hypothetical conditional clauses 265
    open conditional clauses 264–5
    rhetorical conditional clauses 266
    confrontation 145–6
    conjoining 300–1
    conjunctions 267
    approximation 262–3
    complex conjunctions 261–2
    manner 263
    and non-finite clauses 268
    pragmatic conjunction 267–8
    and prepositions 476–7
    simple conjunctions 261
    subordinating conjunctions 261–2
    time 262
    conjunctive groups 261
    conjunctive prepositions + ing forms 259
    Connective Adjuncts 36, 65, 70, 217
    prepositional phrases 476
    realisations 70–1
    connectives 253, 255–6, 427, 447
    considering 477
    content clauses 364, 410–11
    context 219
    Continuative Themes 216
    contrast 224
    contrastive dependency 260
    contrastive focus 230
    coordinated clauses 218
    coordination 26–7, 253, 254
    clarifying connectives 255–6
    correlative coordination 253, 254
    free and fixed order of coordinates 256
    intermediate coordination-subordination
    256–7
    listing 254
    unlinked coordination 255–7
    see also conjoining
    coordinators: and, or, but 254, 268
    copular complementation patterns 79
    copular verbs 37, 60, 61, 83–4
    copy tags 121, 124
    correlative coordination 253, 254
    ’cos 267I N D E X 5 1 7
    could 344, 348–9, 354, 355
    countability 365
    count nouns 364, 365–6
    countability markers 368–9
    grammatical features 365–6
    non-count nouns 365, 366–9
    nouns with count/non-count uses 368
    counterfactual conditional clauses 265–6
    cross transposition 306–7
    current Attribute 177
    dare 21–2, 344
    deal: a great deal of 386
    declarative clauses 6, 114, 115, 117, 118–19, 207
    declaratives 133–5
    biased declaratives 139–40
    as directives 144–5
    negative declaratives 135
    defining relative clauses 405
    definite article (the) 375, 377–8, 379
    definite reference 209, 375, 376, 377–8
    the 375, 377–8, 379
    discourse functions 378
    zero article 375, 378, 380
    Degree 66, 188
    adjectives as emphasisers 426
    adverbs 446, 447
    comparatives 428–32, 455–6
    descriptive modifiers 435–6
    intensification 431, 432–5
    intensification of adverbial meaning 456–8
    quantifying modifiers 435, 457
    sub-modifying the adjective 436
    sufficiency 431–2
    superlatives 428–31, 455–6
    degree complements 440–2
    comparative degree 441
    degree of equality 441
    degree of excess 442
    degree of sufficiency 441
    discontinuous degree complements 442
    superlative degree 441
    deictic adverbs 275
    deictic centre 318
    demonstrative determinatives 275, 363, 382
    demonstrative pronouns 372–3
    deontic modality 343, 344, 352
    dependent clauses 13–14, 94, 250
    dependent exclamative clause 14
    descriptors 364, 393
    adjectives 393–4, 425
    descriptive modifiers 395, 428, 435–6
    -ly adverbs 435–6, 444–5, 452
    words as descriptors and classifiers 397
    desiderative processes 171, 175
    detached predicatives 67, 214, 427
    detached themes 214–16
    determinatives 364, 381
    demonstratives 275, 363, 382
    ordering of determinatives 391
    possessives 363, 382–3
    quantifiers 363, 384–8
    semi-determinatives 388–9
    wh- determinatives 383
    summary 389–90
    determiners 363–4, 381–2
    Direct Object (Od) 35, 47
    non-typical direct objects 49
    realisations 49–51
    syntactic and semantic features 47–9
    direct (‘quoted’) speech 272–3
    clause type 277, 278
    in conversation and written dialogue 273–4
    directives 276–7
    free direct speech or thought 278–9
    reporting of thought 274
    verbs 273–4, 276
    direct speech acts 113, 115
    Direction 68
    directives 114, 115, 141
    declaratives as 144–5
    and the imperative 6, 141–3
    politeness 142, 143–4
    in reported speech 276–7
    responding to 144
    discourse 19–20
    discourse connectivity and cohesion 269–70
    discourse markers 70–1, 216
    dislocations 215–16
    distributives 363
    distributors 386–8
    ditransitive patterns 79, 85, 242
    do 21
    as dummy operator 22, 119–20
    doing, processes of 160–2
    Domain adjuncts 69
    double detached Themes 216
    double possessive 383
    double (layered) subordination 250–1
    doubts 96
    down 482, 483, 486
    downstairs 451
    durative processes
    no end-point 336, 338–9
    sharp end-point 336
    during 484
    dynamic modality 344, 353
    ability: can 353
    could/was able as past of can 354
    permission: can, may, might 353–4
    possibility: can, may, might 353
    propensity/tendency: can, will, would 354–5
    dynamic processes 156
    dynamic verbs 166, 177, 185, 319–20, 3215 1 8 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
    each 386–7
    each of 387
    early 456
    echo questions 117, 121
    -ed clauses 407
    either 386, 387
    either of 387
    elder, eldest 430
    ellipsis 220, 225
    nominal ellipsis 226
    situational ellipsis 225–6
    textual ellipsis 225
    ellipted yes/no questions 140
    else 458
    embedding 14, 27–8, 94–5
    emotive modification 457
    emotive overlay 224
    empathy hierarchy 209
    emphatic imperatives 130
    -en clauses 106, 219, 268, 406–7
    -en forms 12
    compound forms 424
    participial adjectives 393, 423–4
    pseudo-participial adjectives 393, 424
    as supplementive 260
    end-focus 223, 235
    end-weight 234–5, 240
    enough 431–2, 441, 455, 458
    not enough 431–2
    not . . . enough to-infinitive 459
    entities 361, 362
    episodes 208
    epistemic modality 343, 344, 352
    equality 441
    -er 429–30
    -er and -er construction 431, 456
    -er than 441, 458
    ergative alternation (ergative pairs) 165–6
    -est 429–30, 441
    even 447
    even if 266
    event time 318
    event utterances 224–5
    events see Verbal Groups (VG)
    eventually 450
    ever 24
    hardly ever 451
    every 386–7
    every single one of 387
    everybody 372, 387, 388
    everyone 372, 387, 388
    everything 372, 387
    everywhere 451
    Evidence 188
    excepting 477
    excess 431–2, 442
    exclamations 114, 136, 427
    exclamative clauses 100, 114, 126, 127
    excluding 477
    Existent 184
    existential clauses
    basic existentials 238
    derived existential 238
    extended existentials 239–40
    presentative function 237–40
    short existentials 238–9
    there-structures as states of affairs 240
    existential processes 158, 182, 184–5, 196
    exophoric reference 372
    Experiencer (Senser) 172
    experiential meaning 66, 178, 206
    explicit performatives 133–4, 135
    extent in time or place 67
    extraposition of clauses 44, 240–1
    extremely 432
    facing 483
    facts 96
    the fact that 44
    factual meanings 24
    fairly 433, 434
    far from 444
    fast 456
    few 385
    a few 385
    Figure 304
    finally 450
    Finite 6
    finite clauses 12
    adjectival complements 437–8
    dependent clauses 13, 14, 94, 261–2
    functions 43, 49–50
    that-clauses 14, 43, 44, 94–8, 240
    wh-clauses 99–100
    finite operator (o) 18, 21–2, 119–20, 287, 291–2
    focusing adverbs 446, 447, 457
    following 477
    for 412, 439, 483, 484, 487
    for the sake of 471
    for want of 471
    Force 40, 162, 164, 166
    former 389
    forwards 451
    frame 90–1
    frankly 450
    freestanding subordinate clauses 126, 132, 147
    frequency 66, 451
    from 268, 439, 487
    across from 483
    away from 482
    far from 444
    from . . . to 481
    front: in front of 483
    fronting 469–70I N D E X 5 1 9
    functional grammar 3
    further 429
    future events 318, 324
    future anterior events 325
    imminent events 325
    intended events 325
    programmed events 324
    ‘safe’ predictions 324
    Future Perfect 325
    generic reference 375, 378–80
    genitive case 41, 43–4, 51, 105, 382
    get-passive 236–7
    given 477
    Given element 222
    Given–New information 222–3
    see also Theme–Rheme and Given–New
    global topics 208, 228–9
    go:
    have gone to 330
    in quoted speech 273–4, 322
    Goal 68, 161
    see also Locative/Goal Complement (Cloc)
    good, better, best 429
    gotta 350
    grammatical aspect 337, 338
    Perfect 326–33, 337
    Progressive 337–40
    grammatical metaphor 190, 192
    Attribute realised as entity 193–4
    circumstance as entity 194
    dependent situation as entity 194–5
    nominalisation 192–5
    process realised as entity 193
    grammatical units 11
    classes of groups 15–16
    classes of morphemes 16
    classes of units 12–16
    classes of words 16
    clauses 12–15
    coordination 26–7
    embedding 27–8
    expanding linguistic units 26–8
    rank-scale 11–12
    subordination 27
    see also unit structure
    grammaticised prepositions 480, 486–7
    great: a great deal of 386
    Ground 304, 305
    groups 11
    classes 15–16
    syntactic elements 17–18
    habituality 106, 321, 335, 339, 341–2
    happening, processes of 162–3
    hardly 24, 435, 447
    hardly ever 451
    have:
    don’t have to 351
    had 331–3
    had better 291
    have been to 330
    have gone to 330
    have got to 350
    have/have got + to-infinitive 290
    have to 347, 350
    would have 265–6
    he, she 41, 369, 370–1
    head see nominal heads
    heaps of 386
    hedges 134
    her 41, 47, 382
    hers 383
    herself 371
    high transitivity 195
    him 41, 47
    himself 371
    his 382, 383
    historic present 321–2
    honestly 450
    How! 127
    How? 121, 457
    How else? 458
    Hypertheme 228–9
    hypothetical conditional clauses 265
    I 41, 60, 61, 369, 370
    Identified 180
    Identifier 180
    identifying clauses 212
    identity chains 209–10, 373
    idiomaticity
    modal idioms 291
    phrasal verbs 82, 304
    if 263, 264–5, 268
    even if 266
    illocutionary force 115, 146–8
    immediately 450–1
    imperative clauses 6, 114, 115, 127–8
    emphatic imperatives 130
    Let’s and Let us 130–1, 143
    negative imperatives 130
    verbs 129
    vocatives 128
    imperatives 126, 129, 130, 141–3
    imperfectivity 334, 335
    impoliteness 145–6
    in 268, 439, 481, 484, 486
    in the hands of 471
    in view of 471
    including 477
    indefinite article (a(n)) 375, 376, 378, 379
    indefinite pronouns 372
    indefinite quantifiers 384–65 2 0 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
    indefinite reference 375, 376
    a(n) 375, 376, 378, 379
    discourse functions 378
    indefinite proper nouns 377
    some 377
    specific and non-specific 376–7
    independent clauses 13, 249–50
    indicative mood 6
    indirect anaphoric reference 376
    Indirect Object (Oi) 47
    realisations 52
    syntactic and semantic features 51–2
    indirect speech 272
    backshift in reporting 275–6, 324, 332
    clause type 277, 278
    directives 277
    free indirect speech 278–9
    free indirect thought 279
    verbs 276
    indirect speech acts 113, 115–16, 133
    indirectness 145–6
    inference 116, 347–8
    infinitive 12
    information 220
    ellipsis 225–6
    end-focus 223, 235
    event utterances 224–5
    focus of information 220, 221
    Given and New information 222–3
    information units 220–2
    marked focus 220, 224
    presupposed information 230
    reporting information 322
    substitution 226
    unmarked focus 220, 223
    information units 220–2
    informativeness 234–5
    -ing clause complements 104
    to-infinitive and -ing clauses contrasted 106
    V + -ing clause 105
    V + NG + -ing 105
    V + NG + -ing clause 105–6
    -ing clauses 43, 94–5, 219, 268, 406–7, 472
    of + -ing complement clauses 412
    -ing forms 12
    be used to + -ing 341
    compound forms 424
    with conjunctive prepositions 259
    participial adjectives 423–4
    participial modifiers 424
    pseudo-participial adjectives 424
    as supplementive 259, 260
    inherent participants 158–9
    innit? 125
    inside 451
    instead of 444
    instructions see directives
    intensification:
    adjectives 431, 432–3
    adverbial meaning 456–8
    attenuation 434–5, 457
    high intensification 432–3, 456
    medium intensification 433–4, 456
    intention 346–7
    interaction 6
    interpersonal meaning 4, 5, 115, 116, 206
    interpersonal Themes 216–17
    interrogative clauses 114, 115, 117, 119
    alternative interrogatives 121
    do 21, 119, 120
    double interrogatives 123
    finite operators 21–2, 119–20
    indirect interrogatives 99
    negation 22–3, 119–20
    question tags 123–5
    structure 6, 21
    wh-interrogatives 14, 22–3, 43, 99, 121–2
    yes/no interrogatives 22, 120–1, 137–9
    interrogative exclamations 136
    interrogative pronouns 372
    interrogatives as polite directives 144
    into 485
    intonation 221
    intransitive patterns 79, 81
    subject–verb 81–2
    subject–verb–adjunct 83
    subject–verb–complement of the subject
    83–4
    subject–verb–locative complement (Cloc)
    82–3
    intransitive verbs 36, 37, 86, 159
    irregular plurals 364–5
    it 41, 369, 371
    anticipatory it 49
    anticipatory it + end-placed subject 44
    dummy it 44
    it-clefts 230–1
    iterativity 338, 340, 341–2
    its 382, 383
    itself 371
    just 447
    just about 349
    kind of 434
    largely 434
    late 456
    later 454
    latter 389
    layered subordination 250–1
    least 430, 455
    left-dislocation 215
    left: on the left 483I N D E X 5 2 1
    less 430, 455, 458
    less . . . than 441, 458
    the less . . . the less 456
    the more . . . the less 456
    rather less 436
    Let’s and Let us 130–1, 143
    lexical aspect 335–7
    and the progressive 338–9
    lexical auxiliaries 21, 288, 289, 344
    be + lexical item + to-infinitive 289–90
    have/have got + to-infinitive 290
    modal idioms 291
    used to + infinitive 341
    lexical metaphor 193
    lexical prepositional meanings 480
    change of location 481–2
    location in space 480–1
    non-locative mearnings 483–4
    other spatial prepositions 482–3
    lexical verbs 288
    like 483
    be like (in quoted speech) 273–4, 322
    likely 291
    listing 254
    little 385
    a little 385, 434
    ’ll 346, 347
    loads of 386
    local topics 208
    location in place or time 67
    Locative/Goal Complement (Cloc) 36, 37, 58, 82,
    93
    logical necessity 347
    long 456
    look + after 53
    lot:
    a lot 24, 385
    a lot of 386
    lots of 386
    low transitivity 195
    -ly adverbs 435–6, 444–5, 452
    Manner 68, 187
    adverbs 450, 451–2
    catenative verbs 302
    conjunctions 263
    phrasal verbs 304–5
    many 385
    not many 386
    markedness 207–8, 220, 223–4
    mass nouns 365, 366, 368, 379, 380
    masses of 386
    material processes 158, 160, 196
    Affected participant 161
    Affected Subject 161, 162–3
    Agentive Subject 160–1
    causative processes 164–8
    of doing 160–2
    Force 40, 162, 164, 166
    of happening 162–3
    of transfer 169–70
    transitivity structures 170
    Matter 188
    may 344, 348–9, 353–4
    negation 351–2
    me 41, 47, 60–1
    mental processes 158, 171–3, 196
    affective processes 171, 174–5
    cognitive processes 171, 173
    desiderative processes 171, 175
    perception processes 171, 174
    mere 426
    merely 447
    metaphorical realisations 191–2, 193
    metonymy 378
    might 344, 348–9, 353, 354, 355
    mine 383
    of mine 383
    modal auxiliaries 288, 318, 343, 344
    modal certainty 345–6
    modal harmony 345
    modal idioms 291
    modal meanings: realisations 345
    logical necessity: must, be bound to, have
    to 347
    modal certainty: will, must, be bound to
    345–6
    possibility: may, might, could 348–9
    probability or reasonable inference: should,
    ought 347–8
    volition: willingness and intention will,
    shall, ’ll 346–7
    modal obligation 349
    inescapable obligation and necessity: must,
    have to, have got to, gotta, shall 349–50
    negation of modals must and may 351–2
    non-binding obligation: should, ought 350–1
    summary of deontic (obligative) modal 352
    summary of epistemic (predictive) modal
    352
    modal remoteness 265
    modal verbs 21, 344
    modality 66, 343, 345
    deontic modality 343, 344, 352
    dynamic modality 344, 353–5
    epistemic modality 343, 344, 352
    hypothetical uses of modals 355
    meaning and functions 343–4
    modalised interrogatives 144
    momentary verbs 337
    monotransitive patterns 79, 85, 95
    monovalency 159
    mood see clause types (moods)
    more 455, 4585 2 2 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
    any more 24
    more . . . than 441, 458
    the more . . . the less 456
    the more . . . the more 456
    morphemes 11, 16
    morphs 16
    most 432, 455
    Motion 304
    Motion Events 304
    Cause 306
    Figure 304
    Ground 304, 305
    Manner 304–5
    Motion 304
    Path 304, 305–6
    much 24, 385, 458
    not very much 385
    must 344, 345, 347, 349–50
    negation 351–2
    my 382
    myself 371
    names 369
    nearly 434
    necessity 344, 347, 349
    need 21–2, 344
    needn’t 351
    negation:
    any 23–4, 386
    clausal negation 22–3
    clause structure 21–2
    in interrogative clauses 22–3, 119–20
    local negation 25–6
    no-negation vs not-negation + any 23
    scope 25
    transferred negation 26, 135
    negative adverbs 212–13
    negative declaratives 135
    negative determinative 385
    negative imperatives 130
    negative interrogatives 138–9
    negative objects 213
    neither 386, 387
    neither of 387
    never 23, 138, 212–13, 451
    New element 222
    next to 483
    NICE (Negation, Inversion, Code, Emphasis) 287, 292
    nice and 431
    no 23, 138, 385, 386
    no-one 138, 372
    no place 458
    nobody 23, 138, 372
    nominal clauses 14
    nominal ellipsis 226
    Nominal Groups (NG) 361–3
    appositive nominal groups 408–9
    functions 17–18, 42, 49, 413
    structure 363–4
    nominal heads 363, 364
    common nouns 364–9
    pronouns 369–74, 383
    proper nouns 369
    nominal relatives 14, 99
    nominal substitution 226
    nominalisation 190, 413–14
    basic and metaphorial realisations 190–2
    as feature of grammatical metaphor 192–5
    non-assertive forms 24, 138–9
    non-count nouns 365
    countability markers 368–9
    grammatical features 366
    plural nouns 367–8
    singular nouns 366–7
    non-declarative clauses 207–8
    non-defining relative clauses 405–6
    non-factual meanings 24
    non-finite clauses 12–13, 101
    adjectival complements 438–9
    bare infinitive clauses 104
    catenative complements 101–2
    circumstantial meanings 268–9
    functions 43, 50–1
    -ing clauses 104–6, 219
    non-finite variants 100
    relative clauses 406–7
    supplementive clauses 259
    to-infinitive clauses 102–3, 218–19
    non-finite Perfect forms 333
    non-finite verb phrases 333
    non-idiomatic phrasal verbs
    Motion Event 304–6
    substituting Manner/Path elements 307
    translating Motion/Manner/Path
    combinations 306–7
    non-prototypicality 38
    none 385
    not 22, 25
    not + any 23, 386
    notational symbols xviii–xix, 11
    nothing 23, 372
    noun complement clauses 364, 410
    of + -ing complement clauses 412
    to-infinitive complement clauses 411–12
    functions of the nominal group 413
    nominalisation 413–14
    prepositional complements of nouns 412–13
    that-complement clause 410–11
    wh-complement clauses 412
    noun compounds 396–7
    nouns 364
    classifiers 396–7
    count nouns 364, 365–6
    descriptive modifiers 435–6I N D E X 5 2 3
    mass nouns 365, 366, 368, 379, 380
    non-count nouns 365, 366–9
    proper nouns 369, 377
    regular and irregular plurals 364–5
    now 318
    nowhere 458
    number:
    cardinal numerals 384
    a number of 386
    ordinal numbers 384
    verbs 12
    Object (O) 34–5
    Direct Object (Od) 35, 47–51
    Indirect Object (Oi) 35, 47, 51–2
    as Theme 212
    Object Complement (Co) 60
    realisations 63–4
    syntactic and semantic features 63
    object-to-subject raising 291
    obligation see modal obligation
    occurrences 336
    processes 336
    punctual occurrences 336, 338–9
    of 412–13, 440, 487
    of + -ing complement clauses 412
    off 486
    off . . . into 481
    off . . . onto 481
    often 451
    okay? 125
    older, oldest 430
    on 268, 412, 440, 481, 484, 486
    on behalf of 471
    on the left/right 483
    on top of 471
    one 361, 370
    The one(s) who/that 231
    substitute one/ones 374
    only 447, 457
    open conditional clauses 264–5
    operator (o) see finite operator (o)
    opposite 483
    or 254, 268
    orders see directives
    ordinal numbers 384
    other 389
    ought 344, 347–8, 350–1
    our 382
    ours 383
    ourselves 371
    out: out of 481, 482, 485
    over 482, 484, 485
    overly (AmE) 432
    paragraphs 208
    parentheticals 273
    participants 4, 157
    actualised participants 159
    inherent participants 158–9
    participial adjectives:
    commonly used as Verbal Groups 393,
    423–4
    pseudo-participial adjectives 393, 424
    seldom used in Verbal Groups 424
    participial compound forms 424
    participial -ing clauses 219
    participial modifiers 424
    participles as classifiers 396
    partitive reference 385
    partly 434
    parts of speech 16
    passive clauses 161
    passive voice 8, 88, 90
    passivisation 37–8
    past 482
    past participial clauses:
    V + NG + -en clause 106
    Past Perfect 331–3
    backshift in reporting 332
    duration of states 331
    modal remoteness 332
    stressed had 332
    Past tense 318, 319
    basic meanings 322–3
    vs Present Perfect 327–8
    referring to future events 324–5
    referring to present 323–4
    Path 304, 305–6
    patient 161
    pejorative adjectives 394
    perception 96, 178, 322
    perception processes 171, 174
    perfect 430
    Perfect aspect 326, 337
    non-finite Perfect forms 333
    Past Perfect 331–3
    Present Perfect 326–31
    perfectivity 334, 335, 342
    performatives 133–5
    peripheral adjectives 427
    permission 353–4
    personal pronouns 275, 361, 369–71
    perspective 90–1, 339
    Phenomenon 172–3
    phrasal adverbs 446
    phrasal prepositional verbs 56, 58–9, 86
    phrasal verbs 56, 303–4
    basic meaning of a particle: back 307–8
    fully idiomatic phrasal verbs 82, 309–10
    idiomatic intransitive phrasal verbs 82
    idiomaticity 304
    non-idiomatic phrasal verbs 304–7
    vs prepositional verbs 57–85 2 4 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
    semantic cohesiveness 304
    semi-idiomatic phrasal verbs 308–9
    syntactic features 56–7
    place 67, 186–7, 450
    place-frames 211–12
    plenty of 386
    plurals 364–5
    non-count plural nouns 367–8
    polarity 119
    politeness 116
    clauses combinations 147–8
    in directives 142, 143–4
    impoliteness 145–6
    requests and enquiries 324
    Possessed 179
    possessive determinatives 363, 382–3
    double possessives 383
    possessive pronouns 383
    possessive relational processes 178–9
    possession as Attribute 179, 180
    possession as process 179
    Possessor 179
    possibility 344, 348–9, 353
    post-modifiers (post-head modifiers) 363, 364,
    401
    adjectival groups 407–8
    adverbial groups 408
    appositive nominal groups 408–9
    communicative functions 402
    defining (embedded) realisations 402–3
    finite relative clauses 404–6
    function 401
    non-defining (supplementive) realisations
    402, 403
    prepositional phrases 407
    postponement 242
    potentiality 24
    pragmatic conjunction 267–8
    pre-modifiers (pre-head modifiers) 363, 364, 392
    adjectives as epithet 393–4
    classifier function 392, 393, 395–9
    descriptor function 392, 393–4
    ordering of mixed pre-modifiers 399–400
    ordering of multiple adjectives 395
    predicate 34
    predicative adjectives 427
    Predicator (P) 34, 40, 45–6
    prediction 324, 345–6
    prefixes 423
    prepositional adverbs 447–8
    prepositional complements (PC) 53, 471–2
    clauses as 472
    of nouns 412–13
    use of -ing clauses 472
    prepositional meanings 479
    grammaticised prepositional meanings 480
    lexical prepositional meanings 480–4
    Prepositional Object (PO) 53
    realisations 55–6
    prepositional passive 55
    Prepositional Phrases (PP) 467
    adjectival complements 439–40
    as adjuncts in clauses 475–6
    internal structure 468–9
    modifiers 473–4
    as modifiers and complements in groups 476
    as post-modifiers 407
    prepositional meanings 479–84
    structural ambiguity 469
    syntactic functions 18, 51, 475–6
    prepositional verbs 53, 54, 86
    vs phrasal verbs 57–8
    stranding the preposition 54–5
    types 53–4
    prepositions 467
    and adverbs 477–8
    adverbs as 444
    complex prepositions 444, 470–1
    and conjunctions 476–7
    free or bound 469
    fronting 469–70
    grammaticised prepositions 480, 486–7
    metaphorical and abstract uses 485–6
    and non-finite clauses 268
    one-word prepositions 470
    stranding 469–70
    time relations 484–5
    and verbs 87, 477
    Present Perfect aspect 326–7
    continuous Perfect 330
    current relevance 329
    experiential Perfect 329–30
    implied meanings 330–1
    vs Past tense 327–8
    time Adjuncts 328–9
    Present tense 318, 319
    basic meanings 320
    habitual present 321
    historic present 321–2
    instantaneous present 320
    reference to past events 321–2
    reporting information 322
    state present 321
    in subordinate clauses of time/condition
    322
    presupposed information 230
    pretty 433–4
    previously 450
    primary verbs 21, 288–9
    probability 347–8
    probably 452
    processes 4, 156, 336
    behavioural processes 158, 174, 182, 184, 196
    dynamic processes 156I N D E X 5 2 5
    existential processes 158, 182, 184–5, 196
    material processes 158, 160–70, 196
    mental processes 158, 171–5, 196
    relational processes 158, 176–81, 196
    stative processes 156
    valency 159
    verbal processes 158, 182–3, 196
    Progressive aspect 337
    basic function 337–8
    discourse functions 340
    and end-point-completion verbs 339
    and punctual occurrences 338–9
    and states 338
    and verbs with no end-point 339
    prohibitions see directives
    promise 134
    pronouns 42, 364
    discourse function 373–4
    indefinite pronouns 372
    interrogative pronouns 372
    personal pronouns 275, 361, 369–71
    possessive pronouns 383
    reflexive pronouns 371
    substitute one and ones 374
    this and that 372–3
    propensity 353–4
    proper names 369
    proper nouns 369, 377
    proposals 96–7
    prototypicality 38
    pseudo-intransitives 167–8
    pseudo-participial adjectives 393, 424
    punctual occurrences 336, 338–9
    punctual verbs 337
    Purpose 187
    quantifiers 363, 384
    distributors 386–8
    exact numeratives 384
    indefinite quantifiers 384–6
    non-exact quantifiers 384–8
    non-partitive quantifiers 386
    partitive quantifiers 386
    quantifying modifiers 435, 457
    question tags 118, 123–5, 126
    copy tags 121, 124
    invariant tags 125
    Type 1 123
    Type 2 123–4
    questions 114, 115, 137
    biased questions 138–9
    echo questions 117, 121
    ellipted yes/no questions 140
    as preliminaries 137–8
    rhetorical questions 137
    quick 456
    quite 432–3
    quotative alternatives 273–4, 321, 322
    quoted speech see direct (‘quoted’) speech
    ‘raised’ subjects 291
    Range 188–9
    rarely 451
    rather 433, 458
    rather less 436
    would rather 291
    really 432
    Reason 187
    reasonable inference 347–8
    recently 450
    Recipient 5, 51–2, 88, 169–70, 182–3
    reduced clauses 126
    reference:
    anaphoric reference 372, 373, 376, 377
    cataphoric reference 372, 377
    exophoric reference 372
    generic reference 375, 378–80
    partitive reference 385
    see also definite reference; indefinite
    reference
    referential chains 209–10, 373
    referential coherence 373
    reflexive pronouns 371
    regarding 477
    regular plurals 364
    relational processes 158, 176, 196
    Attributive pattern 177–8
    circumstantial relational processes 178
    Identifying pattern 180–1
    possessive relational processes 178–80
    types of being 176–7
    relative clauses 14
    defining relative clauses 405
    finite relative clauses 404–6
    nominal relatives 14, 99
    non-defining relative clauses 405–6
    non-finite relative clauses 406–7
    relativisers 404–5
    relativisers 404–5
    rely + on 53
    reporting speech and thought 271
    clause type in the reported clause 277–8
    direct (‘quoted’) speech 272–4
    directives 276–7
    free direct speech or thought 278–9
    free indirect speech 278–9
    free indirect thought 279
    indirect speech 272, 275–6
    reporting information 322
    reports 96
    representational meaning 5
    requests see directives
    resulting Attribute 177
    reversed wh-clefts 231–25 2 6 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
    Rheme 7, 206, 207, 217
    split rheme 229–30
    rhetorical conditional clauses 266
    rhetorical questions 137
    right:
    Right? 125
    on the right 483
    right-dislocation 215
    Role 188
    roughly 434
    round 483
    ’s, s’:
    classifying function 383
    specifying function 382, 383
    Said 182–3
    sake: for the sake of 471
    salience 209, 480
    same: the same 389
    say:
    complementation patterns 98
    reporting information 322
    and tell 273
    Sayer 182–3
    scarcely 435
    seldom 451
    semantic cohesiveness 304
    semantic roles/functions 4–6, 159
    semantic valency 79–80
    semi-determinatives 388–9
    semi-idiomatic phrasal verbs 308–9
    semi-modal verbs 288, 344
    Senser 172
    sentence relative clauses 258–9
    sentences 133, 249
    clausal and non-clausal material 251–2
    complex sentences 249, 250–1
    compound sentences 249, 250
    independent and dependent clauses 249–50
    as orthographic and rhetorical unit 251
    simple sentences 249, 250
    syntactic relationships of equivalence
    253–5
    syntactic relationships of non-equivalence
    258–60
    unlinked coordination 255–7
    seriously 450
    shall 318, 344, 346, 350
    she 41, 369, 370–1
    s/he 371
    should 265, 344, 347–8, 350–1, 355
    sideways 451
    since 268, 476–7, 484
    situation types 4, 155–6, 335–6
    attributes 4
    bounded vs unbounded 336
    circumstances 4, 157–8, 186–8
    durative processes 336, 338–9
    participants 4, 157, 158–9
    process 4, 156, 158
    processes vs. punctual occurrences 336
    states vs occurrences 336
    transitivity structures 5–6, 170
    situational ellipsis 225–6
    slightly 434
    so 268
    so . . . as to-infinitive 459
    some 24, 377, 384
    somebody 24, 138, 372
    someone 24, 138, 372
    someplace 458
    something 24, 372
    sometimes 24, 450, 451
    somewhat 434
    somewhere 24, 458
    soon 456
    sort of 434
    source 68
    speaker involvement 237
    speech acts 3–4, 113
    basic correspondences 114
    and clause types 113–16, 146–8
    direct speech acts 113, 115
    indirect speech acts 113, 115–16, 133
    performatives 133–5
    see also reporting speech and thought
    speech time 318
    Stance Adjuncts 35, 65, 68, 427, 446
    domain adjuncts 69
    epistemic stance adjuncts 69, 216
    evaluative adjuncts 69, 216
    evidential adjuncts 69, 216
    prepositional phrases 476
    realisations 69–70
    style adjuncts 69
    state of affairs 4
    statements 114, 115
    states 336, 338
    stative processes 156
    stative verbs 172, 173, 177, 178, 319–20, 321, 337
    still 24, 451, 453
    stranding 469–70
    style adjuncts 69
    Subject (S) 6, 7, 34, 40
    cognitive features 40
    realisations 41–5
    semantic features 40
    syntactic features 41–2
    as Theme 209–10
    Subject Complement (Cs) 35, 60
    realisations 62–3
    syntactic and semantic features 60–2
    as Theme 212
    subject-to-subject raising 291I N D E X 5 2 7
    subjunctive in English 126, 132
    subordinate clauses 218, 250
    double (layered) subordination 250–1
    freestanding 126, 132, 147
    of time/condition 322
    subordinating conjunctions 261–2
    subordination 27, 261
    adverbial clauses 262–3
    conditional clauses 263–6
    subordinators 261–2
    substitution 220, 226
    such 388, 389
    Such! 388
    sufficiency 431–2, 441
    suffixes 423
    superlatives 441
    adjectives 428–31
    adverbs 455–6
    functions 430–1
    suppletive forms 429
    supplementives 14, 67, 214
    supposedly 452
    swear words 457
    syntactic categories and relationships 9
    relationships of equivalence 253–5
    testing for constituents 9–10
    tact 116
    tell:
    complementation patterns 98
    reporting information 322
    and say 273
    tendency 353–4
    tense 317–18, 326
    finite operators 12
    in indirect speech 275
    Past tense 318, 319, 322–5
    Present tense 318, 319, 320–2
    stative and dynamic uses of verbs 319–20
    see also future events; verbs
    textual ellipsis 225
    textual meaning 5, 206
    textual Themes 217
    than 441, 458
    that 372–3, 382, 404–5
    that-clause complements 94–5
    dropping/retaining that 97–8
    verb + NG + that-clause 98
    verb + that-clause 96–7
    that-clauses 14, 43, 240
    the fact that 44
    that-complement clauses 410–11
    the 375, 377–8, 379
    their 382
    theirs 383
    them 41, 47
    thematic progression 227
    continuous progression (constant Theme)
    228
    derived Themes 228–9
    simple linear progression 228
    split rheme 229–30
    thematisation 211
    Theme 6–7, 205
    Absolute Theme 214–15
    adverbs + verbs of motion 213–14
    Circumstantial Adjuncts 211–12
    clauses as Themes 218–19
    declarative clauses 207
    detached predicatives 214
    detached themes 214–16
    dislocations 215–16
    double detached Themes 216
    interpersonal Themes 216–17
    markedness 207–8
    Multiple Themes 217–18
    negative adverbs 212–13
    negative objects 213
    non-declarative clauses 207–8
    non-experiential Themes 216–18
    objects and complements 212
    and Rheme 206–7, 217
    textual Themes 217
    Topic 208–11
    Topic and Subject as Theme 209–10
    Theme–Rheme and Given–New 227
    active–passive alternative 232–7
    clefting 230–2
    extraposition of clauses 240–1
    postponement 242
    presentative function of existential clauses
    237–40
    thematic progression 227–30
    themselves 371
    there, unstressed 45
    presentative function 237–40
    states of affairs 240
    these 382
    they 41, 369, 371
    this 372–3, 382
    those 382
    through 482, 486
    time 67, 186–7
    Adjuncts 328–9
    adverbs 450–1, 453, 457
    conjunctions 262
    event time 318
    prepositions 484–5
    speech time 318
    subordinate clauses 322
    time-frames 211–12
    timeless statements 321
    to 440
    to-infinitive 125 2 8 E N G L I S H G R A M M A R
    to-infinitive clause complements
    to-infinitive and -ing clauses contrasted 106
    V + NG + to-infinitive 103
    V + NG + to-infinitive clause with subject
    102–3
    V + to-infinitive 102
    to-infinitive clauses 43, 94–5, 218–19, 240, 268, 407
    to-infinitive complement clauses 411–12
    tone units 220, 221
    tonic prominence 221
    tonic syllables 220, 221
    too 431–2, 442, 455
    none too 435
    too . . . to-infinitive 459
    top: on top of 471
    Topic 34, 208
    cognitive features 209
    introducing new potential topics 210–11
    and Subject as Theme 209–10
    totally 452
    transfer processes 169–70
    transferred negation 26, 135
    transitive-causative structure 164–5
    transitive patterns 79
    attention 91
    complex-transitive pattern 79, 85, 91–3
    ditransitive patterns 79, 85, 240
    frame 90–1
    monotransitive patterns 79, 85, 95
    perspectives 90–1
    subject–verb–direct object 85–6
    subject–verb–direct object–locative
    complement 93
    subject–verb–direct object–object
    complement 91–3
    subject–verb–direct object–prepositional
    complement 89–90
    subject–verb–indirect object–direct object
    87–9
    subject–verb–prepositional complement
    86–7
    three-place verbs 88–9, 91
    verbs used transitively and intransitively 86
    transitive verbs 36, 86, 159
    transitivity hypothesis 190, 195
    transitivity structures 5–6, 170
    translating phrasal verbs 306–7
    trivalency 159
    typicality 38
    unactualised participants 159
    under 482–3, 485
    unique 430
    unit structure 16–17
    componence, realisation and function
    19–20
    syntactic elements of clauses 17
    syntactic elements of groups 17–18
    unless 264
    unlinked coordination 255–7
    until 484
    up 482, 483, 486
    upgrading connectives 255
    uphill 451
    us 41, 47, 370
    used:
    be used to + -ing 341
    used to + infinitive 341
    usuality 66
    usually 451
    utter 426
    utterances 133
    valency 36, 79–80, 159
    verb complementation see complementation of
    the verb
    Verbal Group structures
    discontinuous VGs 299
    experiential structure 293–4
    extended non-finite structures 298
    extended structures 294–5
    with one grammatical auxiliary 295
    relative frequency of complex VGs 298–9
    simple structures 294
    telescoped order of elements 297–8
    with three grammatical auxiliaries
    296–7
    with two grammatical auxiliaries 296
    Verbal Groups (VG) 287
    conjoining 300–1
    finite operator (o) 18, 21–2, 119–20, 287,
    291–2
    functions 18
    lexical auxiliaries 288, 289–91
    lexical verbs 288
    modal auxiliaries 288
    primary verbs 21, 288–9
    ‘raised’ subjects 291
    semi-modals 288, 344
    syntactic elements 18, 287–8
    syntactic features of operator element
    291–2
    verbal processes 158, 182–3, 196
    verbless clauses 15, 126, 131, 147
    verbs:
    of becoming 83–4
    of behaviour 81
    of being 37, 83
    bounded-completion verbs 337, 339
    catenative verbs 101–2, 301–2
    as circumstantial markers 268–9
    of cognition 96
    of communication 96
    copular verbs 37, 60, 61, 83–4
    of discovery 105
    ditransitive verbs 79, 85, 242I N D E X 5 2 9
    ‘do’ operator 21
    dynamic verbs 166, 177, 185, 319–20, 321
    of expectation 96
    finite operator (o) 18, 21–2, 119–20, 287,
    291–2
    finite verbs 12
    in indirect reporting 276
    of intended transfer 88
    intransitive verbs 36, 37, 86, 159
    lexical aspect 335–7
    lexical auxiliaries 21, 288–91, 344
    linking verbs 84
    modal auxiliaries 288, 318, 343, 344
    modal verbs 21, 344
    non-finite verbs 12
    non-tensed forms 13
    number 12
    of occurrence 82
    of perception 105
    person 12
    phrasal prepositional verbs 56, 58–9, 86
    phrasal verbs 56–8, 303–10
    prepositional verbs 53–5, 57–8, 86
    and prepositions 87, 477
    primary verbs 21, 288–9
    punctual/momentary verbs 337
    in quoted speech 273–4, 276
    of retrospection 105–6
    semantic valency 79–80
    semi-modals 288, 344
    stative verbs 172, 173, 177, 178, 319–20,
    321, 337
    three-place verbs 88–9, 91
    of transfer 87
    transitive verbs 36, 86, 159
    unbounded-process verbs 337, 339
    valency 36, 79–80, 159
    of weather 81
    see also tense
    very 432, 458
    very well 349
    vocatives 128, 217
    volition 346–7
    warnings 125, 134, 142
    way 432
    we 41, 369, 370
    well 349
    were 265
    wh-clause complements 94–5, 99
    V + NG + wh-clauses 99
    V + NG + wh- + to-infinitive clause 100
    V + wh-clause 99
    V + (NG) + what + NG or how + AdjG 100
    wh-clefts 230
    discourse functions 231
    variants 231–2
    wh-complement clauses 412
    wh-determinatives 383
    wh-interrogative clauses 14, 22–3, 43, 99, 121–2
    wh-nominal clauses 51, 95, 240
    wh-nominal relative clauses 14, 99
    wh-words 363
    what 372, 383, 388
    What! 127, 388
    What? 121
    whatever 383
    when 268, 405, 408
    When? 121
    When else? 458
    where 405, 408
    Where? 121
    Where else? 458
    whereas 260
    Wherever? 122
    which 372, 383, 404
    whichever 383
    while 260, 268
    who 372, 404
    Who? 121
    Whoever? 122
    whom 404
    Whom? 121
    whose 372, 383, 405
    Whose? 121
    why 405, 408
    Why? 121
    Why else? 458
    Why ever? 122
    will 318, 344, 345, 346, 354–5
    willingness 346
    with 440, 484, 486
    with regard to 471
    without 24, 268, 484
    word classes 16
    words 11
    worse 429
    worst 429
    would 344, 346, 354–5
    would have 265–6
    would rather 291
    yes/no interrogative clauses 22, 120–1, 137–9
    yes/no questions, ellipted 140
    yet 24, 451, 453
    you 41, 361, 369, 370
    your 382
    yours 383
    of yours 383
    yourself 371
    yourselves 371
    zero anaphora 373
    zero article 375, 378, 380
    zero plural 365
    zero relativiser 405

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