Automobile Mechanical and Electrical Systems

Automobile Mechanical and Electrical Systems
اسم المؤلف
Tom Denton
التاريخ
25 مارس 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Automobile Mechanical and Electrical Systems
Automotive Technology:
Vehicle Maintenance and Repair
Tom Denton
BA FIMI MSAE
MIRTE Cert Ed
Contents
Preface xi
Acknowledgements xiii
Chapter 1 Overview and introduction 1
1.1 Vehicle categories 1
1.1.1 Layouts 1
1.1.2 Types and sizes 3
1.1.3 Body design 3
1.1.4 Chassis type and body panels 3
1.1.5 Main systems 6
1.1.6 Summary 7
1.2 The motor industry 8
1.2.1 Introduction 8
1.2.2 Types of motor vehicle companies 9
1.2.3 Company structure 11
1.2.4 Role of a franchised dealer 12
1.2.5 Reception and booking systems 12
1.2.6 Parts department 12
1.2.7 Estimating costs and times 13
1.2.8 Jobcards and systems 13
1.2.9 Invoicing 14
1.2.10 Warranties 15
1.2.11 Computerized workshop system 15
1.3 Working safely 18
1.3.1 Introduction 18
1.3.2 The key UK regulations and laws 19
1.3.3 Health and safety law: what you need to know 20
1.3.4 Personal protective equipment (PPE) 23
1.3.5 Identifying and reducing hazards 24
1.3.6 Moving loads 25
1.3.7 Vehicle safety 28
1.3.8 Safety procedures 29
1.3.9 Fire 29
1.3.10 Clean working environment 32
1.3.11 Signage 33
1.3.12 Environmental protection 33vi Contents
1.4 Basic science, materials, mathematics and mechanics 36
1.4.1 Introduction 36
1.4.2 Units 37
1.4.3 Velocity and acceleration 39
1.4.4 Friction 39
1.4.5 Pressure 39
1.4.6 Centre of gravity or centre of mass 40
1.4.7 Oscillation 40
1.4.8 Energy, work and power 40
1.4.9 Force and torque 42
1.4.10 Mass, weight and force 43
1.4.11 Volume and density 43
1.4.12 Heat and temperature 44
1.4.13 Percentages 44
1.4.14 Fractions 44
1.4.15 Ratios 45
1.4.16 Areas 45
1.4.17 Volumes 45
1.4.18 Indices 45
1.4.19 Drawings 46
1.4.20 Mechanical machines 48
1.4.21 Gears 48
1.4.22 Hydraulics 49
1.4.23 Materials and properties 49
1.5 Tools and equipment 51
1.5.1 Hand tools 51
1.5.2 Test equipment 52
1.5.3 Workshop equipment 53
1.6 Workshop bench skills 54
1.6.1 Introduction 54
1.6.2 Fitting and machining 57
1.6.3 Filing 58
1.6.4 Drilling 59
1.6.5 Cutting 59
1.6.6 Thread cutting 60
1.6.7 Joining 62
1.6.8 Nuts and bolts 63
1.6.9 Adhesives 65
1.6.10 Soldering 66
1.6.11 Brazing 66
1.6.12 Welding 67Contents vii
1.6.13 Shrinking 68
1.6.14 Compression fi tting 68
1.6.15 Riveting 69
1.6.16 Gaskets 69
1.6.17 Sealants 70
1.6.18 Oil seals 70
1.7 Servicing and inspections 71
1.7.1 Introduction 71
1.7.2 Rules and regulations 73
1.7.3 Service sheets 73
1.7.4 Road test 74
1.7.5 Effects of incorrect adjustments 76
1.7.6 Maintenance and inspections 76
1.7.7 Information sources 78
Chapter 2 Engine systems 81
2.1 Engine mechanical 81
2.1.1 Introduction and operating cycles 81
2.1.2 Engine operating details 90
2.1.3 Engine components 109
2.2 Engine lubrication 137
2.2.1 Friction and lubrication 137
2.2.2 Methods of lubrication 140
2.2.3 Lubrication system 140
2.2.4 Oil fi lters 143
2.2.5 Oil pumps 145
2.2.6 Standards 147
2.3 Engine cooling 151
2.3.1 Introduction 151
2.3.2 System operation 151
2.3.3 Interior heater 166
2.4 Air supply, exhaust and emissions 168
2.4.1 Air pollution and engine combustion 168
2.4.2 Reducing pollution 169
2.4.3 Air supply system 172
2.4.4 Exhaust systems 176
2.4.5 Catalyst systems 179
2.4.6 Emission control systems 181
2.4.7 Turbocharging and supercharging 184viii Contents
2.5 Fuel systems 189
2.5.1 Introduction 189
2.5.2 Petrol fuel injection systems 194
2.5.3 Diesel fuel injection systems 217
2.5.4 Alternative fuels 231
2.6 Ignition systems 236
2.6.1 Ignition overview 236
2.6.2 Electronic ignition 241
2.6.3 Distributorless ignition system (DIS) 244
2.6.4 Coil on plug (COP) direct ignition system 246
2.6.5 Spark plugs 247
2.7 Hybrid cars 250
2.7.1 Safety 250
2.7.2 Hybrids overview 253
2.8 Formula 1 engine technology 255
2.8.1 Engines overview 255
2.8.2 FIA technical regulations 258
Chapter 3 Electrical systems 259
3.1 Electrical and electronic principles 259
3.1.1 Electrical fundamentals 259
3.1.2 Electrical components and circuits 264
3.1.3 Electronic components 273
3.2 Engine electrical 275
3.2.1 Batteries 275
3.2.2 Starting system 282
3.2.3 Charging system 287
3.3 Lighting and indicators 293
3.3.1 Lighting systems 293
3.3.2 Stoplights and reverse lights 297
3.3.3 Interior lighting 299
3.3.4 Lighting circuits 299
3.3.5 Indicators and hazard lights 301
3.4 Body electrical and electronic systems 305
3.4.1 Washers and wipers 305
3.4.2 Horns 308
3.4.3 Obstacle avoidance 309
3.4.4 Cruise control 310
3.4.5 Seats, mirrors, sunroofs, locking and
windows 312Contents ix
3.4.6 Screen heating 318
3.4.7 Security systems 320
3.4.8 Safety systems 322
3.5 Monitoring and instrumentation 326
3.5.1 Sensors 326
3.5.2 Gauges 329
3.5.3 Global Positioning System (GPS) 332
3.6 Air conditioning 337
3.6.1 Air conditioning fundamentals 337
3.6.2 Air conditioning components 340
3.7 Formula 1 electrical technology 342
3.7.1 Introduction 342
3.7.2 Telemetry 343
3.7.3 FIA technical regulations 344
Chapter 4 Chassis systems 347
4.1 Suspension 347
4.1.1 Overview of suspension 347
4.1.2 Dampers/shock absorbers 356
4.1.3 Suspension layouts 359
4.1.4 Active suspension 364
4.2 Steering 366
4.2.1 Introduction to steering 366
4.2.2 Steering racks and boxes 369
4.2.3 Steering geometry 375
4.2.4 Power steering 383
4.3 Brakes 386
4.3.1 Disc, drum and parking brakes 386
4.3.2 Hydraulic components 394
4.3.3 Brake servo operation 398
4.3.4 Braking force control 400
4.3.5 Anti-lock brake systems 401
4.3.6 Traction control 407
4.4 Wheels and tyres 409
4.4.1 Wheels 409
4.4.2 Tyres 416
4.5 Formula 1 chassis technology (brakes) 422
4.5.1 Brakes overview 422
4.5.2 FIA technical regulations 423
x Contents
Chapter 5 Transmission systems 425
5.1 Manual transmission clutch 425
5.1.1 Clutch operation 425
5.1.2 Types of clutch 428
5.2 Manual transmission gearbox 434
5.2.1 Gearbox operation 434
5.2.2 Gear change mechanisms 437
5.2.3 Gears and components 441
5.3 Automatic transmission 445
5.3.1 Introduction and torque converter 445
5.3.2 Automatic transmission components 451
5.3.3 Constantly variable transmission 459
5.3.4 Direct shift gearbox 461
5.4 Transmission driveline 467
5.4.1 Propshafts and driveshafts 467
5.4.2 Wheel bearings 472
5.4.3 Four-wheel drive 477
5.5 Final drive and differential 480
5.5.1 Final drive 480
5.5.2 Differential 482
5.6 Formula 1 transmission technology 485
5.6.1 Clutch 485
5.6.2 Gearbox 486
5.6.3 Differential 487
5.6.4 FIA technical regulations 487
Chapter 6 Learning activities 489
6.1 Introduction 489
6.2 Assignments 490
6.3 Tips to help you learn 493
6.4 Practical work 494
6.4.1 Jobcard, jobsheet, repair order 494
6.4.2 Practical task list 494
6.5 Summary 498
Index 49
Index
3D see three-dimensional drawings
4WD see four-wheel drive
12V batteries: hybrid cars , 253
A
A-bracket suspension , 363
ABS see anti-lock brake systems
absolute pressure , 39–40
absorption silencers , 177 , 178
acceleration , 39 , 196
accident safety , 29
accumulators , 228 , 230 , 398 , 399
ACEA see Association des Constructeurs Européens
d’Automobiles
Ackermann steering methods , 366 , 367 , 368 , 369 , 376
active safety features: definition, 322
active suspension , 364–6
actuators , 185
adaptive cruise control systems , 311–12
additives (viscosity) , 148
adhesives , 65–6
advance angle ignition timing , 238–9
advanced ignition, 94–5
Advanced Telemetry Linked Acquisition System (ATLAS) , 344
Ah see ampere-hour battery ratings
air bag units , 322–5
air conditioning , 337–42
air-coolants , 151 , 152
air-cored gauges , 330–1
air filters, 173 , 174
air flow controls, 167
air flow meters, 173 , 174 , 203–4
air-intake ducts , 166
air (mixture strengths) , 93–4
air pollution , 168–9
air pump devices , 86
see also turbocharging
air springs see pneumatic springs
air supply systems , 172–6 , 207–8
air temperature control valves, 170, 171
air temperature sensors , 205
airtight synthetic rubber tyres , 416
alarms:
see also security systems
alloy wheels , 410 , 411
all-wheel drive (AWD) , 477 , 478
alternating current (a.c.) , 275
alternative fuels , 231–6
biodiesel , 232–3
ethanol , 231–2 , 236
hydrogen , 235–6
liquefi ed petroleum gas , 234–5
natural gas , 233 , 234
alternators , 7 , 287–93
aluminium:
blocks and liners , 111
cylinder heads , 123 , 127
radiators , 161–2
American fire extinguishers, 31 , 32
American Petroleum Institute (API) , 149
ampere-hour (Ah) battery ratings , 278 , 280 , 281
analogy definition, 447
antifreeze coolants , 151 , 152
anti-lock brake systems (ABS) , 401–6 , 407 , 408
anti-roll bars , 355–6
anti-slip regulation (ASR) see traction control systems
API see American Petroleum Institute
arc welding , 67
areas , 45
armatures , 284 , 306
ASCC see Australian Safety and Compensation Council
aspiration , 91
see also naturally aspirated engines
ASR see traction control systems
assignments, 490–3
Association des Constructeurs Européens d’Automobiles
(ACEA) , 150
ATLAS see Advanced Telemetry Linked Acquisition System
atmospheric pressure , 90
atoms, basic representation , 259
audible warning devices see horns
audits: health and safety , 22
Australian fire extinguishers, 31
Australian Safety and Compensation Council (ASCC) , 19
automatic transmission , 311 , 445–66 , 467
components , 451–9 , 460
constantly variable transmission , 459–61 , 462
direct shift gearboxes , 461–6 , 467
auxiliary air valves , 207–8
AWD see all-wheel drive
axial displacement , 122
axial-piston pumps , 222
axles, 48 , 55 , 362 , 363
B
baffle silencers, 177 , 178
ball joints , 370 , 371
ball and spring detent gearbox mechanisms , 439
ball wheel bearings , 472 , 473 , 474 , 475
bath lubrication , 140
batteries , 250–3 , 267 , 275–82
BDC see bottom dead centre
beads (tyres) , 416
beam axle suspension , 354 , 355
beam setters , 297
bearings , 112 , 113 , 119
crankshafts , 120–3
Formula 1 engine technology , 256–7
lubrication , 139
transmission systems , 471500 Index
belts , 135 , 136 , 324 , 326
bench battery chargers , 278 , 279 , 280 , 281
bevel gears , 480 , 481
bi-fuel vehicles , 233 , 234
big end bearing caps , 119 , 120 , 121 , 139
biodegradable oils , 138–9
biodiesel , 232–3
blade fuses , 265 , 266
block diagrams , 46
blocks (engines) , 109–14 , 154
body design , 3 , 4–5
body electrical and electronic systems , 305–25 , 326
cruise control , 310–12
horns , 308–9
locking, 312 , 316–17
mirrors , 312 , 314 , 315
obstacle avoidance , 309–10
safety systems , 322–5 , 326
screen heating , 318–19 , 320
seats , 312–14
security systems , 320–1 , 322
sunroofs , 312 , 314 , 315 , 316
washers , 305–8
windows , 312 , 317–18 , 319
wipers , 305–8
body panels , 3 , 5 , 6
bodywork protection , 72 , 73
bolts , 63–5
booking systems , 12
boost control systems , 185 , 186
boosters see servo units
bore diameters , 100
Bosch injection systems , 221 , 227
see also diesel fuel injection…; gasoline direct injection
bottom dead centre (BDC) , 81 , 84
bottoming taps , 61
bounce-back window features , 317 , 318
boundary lubrication , 139
brake fade , 390
brake horsepower , 101
brake lights see stoplights
brake systems , 386–409
anti-lock systems , 401–6 , 407 , 408
disc brakes , 386–94
drum brakes , 386–94
fluid, 395–6
force control, 400–1
Formula 1 technology , 422–3
hydraulic components , 394–8
pads , 328 , 329 , 387–8 , 423
parking brakes , 386–94
servo operation , 398–400
shoes , 388 , 390–3 , 395
switches , 311
traction control , 407–9
vehicle categories , 7
brazing , 66–7
breaker systems , 240
bridge rectifiers, 291
bulbs:
conventional circuits , 267 , 268 , 270
headlights , 293 , 295
indicators , 301
rear lights, 301–2
selection , 293 , 294
stoplights , 301–2
bump stops , 354
bypass filtration systems, 145
C
cable-driven speedometers , 331–2
cables (electrical circuits) , 267 , 268
cable shift gearbox mechanisms , 437 , 439
cadence braking , 402
calcium (coolants) , 152
callipers , 395 , 396 , 423
see also sliding disc brake callipers
cam belts , 163
camber definition, 378
cam covers , 135–6
camshafts , 130–7 , 203
CAN see controller area networks
capacitors , 273
carbon/carbon dioxide pollution , 168 , 169
carbon dioxide extinguishers , 31 , 32
carburettors , 189 , 191 , 192–4 , 195–6
car lifts, 55
cast iron:
blocks and liners , 109–11
compression rings , 116
cylinder heads , 123 , 124
definition, 110
exhaust manifolds , 49 , 50
oil control rings , 116
castor angles , 380 , 381
Castrol Magnatec multigrade engine oil , 148
catalyst systems , 179–81
catalytic converters:
diesel fuel injection systems , 221
exhaust systems , 177 , 178 , 179
gasoline direct injection , 216–17
pollution reduction , 170 , 171
CCA see cold cranking amps ratings
cell plate construction , 276
central door locking systems, 321
central point injection (CPI) systems , 194 , 197
see also throttle body injection systems
central processing units (CPU) , 199 , 200 , 201–2
centre of gravity/mass , 40 , 41
centrifugal force , 382
CFC see chlorofl uorocarbon based refrigerants
chalk , 152
charcoal canisters , 182 , 183 , 184
charcoal filters, 169 , 171 , 172
charging systems , 287–93
see also batteries
chasing (thread cutting) , 60–1
chassis systems , 347–423
brakes , 386–409
Formula 1 technology , 422–3
steering , 366–86
suspension, 347–66
tyres , 409 , 416–22
vehicle categories , 3 , 5 , 6 , 7
wheels , 409–15
check valves , 400Index 501
chlorofl uorocarbon (CFC) based refrigerants , 338
choke see venturi carburettor types
CI see compression ignition
circuits , 260 , 261 , 264–73
fuel gauges , 330 , 331
interior lights , 299
lighting circuits , 299–301
reverse lights , 298
seat adjustments , 312–13
stoplights , 298
sunroofs , 314 , 316
symbols , 267–8 , 269
temperature gauges , 330 , 331
windows , 318 , 319
wipers , 307–8
clamp fittings, 178 , 179
clean combustion see complete combustion
cleaning materials , 33 , 34
clearance volumes , 100
clear lens headlights , 296–7
closed loop control systems , 310
clutch systems , 285 , 425–33 , 463 , 484–7
CNG see compressed natural gas
coded key security systems , 321 , 322
coil leads , 245 , 246
coil on plug (COP) direct ignition systems , 246–7
coils , 238 , 240
coil springs , 348–9 , 433
cold cranking amps (CCA) ratings , 278
cold shrinking , 68
cold-start devices , 219
cold starting carburation stages , 195
combustion:
air pollution , 168–9
compression ignition , 96–7 , 98 , 99
cooling systems , 155
cylinder heads , 124 , 125 , 126 , 127
diesel fuel injection systems , 222 , 227–8
fire safety, 30
four-stroke engines , 81 , 82 , 84–5
fuel systems , 190–1 , 218–20
ignition systems , 236 , 237 , 247–8
pistons and connecting rods , 115–16 , 118
reaction , 91
rotary engine , 87 , 88
spark ignition , 92–5
see also power stroke
commercial API classes , 149
common multipliers , 38
common rail injection , 220 , 227–30 , 231
commutators , 284
complete combustion , 169 , 190
complex reflectors, 296–7
composite materials , 123
compound valve hemispherical (CVH) arrangements ,
126 , 127
compressed natural gas (CNG) , 233
compression fittings, 68
compression ignition (CI) , 95–9 , 101 , 102 , 217
compression ratios , 91–2 , 100
compression rings , 115–16
compression stroke , 81–8
compressors , 186–7 , 338–9 , 340
computerized workshop systems , 15–18
concave reflectors, 295
Concept cars , 4
condensers , 339 , 340 , 341
conduction , 44 , 153
conductors , 262–3 , 284
cone-shaped diaphragm springs , 432
connecting rods , 114–20 , 139–42 , 256–7
connectors (electrical circuits) , 266 , 267
constant dwell electronic ignition systems , 241–2
constant energy electronic ignition systems , 242–3 , 244
constantly variable transmission (CVT) , 459–61 , 462
constant mesh gearboxes , 436 , 441–2
constant velocity (CV) joints , 471–2
contact areas (tyres) , 418 , 419
contact breaker systems , 240
contracts , 14
controller area networks (CAN) , 272–3
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) , 22
convection , 44 , 153
Convertibles , 4
coolant passages , 126 , 127
coolants see engine cooling
coolant thermistors , 206
cooling system hoses , 166
COP see coil on plug direct ignition systems
copper (electrical circuits) , 267
core plugs , 112 , 113 , 154
cornering speeds , 382
corrosion , 50–1 , 266–7
COSHH see Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
cost estimations , 13
Cosworth Formula 1 engines , 255 , 257
countershafts , 441 , 442
Coupé , 4
covers (camshafts) , 135–6 , 137
CPI see central point injection systems
CPS see crankshaft position sensors
CPU see central processing units
cranes , 27 , 28
crankcase ventilation systems , 169 , 171 , 172 , 181 , 182
crankshaft position sensors (CPS) , 244–5 , 246
crankshafts , 84–5 , 120–2 , 123
crescent oil pumps , 145 , 146
cross-flow ports, 125
cross-flow radiators, 160 , 161
cross-ply tyres , 416 , 417 , 418
cross-type joints , 467, 470
crown construction (tyres) , 418 , 419
crown thickness (tyres) , 418
crown wheel gear and pinion systems , 481 , 482
cruise control , 310–12
cruising carburation stages , 196
cube relays , 265
current:
charging systems , 288–90
chemical changes , 276 , 277
circuits , 268 , 271
definition, 260
cutting (workshop skills) , 59–62
CVH see compound valve hemispherical arrangements
CVT see constantly variable transmission
cylinder coatings , 112502 Index
cylinder heads , 69 , 123–8 , 155
cylinder layouts , 101 , 103
D
dampers , 348 , 353 , 354 , 356–9
damping clutch springs , 430–1
data bus systems , 271–3
dead-reckoning , 336
deceleration-sensing brake pressure reducers , 400–1
delay phases , 98 , 99 , 219
delta (Δ) stator windings , 290
density , 43 , 44
derived SI units , 37 , 38
desiccants , 339
detent gearbox mechanisms , 439
diagonal split brake systems , 397 , 398
diaphragm springs , 432
diesel engine , 81 , 82
direct injection , 96 , 97 , 98 , 221–4 , 227
fuel systems, 189 , 190 , 191 , 217–30 , 231
lubrication , 149 , 150
two-stroke , 86
see also compression ignition
diesel fuel injection systems , 217–30 , 231
dies and taps , 60–2
differential transmission systems , 7 , 464 , 466 , 480 , 482–5 , 487
digital multimeters (DMM) , 52 , 54
diodes , 273 , 274 , 290–3
dipsticks , 143
direct acting motors , 385 , 386
direct current (d.c.) , 275 , 284
direct drive gears , 435 , 436
direct ignition systems , 246–7
direct injection (DI) , 96–8 , 217–18 , 221–4 , 227
see also diesel fuel injection systems gasoline direct injection
direction indicators see indicators
direct shift gearboxes (DSG) , 461–6 , 467
disc brakes , 7 , 386–94 , 423
discharged battery cell states , 276 , 277–8
DIS (distributorless ignition systems) , 237 , 244–6
distributorless ignition systems (DIS) , 237 , 244–6
distributors (ignition systems) , 241
divided rims , 410 , 412
DMM see digital multimeters
DOHC see double overhead camshafts
double-acting brake shoes , 395
double-acting master cylinder pistons , 396–7
double offset constant velocity joints , 472
double overhead camshafts (DOHC), 131
doughnut joints , 467 , 470
drawings , 46–7
drier systems see receiver/drier systems
drillings , 59 , 140 , 141 , 142
drive-by-wire systems , 311
drive chains , 135 , 136
drive gears , 135 , 136
driven plates , 428 , 429 , 430
driveshafts , 467–72
drum brakes , 386–94
dry liners , 110 , 111
dry sump filter systems, 145
DSG see direct shift gearboxes
dual-fuel vehicles , 233 , 234
dual-intake systems, 176
dual-mass flywheels, 122 , 123
dwell electronic ignition systems , 241–2
dwell maps , 199 , 200
dwells definition, 242
E
E85 vehicles , 231 , 232 , 236
early ignition , 94–5
ECAT see electronically controlled automatic transmission
ECM see electronic control modules
ECU see electronic control units
EDC see electronic diesel control
EFi see electronic fuel injection systems
EGO see exhaust gas oxygen sensors
EGR see exhaust gas recirculation systems
EHB see electrohydraulic brake systems
electrical systems , 259–345
air conditioning , 337–42
body systems , 305–25 , 326
cooling systems , 158 , 159
engine electrical , 275–93
Formula 1 technology , 342–5
indicators , 293 , 301–5
lighting, 293–301
monitoring and instrumentation , 326–36 , 337
power steering , 385–6
principles , 259–75
vehicle categories , 7
electrohydraulic brake (EHB) systems , 406 , 407 , 408
electrohydraulic variable cam control methods , 134
electronically controlled automatic transmission (ECAT) , 455–6 ,
458–9
electronic control modules (ECM) see electronic control units
electronic control units (ECUs) , 273 , 274
active suspension , 365–6
automatic transmission , 456 , 458–9 , 464 , 466
brake systems , 402 , 403–5
data bus systems , 272
diesel fuel injection systems , 224–5 , 226
gasoline direct injection , 215 , 216
petrol fuel injection , 198 , 199 , 200 , 201–8
safety systems , 324 , 325
windows , 317–18
electronic diesel control (EDC) , 223–5 , 228–31 , 242
electronic fuel injection (EFi) systems , 194 , 197 , 198–207
electronic ignition systems , 237 , 241–3 , 244
electronic spark advance (ESA) ignition systems , 244–5 , 246
electronic stability programs (ESP) , 406 , 407 , 408
electrons , 259 , 260
emission control systems , 181–4
energy , 40–2
see also temperature
engine blocks , 109–14 , 154
engine breathing , 91
engine capacity, 100
engine cranes , 27 , 28
engine electrical , 275–93
batteries , 275–82
charging systems , 287–93
starting systems , 282–7 , 288
engine mechanical , 81–137
components , 109–37
operating cycles , 81–90
operating details , 90–108 , 109Index 503
engines vehicle categories , 6–7
engine systems , 81–258
air supplies/emissions/exhaust , 168–88
cooling , 151–67
design , 102 , 103–8 , 109
engine mechanical , 81–137
Formula 1 engine technology , 255–8
fuel systems , 189–236
hybrid cars , 250–5
ignition systems , 236–49
liners , 109–14
lubrication , 137–50
terminology and methods , 100–2 , 103
environmental protection , 33–4 , 35
epitrochoid definition, 87
equipment see tools
ESA see electronic spark advance ignition systems
Escape hybrid E85 vehicles , 236
ESP see electronic stability programs
Estate cars , 4
ethanol , 231–2 , 236
evaporative emission control systems (EVAP) , 171 , 172 , 182–4
evaporators , 341–2
exhaust extraction , 20 , 23 , 255 , 257
exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors , 181
see also lambda sensors
exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems , 98–9 , 184–6 , 206–7 ,
221
exhaust joints , 50–1
exhaust manifolds , 49 , 50 , 175
exhaust stroke , 81 , 83–8
exhaust systems , 176–8 , 179
exhaust turbocharging , 185
exhaust valves , 128
expansion boxes , 177 , 178
expansion processes , 86 , 87
expansion stroke , 86–7
expansion valves , 341 , 342
eye protection , 19 , 23
F
fans , 164 , 165 , 167
fan wheels , 186–7
fast charge of batteries , 278–82
fastening see joining
FFVs see fl exible fuel vehicles
FIA technical regulations , 258 , 344–5 , 423 , 487
filament bulbs, 301–2
filing, 58 , 59
filters:
air pollution , 169 , 170 , 171 , 172
air supply systems , 173 , 174
cooling systems , 166
diesel fuel injection systems , 222
lubrication , 143–5
petrol fuel injection , 209
pollution reduction , 171, 172
fi nal drive assemblies , 7 , 464 , 466 , 480–2
fi ngers (clutch systems) , 432–3
fire, 29–31 , 32 , 33
fi rst control cycle smoothing , 405–6
fitting, 57–8
five-cylinder engines, 105 , 106
fixed callipers, 395
fixed orifice control valves , 341
fi xed value memory see read only memory
fi xed venturi carburettor types , 191 , 192
fixings (wheels), 412 , 413
flange connections, 177 , 178
flasher units, 302 , 303
flat engines, 106 , 107
fl at post battery terminals , 280 , 281
flex-fuel, 231 , 232
fl exible brake pipes , 389
fl exible clutch discs , 430–1
fl exible fuel vehicles (FFVs) , 231 , 232
flexible mountings, 178 , 179
float chambers, 193–4
floating callipers, 395 , 396
fl oat and needle valves , 193
fluid fl ywheels, 446–8 , 450
fl uid level sensors , 328
fluid reservoirs, 394–5
flywheels, 101 , 122 , 123 , 446–8 , 450
force , 42 , 43
force control (brake systems) , 400–1
force-feed lubrication , 140
Ford Focus engines , 6–7
Ford main dealerships , 9
Ford starter systems , 287 , 288
Ford steering systems , 369
Formula 1 technology , 255–8
brake systems , 422–3
chassis systems , 422–3
electrical systems , 342–5
engine systems , 255–8
gearboxes , 486 , 487
transmission systems , 485–7
four-cylinder engines , 104 , 105 , 107 , 120–1 , 227
four-stroke engines , 81–5, 150
four-strokes: engines,
see also Formula 1 engine technology
four stud wheel fixings, 412 , 413
four-wheel drive (4WD) , 2 , 466 , 467 , 477–80
fractions , 44–5
franchised dealers , 12
friction , 39 , 137–9
frontal impact , 323–4
front-engines:
front-wheel drives , 1 , 2
rear-drive mounts , 88 , 89
rear-wheel drives , 1
front lights , 293 , 294
front/rear split brake systems , 397 , 398
front screen heater elements , 319 , 320
front-wheel drives:
engine mounts , 88 , 89, 90
gearboxes , 434 , 435 , 437 , 441–2
hub and bearing arrangements , 476
fuel systems , 189–236
alternative fuels , 231–6
diesel injection systems , 217–30 , 231
droplet size , 214
electronic injection systems , 199 , 200
evaporative emission control , 182 , 183 , 184
gauge circuits , 330 , 331
injection block diagrams , 46
level sensors , 327 , 328504 Index
fuel systems (Continued)
metering , 81
mixture strengths , 93–4
petrol injection , 194 , 197–217
pressure regulators , 210 , 211
supplies , 208–11 , 212
tank caps , 182 , 183
full-flow fi lter systems, 144
full load carburation stages , 196
fully fl oating wheel bearings , 473–4
fuses , 265–6 , 299 , 300 , 301
G
garage and car sales businesses , 9
gaskets , 69–70 , 123 , 124
see also cylinder heads
gasoline see petrol
gasoline direct injection (GDi) , 197–8 , 212–17 , 233–4
gas-shielded arc welding , 67
gas welding , 67
gate gear locks , 440
gauges , 329–32 , 333
GDi see gasoline direct injection
GDS workshop manager see workshop systems
gearboxes:
change mechanisms , 437–40
clutch systems , 429
components , 441–5
compression fittings, 68
cruise control systems , 311
direct shift , 461–6 , 467
Formula 1 technology, 486 , 487
operation , 434–7
switches , 311
vehicle categories , 7
gear oil pumps , 145 , 146 , 147
gears , 48–9 , 286 , 434 , 480 , 481 , 483
Ravigneaux planetary , 451–2 , 454
worm and steering , 373 , 374
GEM see general electronic modules
general electronic modules (GEM) , 308
generators (reversibility) , 260 , 261
gerotor oil pumps , 145 , 146 , 147
global positioning systems (GPS) , 332–6 , 337
gloves , 19 , 23
glow plugs, 219
GPS see global positioning systems
gravity see centre of gravity
gudgeon pins , 114 , 116–18
H
hacksaws , 59–60
Hall effect generators , 202 , 203 , 242–3
halogen bulbs , 293 , 295 , 296
handbrake levers , 393–4
hand tools , 51–2 , 53
hardened seats , 126 , 127
hard water , 152
HASAW see Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974
Hatchbacks , 4
hazard lights , 301–5
hazards , 24–5 , 26 , 27
hazard signs , 33 , 34
headlights , 293 , 295 , 296–7
headway sensors , 311–12
health and safety see safety
Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HASAW), 22
Health and Safety Executive (HSE) , 19 , 20–1 , 22 , 23
Health and Safety Information for Employees Regulations
(HSIER) , 19 , 20 , 21
heat , 44 , 153 , 249
see also temperature
heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensors , 181
heater matrix , 161–2
heaters , 166–7
heating effect , 260
heat shields , 178 , 179
heavy-duty discharged batteries , 277–8
heavy-duty starter motors , 286
HEGO see heated exhaust gas oxygen sensors
helical gears , 434
helical springs see coil springs
hemispherical roof combustion chamber design , 126
hertz (Hz) , 309
HFC see hydrofl uorocarbon based refrigerants
high-performance spark plugs , 248–9
high-pressure accumulators , 230
high-pressure components , 222 , 229
high-pressure fuel systems , 224
high-pressure refrigerants , 338
high-pressure solenoid valves , 224–5
high-voltage battery power switches , 252
high-voltage cables , 253 , 254
high-voltage components , 250 , 251
high voltage generation , 238
high-voltage magneto ignition systems , 239
Highway Code , 73
homogeneous definition, 215
Honda battery packs , 250 , 251
honeycombs of tyres , 417
honeycomb substrates , 180
Hooke-type joints , 467 , 469
horizontally opposed cylinders , 104 , 106
horns , 308–9
hoses , 166
hot shrinking , 68
HSE see Health and Safety Executive
HSIER see Health and Safety Information for Employees
Regulations
hybrid cars , 236 , 250–5 , 256 , 257
hydragas suspension , 352–3
hydraulic accumulators , 398 , 399
hydraulic brake components , 394–8
hydraulic clutch mechanisms , 426–7
hydraulic dampers , 356–7
hydraulic lifters , 132 , 133
hydraulic modulators , 404 , 405
hydraulic power-assisted steering , 383–5
hydraulic power brakes , 398
hydraulics, 49
hydraulic tappets and components , 132
hydrocarbons , 169
hydrodynamic lubrication , 139
hydrofl uorocarbon (HFC) based refrigerants , 337–8
hydrogen:
air pollution , 169
alternative fuels , 235–6
discharged battery cell states , 276 , 277Index 505
hydrometers , 43 , 44 , 277 , 278 , 279
hygroscopic brake fluid, 395–6
hypoid fi nal drive design , 481 , 482
Hz see hertz
I
ICs see integrated circuits
ideal ignition , 94 , 95
idle carburation stages , 195
IFS/IRS see independent front and rear suspension
ignition lag phases , 219
ignition maps , 199 , 201
ignition systems , 236–49
advance angle timing , 238–9
coil on plug direct , 246–7
distributorless , 244–6
early circuit systems , 240
electronic , 241–3 , 244
high voltage generation , 238
overview , 236–41
spark plugs , 247–9
traditional types , 239–41
ILSAC see International Lubricant Standardization and Approval
Committee
IMA see hybrid cars
impellers , 446–8
inclined plane effect , 380
incomplete combustion , 92–3 , 169 , 190 , 220
independent front and rear suspension (IFS/IRS) , 355
independent garage and car sales businesses , 9
indicator diagrams , 94 , 95
indicators , 293 , 301–5
indices , 45
indirect injection , 96 , 97 , 98 , 221 , 222
induction , 264
induction stroke , 81 , 83–8
inductive effect generators , 202 , 203
inductive pulse generators , 242 , 243 , 244
inductive sensors , 53 , 55 , 202 , 245 , 246
inductors , 273 , 275
inertia motors , 282 , 283
inertia starter systems , 285 , 286
inertia switches , 229
inert substances , 169
inherent thermal damping , 329–30
initial delay phases , 219
injection:
advance mechanisms , 226
lag phases , 219
wiring harnesses , 202
see also diesel fuel injection systems gasoline fuel injection
systems
injectors , 211 , 219 , 220 , 226 , 230 , 231
inlet manifolds:
air supply systems , 173–6
camshafts , 132 , 133 , 134
catalyst systems , 181
cooling systems , 155 , 156
fuel systems , 192–3 , 203 , 204 , 205
inlet valves , 128
in-line engines , 104–5 , 107 , 108
inner constant velocity joints , 471
inner tube functions (tyres) , 416
input shafts , 429 , 441 , 463–4 , 466
inspections see servicing
instrumentation systems , 326–36 , 337
insulated conductors , 259
insulating gloves , 252 , 253
intake stroke see induction stroke
integrated chassis , 5
integrated circuits (ICs) , 275
integrated motor assist (IMA) hybrid vehicles see hybrid cars
integrated power units (IPU) , 250 , 251
intercoolers , 185
interior heaters , 166–7
interior lights , 299
intermediate transmission gears , 286
internal combustion engine , 81 , 82
International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee
(ILSAC) , 149–50
invoicing , 14–15
iron exhaust manifolds , 49 , 50
J
Jaguar , 333 , 365
Japanese Automotive Standards Organization (JASO) , 150
jobcards , 13–14 , 494
joining , 62–7 , 467 , 470
see also individual joints; welding
journals (bearings) , 120–1
K
keep alive memory (KAM) , 199 , 201
kerbing , 410 , 411
KERS (kinetic energy recovery systems) , 255 , 487
keyless starter systems , 287 , 288
kick down facilities , 453
kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) , 255 , 487
kingpins , 370 , 371 , 379 , 380
knocking effect see pinking
L
labour charges , 14
ladder chassis , 5
lambda sensors , 170 , 171 , 201 , 206
laminated definition, 349
large goods vehicles (LGV) , 3
laser-beam welding , 67
latching relays , 315 , 316
late ignition see retarded ignition
latent heat , 337 , 338
lateral definition, 356
lathes , 57–8
layout circuits , 268 , 270
layrub joints , 467 , 469
layshafts , 441 , 442
lazy locks , 318 , 321
LCV see light commercial vehicles
lead-acid cell batteries , 275–6
lead (air pollution) , 168
leading brake systems , 393 , 394
leaf springs , 349–50 , 360–1 , 362
levers , 48
LGV see large goods vehicles
Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998
(LOLER) , 22
lift motors , 318 , 319
light commercial vehicles (LCV) , 3506 Index
light emitting diodes (LEDs) , 298 , 301–2 , 303 , 385–6
lighting , 293–301
light vans , 5
light vehicles (LV) , 3 , 5
limited slip differential (LSD) transmission , 483–5
Lincoln five-speed gearboxes, 436
linear steering racks , 373–4 , 375
line boring , 112
liners , 109–14
liquefi ed natural gas (LNG) , 233
liquefi ed petroleum gas (LPG) , 234–5
liquid coolants see water-coolants
little end bearing caps , 119
LNG (liquefi ed natural gas) , 233
load-apportioning valves , 400
load indices , 420 , 421
load moving , 25 , 27, 28
locking , 312 , 316–17
lock-up clutches , 450
Loctite products , 65 , 70 , 71
LOLER (Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations
1998) , 22
long inlet tracts , 176
longitudinal definition, 356
lost spark distributorless ignition systems , 244 , 245
Lotus T127 Formula 1 cars , 486
low-pressure components , 222 , 229
low-pressure fuel systems , 224
low-pressure refrigerants , 338
low pressure servo systems , 399
LPG see liquefi ed petroleum gas
LSD see limited slip differential transmission
lubrication , 137–50
camshafts , 132
filters, 143–5
friction , 137–9
methods , 140
oil pumps , 145–7
standards , 147–50
system , 140–3
thread cutting , 61
turbochargers , 187
LV see light vehicles
M
machines , 48 , 57–8
machining , 57–8
McLaren , 344 , 489
MacPherson strut suspension , 354 , 359 , 360
MAF see mass air flow meters
magnetic field sensors, 336
magnetism , 260 , 261 , 263–4
magneto ignition systems , 239
main beam filaments, 296
maintenance-free batteries , 278 , 279
mandatory signs , 33 , 34
manifold absolute pressure (MAP) , 203 , 204 , 205
manual brake adjustment , 392
manual transmission , 425–45
markings (tyres) , 420
mass, 40, 41 , 43 , 347–8
mass air fl ow (MAF) meters , 204
master cylinder pistons , 388 , 389 , 394–9
MBT see minimum spark advance for best torque
mechanical fuel pumps , 191 , 192
mechanical machines , 48
metal brake pipes , 389
metal inert gas (MIG) welding , 67
metals , 262 , 267
metering devices , 81 , 193–4
methane see natural gas
metric thread profiles, 64
MFi see multipoint fuel injection systems
micrometres (μm) , 214
microporous paper elements , 173
microswitches , 316
mid-engine rear-wheel drives, 2 , 3
MIG (metal inert gas welding) , 67
minimum spark advance for best torque (MBT) , 93
Ministry of Transport tests see MOT tests
mirrors , 312 , 313 , 314 , 315
modern high-performance spark plugs , 248–9
modern ignition systems , 237–8
modulators , 403 , 404 , 405
motor brushes , 305–6
motor-driven fans , 164 , 165
motor industry , 8–18
booking systems , 12
company structure , 10 , 11–12
company types , 9–11
computerized workshop systems , 15–18
cost estimations , 13
franchised dealers , 12
invoicing, 14–15
jobcards , 13–14 , 494
parts department , 12–13
phrases/words , 8
reception systems , 12
time estimations , 13
warranties , 15
‘motorists’ discount’ shops , 10
motor power connections , 250 , 251
motor reverse circuits , 312–13
MOT tests , 14 , 28 , 73
mounting systems , 87–90 , 178 , 179 , 471
mufflers, 177 , 178
multicircuit brake systems , 397–8
multifunction switches , 264–5
multigrade engine oil , 148–9
multileaf springs , 349–50
multiple cylinder engines , 106–7
multiplex systems , 271–2
multipoint fuel injection (MFi) systems , 197 , 211
multi-V belt configurations, 164
Mustang V-6 engine , 490
N
NASCAR flex-fuel, 231 , 232
natural gas , 233 , 234
naturally aspirated engines , 90 , 192
see also Formula 1 technology
needle motion sensors , 226
needle valves , 193
negative camber steering , 378
negative castor angles , 380 , 381
negative scrub radii (steering) , 379
negative temperature coefficients (NTC), 206 , 327
neoprene , 70–1Index 507
nipped bearing caps , 122
nitrogen oxides (NOx):
catalyst systems , 180
compression ignition , 98 , 99
diesel fuel injection systems , 221
gasoline direct injection , 216–17
pollution , 169
spark ignition , 93
noise vibration and harshness , 439
non-linear steering racks , 374–5
non-return valves , 400
NOx see nitrogen oxides
nozzle needles , 230
NTC see negative temperature coefficients
nuts , 63–5
nylon fan blades , 164 , 165
nylon locks , 62 , 64
O
OBD see on-board diagnostic plugs
obstacle avoidance , 309–10
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) , 19
octane ratings , 93
OHC see overhead camshafts
Ohm’s law , 261 , 262
OHV see overhead valves
oil control rings , 115–16
oil coolers , 142–3
oil lubrication circuits , 132
oil pressure sensors , 329
oil pumps , 145–7
oil seals , 70–1 , 120 , 121
oils as lubrication , 138 , 140–5
oil temperature , 357
oil vapour , 169 , 181
oilways , 113–14
on-board diagnostic (OBD) plugs , 207
one-piece track rods , 370
one-touch window modes , 317 , 318
one-way clutches , 285
one-way valve diodes , 273 , 274
open circuits , 268 , 271
optical sensors , 385–6
orthographic drawings , 47
oscillation , 40 , 41
oscilloscopes , 52–3 , 54 , 55
OSHA see Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Otto cycle see four-stroke engines
outer constant velocity joints , 471
output shafts , 464 , 465 , 466
overfl ow throttle valves , 224
overhead camshafts (OHC) , 131
overhead valves (OHV) , 124–6 , 128, 130–1
overretarded ignition , 95
over-square engines , 256
oversteering definition, 383
oxidation catalytic converters , 221
oxygen , 30 , 98 , 99 , 276 , 277
P
pads see brake pads
Panhard rod suspension , 356 , 363 , 364
Pa (pascal) units see pressure
paper elements , 173
parallel ports , 125
parallel power systems , 253 , 254
parking brakes , 386–94
particulates , 220
parts department (motor industry) , 12–13
parts invoicing , 14
PAS see power steering
pascal (Pa) units see pressure
passenger-carrying vehicles (PCV) , 3
passive anti-theft systems (PATS) , 287 , 288
passive safety features , 322 , 323
PATS see passive anti-theft systems
PCM see powertrain control modules
PCR see pressure-conscious regulators
PCV see passenger-carrying vehicles
PCV systems see positive crankcase ventilation systems
PDI see predelivery inspections
pent roof combustion chamber design , 126
percentage examples , 44
permanent magnet starter motors , 286
personal protective equipment (PPE) , 22 , 23–4 , 25
petroil mixtures , 138–9
petrol engine , 81 , 82
fuel systems , 189–91
lubrication , 150
see also spark ignition
petrol fuel injection systems , 194 , 197–217
air supplies , 207–8
direct injection , 197 , 212–17 , 233–4
electronic injection , 198–207
fuel supplies, 208–11 , 212
petrol octane ratings , 93
petrol tanks , 327 , 328
petrol vapour , 182 , 184
PFi see port fuel injection systems
pick-up pipes , 140 , 141
pick-up trucks , 5
PicoScope , 52–3 , 54 , 55
pictorial drawings , 47
piezo injectors , 230 , 231
pig noses see flexible mountings
pinion gears , 284 , 285
pinion steering , 367
pinking (knocking) , 94–5 , 124 , 125 , 219
pistons , 96 , 114–20
pivot studs , 132
planetary gear starter motors , 286
planet gears/shafts , 483
plastic inlet manifolds , 173–4 , 175
plastic radiators , 161–2
plastic trims (wheels) , 410 , 411
plies (tyres) , 416 , 417 , 418
plug gaps , 249
plug leads , 245 , 246
plug taps , 61
plungers , 140 , 141
plunger type gearbox interlocks , 440
pneumatic springs , 256 , 351 , 352
polarity (battery charging) , 281
pollen filters, 166
pollution , 168–72
polymer additives , 148
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) , 267
Pontiac six-speed gearboxes , 435508 Index
poppet valves , 81 , 128
pop rivets , 62 , 69
port fuel injection (PFi) systems , 197 , 210
positive camber steering , 378
positive castor angles , 380 , 381
positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) systems , 171 , 172 , 181 , 182
positive scrub radii (steering) , 379
postwork inspections , 78
potentiometers , 204–5
power , 40–2 , 101 , 262
power connections , 250 , 251
power split systems , 253 , 254
power steering , 367 , 383–6
power stroke , 81 , 83 , 84–5 , 87 , 88
power switches , 252
powertrain control modules (PCM) , 187 , 188 , 287 , 288
power transistors , 241
power units , 250 , 251
practical tasks , 494–8
precombustion , 96–7 , 222
precross-flow ports, 125
pre-delivery inspections (PDI) , 78
pre-engaged starter systems , 282 , 283 , 285
pressure , 39–40
brake systems , 406 , 423
charging devices , 86
cooling systems , 157–8
diesel fuel injection , 221–2 , 224–5 , 229–30
petrol fuel injection , 208 , 210 , 211
see also atmospheric pressure supercharging
pressure-conscious regulators (PCR) , 390 , 400 , 401
pressure plates , 428 , 431–2
pressure valves , 140 , 141 , 158
prework inspections , 78
programmed ignition systems , 237
progression carburation stages , 195
progressive pitch steering racks , 374–5
progressive power-assisted steering , 385
prohibition signs see warning signs
propane see liquefi ed petroleum gas
propshafts , 467–72
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998
(PUWER) , 22
pulley systems , 163 , 164
pulse generators , 242–3
PUWER (Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations
1998) , 22
Q
Quadralink suspension , 364
‘quick-fit’ companies, 9
R
R134a refrigerants , 337–8
racks (steering) , 367 , 369–75
radial fl ow type superchargers , 187–8
radial lip oil seals , 120 , 121
radial tyres , 416 , 418 , 419
radiation , 44 , 153
radiators , 151 , 155 , 156 , 160 , 161 , 166
ram cylinders , 384–5
ramps , 48
RAM (random access memory) , 199 , 201
rate of electron flow defi nition, 260
ratios , 45
Ravigneaux planetary gearsets , 451–2 , 454
read only memory (ROM) , 199 , 200 , 201
rear air bag positions, 324 , 325
rear drum brakes , 390 , 391
rear-engine rear-wheel drives , 2 , 3
rear lights , 293 , 294 , 301–2
rear screen heater elements , 319 , 320
rear-wheel drive , 2 , 3 , 436 , 480 , 481 , 482
receiver/drier systems , 340–1
reception systems , 12
recirculating ball steering boxes , 372–3
rectifiers, 287 , 290–1 , 292
reed switches , 327
reflectors, 295 , 296–7
refrigerants , 337–8 , 339–40
regulators , 291–3 , 390, 400 , 401
relative density , 43
relays:
control switches , 299
conventional circuits , 268 , 270
cube relays , 265
screen heating , 319 , 320
sunroofs , 315 , 316
release bearings , 426
remote-control central door locking , 316–17
remote door locking , 316
remote expansion tanks , 161 , 162
remote keys , 321 , 322
replaceable liners , 111
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences
Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) , 22
resistance (electrical systems) , 263 , 268
resistance welding , 67
resistors , 204, 268, 270 , 273
retarded ignition , 94 , 95
reverse gear idlers , 441 , 442
reverse gear locks , 440
reverse lights , 297–8
reverse shafts , 464 , 465
RIDDOR (Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
Occurrences Regulations 1995) , 22
rigid axle suspension , 362 , 363
rims see wheels
ring gears , 284 , 285
risk management and assessment , 22
see also hazards
riveting , 62 , 69
road tests , 74 , 76
Road Traffic Act, 73
rocker covers , 135–6
rocker shafts, 132
rod-operated gearbox shift mechanisms , 438–9
roller cell type fuel pumps , 208 , 209
roller wheel bearings , 472 , 473 , 474 , 475
ROM see read only memory
Roots blower superchargers , 187 , 188
rotary air valves , 207–8
rotary engine , 87 , 88
rotary injection pumps , 222 , 223–7
rotor oil pumps , 145–6
rotors (charging systems) , 287–93
rounded belts , 135
round post battery terminals , 280Index 509
rubber doughnut joints , 467 , 470
rubber mountings , 178 , 179 , 471
rubber oil seals , 70–1
rubber stops , 354
rubber suspension , 352 , 353
rubber tyres , 416
run fl at rim capability , 413 , 415
Rzeppa constant velocity joints , 472
S
SAE see Society of Automotive Engineers
safety , 18–35 , 322–5 , 326
brakes , 396–7
environmental protection , 33–4 , 35
fire, 29–31 , 32 , 33
hazard identifi cation and reduction , 24–5 , 26 , 27
hybrid cars , 250–3 , 254
law fundamentals , 20–1 , 23
load moving , 25 , 27 , 28
personal protective equipment , 23–4 , 25
procedures , 29
signage , 33 , 34 , 35
United Kingdom , 19 , 22
vehicles , 28
working environments , 32–3 , 34
Safe Work Australia (SWA) , 19
Saloon cars , 4
satellites see global positioning systems
screen heating , 318–19 , 320
screw and nut steering boxes , 370 , 372
scrub radii (steering) , 379
sealants , 70 , 71
sealing rings , 115 , 116
seat adjustments , 312–14
seat angles , 129
security systems , 320–1 , 322
selector forks , 437
self-adjusting brake devices , 392
semi-automatic sequential gearboxes , 486
semiconductor diodes , 290–2
semiconductor transistors , 262
semi-fl oating wheel bearings, 473
semi-trailing arm suspension , 263 , 360 , 361 , 362
sensors , 326–9
anti-lock brake systems , 403–5
catalyst systems , 181
cruise control systems , 311–12
definition, 326
diesel fuel injection systems , 226
electric power steering , 385–6
GPS , 336
ignition systems , 244–5 , 246
petrol fuel injection systems , 201–6 , 212 , 214
PicoScope , 53 , 55
pollution reduction , 170 , 171
power steering , 385–6
series power systems (hybrid cars) , 253–4
service API classes , 149
service plugs , 207
servicing , 71–9
history , 72
incorrect adjustment effects , 76 , 77
information sources , 78–9
maintenance and inspections , 76 , 78
road tests , 74 , 76
rules and regulations , 73 , 74
service sheets , 72–5
terminology , 72
servo units , 389 , 398–400
shielded dip filaments, 296
shielded metal-arc welding , 67
shock absorbers , 356–9
shoes see brake shoes
short-circuits , 268 , 271
short inlet tracts , 176
shrinking , 68
SI see spark ignition
siamese ports , 125
side air bag positions , 324 , 325
sidewall construction (tyres) , 418 , 419
sidewall thickness (tyres) , 418
sight glasses , 341
signage (safety) , 33 , 34 , 35
silencers , 177 , 178
silent drive chains , 479
single-acting brake shoes , 395
single-choke carburettors , 191 , 192
single cylinder engines , 103–4
single-leaf springs , 350
single point injection (SPI) systems , 194 , 197
see also throttle body injection systems
single-tube telescopic dampers , 358
SI units (metric system) , 37 , 38, 39
six-cylinder engines , 106 , 107 , 108
slave cylinders , 395
sliding disc brake callipers , 391 , 393–4 , 395 , 396
sliding-mesh gearboxes , 436
slip angles , 382–3
slow charge of batteries , 278 , 281
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) , 147–9
soldering , 66
solenoid:
diesel fuel injection , 224–5 , 230
petrol fuel injection , 207–8
starter systems , 282 , 283 , 285 , 286
suspension , 358–9
solid clutch discs , 430 , 431
space savers (wheels) , 412
spanners , 51, 52
spark advance ignition systems , 238 , 244–5
spark ignition (SI) , 92–5 , 101 , 102 , 238 , 244–5
spark plugs , 247–9
specialist companies , 10
special (post-accident) inspections , 78
specifi c heat capacity , 44
speedometers , 331–2 , 333
speed ratings (tyres) , 420 , 421
speed ratios , 49
speed-sensitive power steering , 367
speed sensors , 311 , 312 , 404–5
SPI see single point injection systems
splash lubrication , 140
splined joints , 470
split brake systems , 397–8
split rim wheels, 410 , 412
spoked wheels , 409
sports utility vehicles (SUV) , 5
spot welding: safety , 23 , 24510 Index
springs , 140 , 141 , 347–8 , 351
SRS see supplementary restraint systems
standard differential transmission , 483–4
star stator windings , 290
starting systems (engines) , 282–7 , 288
stators , 287 , 289–93 , 450
steel springs , 351
steel substrates , 180
steel valve seats , 123 , 124
steel wheels , 409 , 410
steering , 366–86
boxes and racks , 369–75
geometry , 375–83
stepper motors , 332 , 333
stoichiometric ratios , 94
stoplights , 297–8 , 301–2
straight cut gears, 434
strainers (lubrication) , 140 , 141 , 143–4
stratifi ed gasoline direct injection modes , 214 , 215
stub axle steering , 368 , 369
subvalves , 159–60
sulphur , 168–9
sulphuric acid , 276–7
sump filter systems, 145
sump reservoirs , 140 , 141
sundries (invoicing) , 14
sunroofs , 312 , 314 , 315 , 316
supercharging , 86 , 184–8 , 211
superimposed tyre layers , 417
supplementary restraint systems (SRS) , 324 , 326
suspension , 7 , 347–66, 368
SUV see sports utility vehicles
SWA see Safe Work Australia
swept volumes , 100
swirl chambers , 97 , 98
switches:
conventional circuits , 268 , 270
cruise control , 310 , 311
diesel fuel injection systems , 229
electrical circuits , 264–5
hazard lights , 303–4
hybrid cars , 252
interior lights , 299
mirrors , 314 , 315
petrol fuel injection , 204–5
reed switches , 327
reverse lights , 298
security systems , 320 , 321
starter systems , 282, 283, 286
stoplights , 298
sunroofs , 315 , 316
swivel axis inclination , 380
swivels , 370 , 371
synchromesh gearbox mechanisms , 442–3
synchronizers , 442–3 , 444
synthetic rubber oil seals , 70–1
synthetic rubber tyres , 416
T
tachometers , 332 , 333
tandem master cylinder pistons , 396 , 397
tanks see petrol tanks
tapered roller wheel bearings , 472 , 473 , 474 , 475
taps and dies , 60–2
TBI see throttle body injection systems
TCS see traction control systems
TDC see top dead centre
telecommand definition, 343
telemetry , 343–4 , 345
telescopic dampers , 353 , 354 , 358
temperature , 44 , 49 , 50 , 248
control valves , 170 , 171
gauge circuits , 330 , 331
sensors, 327 , 328
terminal circuits , 268 , 270
terminals (electrical circuits) , 266 , 267
test equipment , 52–3 , 55
thermal gauges , 329 , 330
thermistors , 206 , 327 , 328
thermostatic expansion valves , 341 , 342
thermostatic viscous hubs , 164–5
thermostats , 155–6 , 158 , 159–60
thread cutting , 60–2
three-cylinder in-line engines , 104–5
three-dimensional (3D) drawings , 46
three-piece wheel construction , 410 , 412
three-quarter fl oating wheel bearings , 473 , 474
three-shaft gearbox systems , 438
three-way catalytic converters, 216
three-way oxidizing catalysts , 180
throttle body air supply systems , 173 , 174
throttle body injection (TBI) systems , 194 , 197 , 207 , 210
throttle butterflies, 193
throttle motors , 311
throttle position sensors , 204–5
time clocks , 282
time estimations (motor industry) , 13
time periods definition, 40
timer relays , 319 , 320
timing belts , 135 , 136
TIN see tyre identification numbers
tips for learning , 493
toe-in/out steering , 377–8
tools , 51–7
toothed belts , 135 , 136, 164
top dead centre (TDC) , 81 , 84
top-feed fuel injectors , 211 , 212
torque , 42
automatic transmission , 445–50 , 463
definition, 101
gears , 48
linear to rotary motion , 120
spark ignition , 93 , 94
wheels , 413 , 414
torsion bars , 351
torsion beam suspension , 363 , 364
Toyota Prius , 250
track rods , 369 , 370
traction control systems (TCS) , 407–9
traditional ignition systems , 239–41
traditional radiators , 160 , 161
trailing arm suspension, 360 , 361 , 363
trailing brake systems , 393 , 394
transfer boxes , 477–8 , 479
transformers , 238 , 264
transistors , 241 , 262 , 273 , 274Index 511
transmission fluid, 445
transmission gears , 286
transmission jacks , 56
transmission systems , 425–87
automatic transmission , 445–66 , 467
clutch systems , 425–33
differential , 480 , 482–5
driveline , 467–80
final drive, 480–2
Formula 1 technology , 485–7
gearboxes , 434–45
hybrid cars , 250 , 251
manual transmission , 425–45
vehicle categories , 7
transmitters , 321
transverse arm suspension , 360
trapezium Ackermann steering methods , 376
trapezoidal belts , 135
triangulation (satellites) , 333–4
trickle battery charging see slow charge of batteries
trolley jacks , 55
trucks , 5
T-shaped handles: thread cutting , 61
tubeless tyres , 416
tubeless valve bodies , 415
tungsten filament lighting, 293 , 295 , 296
turbines , 186–7 , 446–8 , 450
turbocharging , 86 , 172 , 184–8 , 211
twin-choke carburettors , 191 , 192
twin-cylinder engines , 104
twin electric fans , 158 , 159
twin filament bulbs, 301–2
twin horn systems , 309
twin leading brake shoes , 393
twin overhead camshafts see double overhead camshafts
twin roots blower superchargers , 187 , 188
twin-tube telescopic dampers , 358
twin, unequal-length wishbone suspension , 359 , 360
two-piece track rods , 370
two-shaft gearbox systems , 438
two-stroke engines , 85–7 , 150
two-way telemetry , 343
tyre identifi cation numbers (TIN) , 420
tyres , 380–2 , 409 , 416–22
U
UJs see universal joints
ultrasonic reversing aids , 309–10
ultrasonic welding , 67–8
understeering , 382–3
unequal-length wishbone suspension , 359 , 360
United Kingdom (UK) safety , 19 , 22 , 31 , 32 , 33
units of science , 37 , 38
universal joints (UJs) , 467 , 468 , 469 , 470
unsprung mass , 347–8
USA see American fire extinguishers
used vehicle inspections , 78
V
vacuum systems , 158 , 175–6 , 388 , 398–400
VAF see vane air flow meters
value added tax see VAT
valve gears , 142
valves , 128–30
air conditioning , 341 , 342
brake systems , 400
cooling systems , 158
diesel fuel injection , 224–5
four-stroke engines , 81 , 82 , 84–5
fuel levels , 193
petrol fuel injection , 207–8 , 210 , 211
pollution reduction , 169–70 , 171
seats , 123 , 124
springs , 256
suspension , 358–9
timing , 84–5 , 132 , 133 , 134
wheels , 413 , 415
vane air fl ow (VAF) meters , 204
vane oil pumps , 145 , 146–7
vane type pumps , 224
vans , 5
VAPS see variable-assistant power steering
variable-assistant power steering (VAPS) , 367 , 385
variable cam timing , 134
variable valve timing (VVT) , 134
variable vane turbochargers , 187 , 188
variable venturi carburettor types , 191 , 192
VAT (invoicing) , 14
V belt configurations, 164
vehicle categories , 1–8
velocity , 39
V engine configurations, 101 , 103–9 , 130
ventilation (PCV) systems , 171 , 172 , 181 , 182
venturi carburettor types , 191 , 192–4
vibration and harshness , 439
viscosity index improvers (VIIs) , 148
viscosity (lubrication) , 138 , 148–9
viscous coupling , 479 , 484–5
viscous hubs , 164–5
volume , 43 , 44 , 45
volumetric efficiency, 90–1
VOSA (Vehicle and Operator Services Agency) regulations , 73
VVT see variable valve timing
W
Wankel engine , 87 , 88
warm-air control , 175 , 176
warning lights , 143 , 303–4 , 402 , 403
warning signs , 33 , 34
warranties , 15
washers , 305–8
wasted spark distributorless ignition systems , 244 , 245
waste gate actuators , 185
water (battery cells) , 276–7
water-coolants , 151 , 152 , 154 , 156–8
water extinguishers , 31 , 32
water jackets , 112–13 , 126–7 , 154 , 162–3
water pumps , 162–3 , 164
watts , 262
wave springs , 430
wax pellets , 158–9 , 160
websites , 489
wedge-shaped combustion chambers , 124 , 125
weight , 43
welding , 23 , 24 , 56 , 67–8
well-base (wheels) , 410512 Index
wet liners , 110 , 111
wheel guns , 56
wheels , 48 , 409–15
bearings , 472–6
sensor signals , 403–5
speed instability , 406
speed sensors , 404–5
wide-band oxygen sensors , 212 , 214
windings , 284 , 285 , 288–93
windows , 312 , 317–18 , 319
wipers , 305–8
wire mesh strainers , 143–4
wiring , 266 , 267 , 268 , 271 , 272
wishbone suspension , 354 , 359 , 360 , 361 , 362
work, 40–2
working environment safety , 32–3 , 34
workshop systems , 54 , 56–71
adhesives , 65–6
brazing , 66–7
compression fitting, 68
cutting , 59–60
drilling , 59
equipment , 53–7
filing, 58 , 59
fitting, 57–8
gaskets , 69–70
joining , 62–3
machining , 57–8
motor industry , 15–18
nuts and bolts , 63–5
oil seals , 70–1
riveting , 62 , 69
sealants, 70 , 71
shrinking , 68
soldering , 66
thread cutting , 60–2
welding , 67–8
worm and roller steering gears , 373 , 374
worm and rolling fi nger steering gears , 373 , 374
worm and sector steering boxes , 373
wrenches , 51 , 52
Z
zener diodes , 273 , 292–3
zero scrub radii (steering) , 379
zirconia type lambda sensors , 20
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