A Modern Course in English Syntax

A Modern Course in English Syntax
اسم المؤلف
Herman Wekker and Liliane Haegeman
التاريخ
3 أبريل 2021
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A Modern Course in English Syntax
Herman Wekker and Liliane Haegeman
Contents
Preface
1: Aims and Methods 2.4.2.4 Elements after the Head 41
2.4.2.5 Summing up the NP 41
2.4.2.6 Exercise 42
1.1 What is Syntax? 5 2.4.3 Verb Phrases 42
1.2 Representing Sentence 2.4.3.1 Introduction 42
Strucwre I)
2.4.3.2 Verb Complements 43
1.~. I Bracketing 6 2.4.3.3 Elements before tht: Head ·16
1.2.2 Labelled Bracketing 8 2.4.3.4 The First Auxiliary in
1.2.1 T ree Diagrams and Phrase the VP 48
Structure Rules 10 2.4.3.5 Summing up the VP 50
1.2.4 Sentence and Discourse 13
2.4.3.6 Exercises 51
1.2.5 Exercises 15
2.4.4 Prepositional Phrases 51
1.3 Constituency Tests 15 2.4.4.1 Summing up the PP 52
Variations on B~.sic Sc:ntence
1.3. 1 2.4.4.2 Exercise 53
Patterns 16
2.4.5 Adjective Phrases 53
1.3.2 Clefting 16 2.4.5. I Summing up the Adj P 54
i .J.J Pseudo-clefting 18 2.4.5.2 Exercises 55
1.3.4 Passivisation 18
2.4.6 Adverb Phrases 55
1.3.5 Pronominalisation 18
2.4.6. I Summing up the AdvP 56
1.3.6 Fronting 19 2.4.6.2 Exercises 56
Exerci~es 19
1.3.7 2.5 Words 56
2.5. 1 Introduction 56
2.5.1.1 Word Classes: the Distriblition
of Words 57
2: Constituents 2.5.2 Nouns 58
2.5.3 Verbs 59
2.5.4 Adjectives 59
~ . 1 Introduction 21 2.5.5 Adverbs 60
2. 1.1 Exercise 22 2.5.6 Prepositions 61
2. 1.2 Word Order 22 2.5.7 Conjunctions 6 1
2.1.3 Constituents 24 2.5.8 Exercises 62
2.2 Sentences 25
2.2. I Simple Declarative and
Interrogative Sentences 25
2.2.2 Compound and Complex 3: Functions
Sentences 26
2.2.3 Exercise 29
2.3 Clauses 29 3.1 Introduction: the Verb and
2.3. 1 Exercises 34 its Complements 63
2.4 Phrases 35 3.2 Grammatical Functions 66
2.4.1 Introduction 35 3.2.1 Exercises 68
2.4.2 Noun Phrases 35 3.3 Grammatical Functions
2.4.2.1 Elements before the Head 36 inS 68
2.4.2.2 Pronouns 37 3.3.1 Subject 68
2.4.2.3 One-word Phrases 40 3.3.2 Predicate 703.3.3 Sentence Adjuncts 70 Wh-questions 111 5: Non-finite Clauses: Raising 6.2.1 Exercises 181
3.4 Grammatical Functions 4.2.4.4 Wh-movement of Subjects 112 and Control 6.3 Prepositional Verbs “182
in VP 71 4.2.4.5 Wh-movement and S 112 6.3.1 Exercise 185
3.4.1 Predicative Complements 71 4.2.4.6 Exercises 113 6.4 Phrasal-prepositional Verbs
3.4.1.1 Exercise 72 4.2.5 Indirect Questions 113 5.1 Introduction 157 and Prepositional Idioms 186
3.4.2 Direct Object 72 4.2.5.1 Indirect Yes-No Questions 113 5.2 Finite and Non-finite 6.4.1 Exercise 187
3.4.2.1 Exercise 73 4.2.5.2 Indirect Wh-questions 114 Clauses 157
3.4.3 Indirect Object 73 4.2.5.3 Long Wh-movement liS 5.2.1 Introduction 157
3.4.3.1 Exercises 74 4.2.6 Relative Clauses 116 5.2.2 Finite Subordinate Clauses 158
3.4.4 Adverbial Complements 4.2.6.1 Exercise 119 5.2.3 Non-finite Subordinate
with Intransitive Verbs 74 4.2.6.2 The Meaning of Relative Clauses with Lexical Subjects 160 7: Levels of Structure
3.4.4.1 Exercise 77 Clauses 119 5.2.4 Non-finite Clauses without
3.4.5 Adverbial Complements 4.2.6.3 Deletion in Relative Lexical Subjects 162
with Transitive Verbs 77 Clauses 120 5.2.5 For .. . to Filter 162 7.1 Introduction 188
3.4.5.1 Exercise 78 4.2.6.4 That in Relative Clauses 121 5.3 Raising 163 7.2 Noun Phrases 189
3.4.6 Predicative Complement 4.2.6.5 Adverbial Relative and Free 5.3.1 Raising with Passive Verbs 163 7.2.1 Flat Structures and Layered
+ Adverbial Complement: Relative Clauses 122 5.3.2 Raising with Intransitive Structures 189
a Complex Function 78 4.2.6.6 Non-restrictive Relative Verbs and with Adjectives 165 7.2.2 One-substitution 191
3.4.6.1 Exercise 80 Clauses 123 5.3.3 Summing Up 167 7.2.3 Layering 192
3.4.7 Verb Patterns and 4.2.6.7 Exercises 123 53.4 Exercises 168 7.2.4 One-word Phrases 193
Functions: a Summary 80 4.2.7 Appositive Clauses 124 5.4 Control 168 7.3 Verb Phrases 194
3.4.7.1 Exercise 81 4.2.7.1 Exercises 126 5.4.1 Non-lexical Subjects 168 7.3.1 Layering in VPs 194
3.4.8 Adjuncts and Complements 83 4.2.8 Reduced Relative Clauses 126 5.-U Control vs Raising 169 7.3.2 Formal Evidence 194
3.4.8.1 Exercise 83 4.2.8.1 Exercises 129 5.4.3 Subject and Object Control 171 7.4 Prepositional Phrases 195
3.4.9 Sentence Adjuncts and 4.2.9 Fronting 130 5.4.4 Indefinite Control 172 7.5 Adjective Phrases 195
VP-Adjuncts 83 4.2.9.1 Exercise 130 5.4.5 Control Adjectives 173 7.5.1 Complements of Adjs 195
3.4.9.1 Exercise 86 4.3 Passivisation 131 5.4.6 Exercises 173 7.5.2 Discontinuous Strings 196
3.4.10 Predicative Adjuncts 86 4.3.1 The Process 131 7.6 Adverb Phrases 197
3.4.10.1 Exercise 90 4.3.2 The By-phrase 133 7.7 Summing Up: Layered
3.4.11 Functions of Clauses 91 4.3.3 Exercise 134 Structure 197
3.4.11.1 Finite Clauses 91 4.4 Movement to Focus Position 134 6: Reanalysis: a Problem of 7.8 Exercise 198
3.4.1 1.2 Non-finite and Verbless 4.4.1 It-extraposition 134 Bracketing
Clauses 94 4.4.1.1 /t-extraposition in Passive
3.4.11.3 Empty Subjects in Sentences 135
Non-finite and Verbless 4.4. 1.2 /t-extraposition in Active 6.1 Introduction 175
Clauses 96 Sentences 137 6.2 Prepositions and Particles 175 Index 199
3.5 Grammatical Functions in 4.4.1.3 /t-extraposition with
Phrases: a Brief Survey 98 Non-finite Clauses 138
3.5.1 Exercises 99 4.4.1.4 Exercise 139
4.4.1.5 /t-cxtraposition in Verbless
Clauses 140
4.4.1.6 It-extraposition with Object
4: Processes Clauses 141
4.4.2 Subject-Verb Inversion 143
4.4.3 There-insertion 145
4.1 Introduction 101 4.4.4 E:maposition from NP 147
4.2 Leftward Movement: 4.4.5 Heavy Object-shift 148
Wh-movement and Related 4.4.6 Summing Up 149
Transformations 103 4.5 Clefting and Pseudo-
4.2.1 Questions: Different Types 103 clefting 150
4.2.2 Subject-Auxiliary Inversion 103 4.5.1 Clefting ISO
4.2.3 Do-insertion 105 4.5.2 Pseudo-clefting 151
4.2.3.1 Exercise 106 4.6 Substitution by Pro-forms 152
4.2.4 Wh-movement 107 4.7 Ellipsis 154
4.2.4.1 Subcategorisation Frames 4.7.1 Subject Deletion 154
and Wh-movement 108 4.7.2 Verb Gapping and Backward
4.2.4.2 Exercise 111 Gapping 155
4.2.4.3 Prepositional Phrases in 4.7.3 Other Examples 155202 Index
underlying structure 2-4, 101, 102, 104,
132
ungrammatical 23, 32
unmarked 23
verb 3, 9, 42, 44, 59, 65, 66
verb complement 43-6, 53, 192
verb gapping 155, 180
verb phrase (YP) 6, 9, 15, 22, 42-51, 71,
80. 98, 188, 194
verb type 45
verbless clause 34, 95-8, 140, 141
wh-fronting 3
wh-movement 107-13, 118, 119
wh -operator Ill
wh-question 25, 26, 32, 103, 107, 112,
11 5, 119
wh-questioning 85
word 5-8, 21, 56-8
word class 9, 57, 58
word order 22, 23
yes-no question 25, 31, 48, 49, 101, I03,
104,108, 11 4,115
zero-complementation 80
zero relative pronoun 120, 121, 128, 129
INDEX
acceptability 22, 23
active sentence 18, 132, 133
activiry 18, 66
adjective (Adj) 53, 54, 59, 60. 167
adjective phrase (AdjP) 37, 53, 54, 98,
188, 195-7
adjunct 46, 71, 81, 83, 99, 113, 178, 197
adverb (Adv) 55, 56. 60
adverb phrase (AdvP) 53, 55. 56. 75, 98,
189, 197
adverbial 75
adverbial adjunct (A) 1!5, 89, 185
adverbial complement (Ac) 75, 79, 82
adverbial relative clau~e 122
affix 4, 101, 102, 105
aeent 18, 66, 133, 134
agent-less passive 133, 134
agreement 69, 71, 72
analogy 4
antecedent 4
anticipatory obje’t (od) 142
anticipatory subject (su) 137
appositive clause 41. 124-6
arrow II
article 36. 58
auxtliary ~7. 49. 50. 59. 104. 105. 130.
133, 136. 175
auxiliary element ~7 . 69, 105
hackground 2
backward gapping !55
bar9I.I97
bare infinitive 33. 157
base 9. 60
binder Ill
bmding ~ . 39. Ill. I 18, I 19. 164
bound 39. Ill, 169
bracketing 7, 8
branch II
by-phrase I33, I34
case 3. 38
case-assignment 3
category 3
category label 8
central determiner 37
chain 137
clausal constituent 188
clause 5-9. I I, 15, 27, 29, 64, 94, 188
cleft sentence 17
clefting I6 – 18, 102, 150, 151
closed set 40
coindexing 3. 4
199
COMP(slot)J0,33,61,91, 114-16,122
comparative degree 60
competence 56
complement 9, 43, 45, ~6 . 51, 53, 61, 65,
71, 81, 99, 192, 197
complementation 3
complementiser 33, 61 , 91, I 14. 122,
160-2
complex sentence 27, 29
complex transitive verb 45. 79, 82. 95
compound sentence 26, 27, 29
compound-complex sentence 28, 154
conjoin 27, 28
conjunction 61
constituency test I5, 21 , 24. 40
constituent 5, 10, I I, 13, 15. 17. 19. 21,
H 28. 81, 98, 188
constituent structure 3, 4. 10. 21. 2~
context 14, 58, 154
control 96, 162, 168-73
control adjective I 73
control verb 169
coordinate clause 6, 27, 28
coordinator 6. 8, 27, 28, 61
copula45. 71, 72,75,82
co-referential 18, 39, 154
dative-movement 67
declarative sentence 25. 26, 48. 103. 104
deep (D-) structure 2-4, I0 I
degrees of comparison 60
deletion 28, 29, 31, 120, 121, 155. !61,
180
demonstrative pronoun 37, 40
determiner (Det) 9, 37, 99
direct object (Od) 72. 73
direct question 103
discontinuous NP 148
discontinuous string 196
discourse 14
discourse grammar 14
distribution 36, 57, 58
ditransitive verb 45, 73, 74, 82
do-insertion 49. 50, 105-7
dominance 11, 13, 67
dummy element 49, 137, 146
echo-question Il l
-ed participle 33, 157
ellipsis 64, 154-6
embedded sentence 12, 27,91-3.96, 114,
121
empry position J , 96, 109
emp ry subject 96. 166200 Index
EST-framework 2-4
existential sentence 146
expansion 10, 11
extraction site 111
extraposition 3, 137
extraposition from NP 147, 148
feature 109
finite 33, 46
finite clause 69, 127, 158-60
finite verb (phrase) 4, 33, 47
first auxiliary 48, 49
flat structure 189-91
focus 137
focu~ing 85, 93
focus-position 137, 138, 143
for (as cornplementiser) 160, 162, 163,
169, 196
for … tofilter 129,162,163,166
form 16
free relative clauSt’ 123
fronting 16. 19, 102, 130
function see grammatical function
gapping 155, 180
gender 38
geniti’.’e 9, 37
gerund 34
grammar 15
grammatical category 5
grammatical function 4, 5, 66-100
grammatical subject (su) 137. 138
head (H) 36. 37, 41. 42. 48, 51, 53. 55,
60, 61, 99. 197
heavy object-shift 148, 149
immediate constitu~nr I0. 15
immediate dominance 11, 13, 67, 68
indefinite control 172
indirect object (Oi) 68, 73. 74
indirect question I03, ll3-16
indirect wh-question 114, 115
indirect yes-no question 113, 114
-ing paniciple 33, 157
intermediate projection 193, 197
imerrogative adverbs 152
interrogative pronouns 4, 152
interrogative sentence 25, 26, 103, 104
intransitive verb 45, 74. 77, 82
inversion 48, 49
it-extraposition 91, 134·43, 166
in active sentences 137. 138
in passive sentences 135·7
in verbless clauses 140. 141
with non· finite clauses 138, 139
with object clauses 14 1·3
kernel of the NP 42
labelled bracketing 8-10, 25
layered structure 189-91, 193, 197, 198
layering 192, 193
leftward movement 103, 107, 130, 163
levels or structure 2·4, 10, 188
lexical category 188, 191
lexical item 3, 11
lexical verb 50, 59, 65, 69, 175
lexicon 2·4
linguistic competence 56
logical form 2-4
long wlr-movernent 11 5, 116
main verb 59
marked 23
matching condition 3
maximal projection 193
meaning 16, 65
meaning of relative clauses 119, 120
modal (auxiliary) 47, 50, 99. 104
modifier (Mod) 37, 84, 99, 189, 190, 192,
197
monorransitive verb 45, 73, 80, 82
morpheme 5-8
movement 3
negation 49, 50
noe ll , 159
non-finite clause 33, 34, 96, 127. 160·2,
170, 171
non-lexical subject 168, 169
non-oven element 128
non-restrictive relative clause 120, 123,
127
non·tenninal node II
not-insenion 49
notional object (Od) 142
notional subject (Su) 137, 138. 146
noun (N) 3, 9, 36. 58
noun phrase (NP) 6, 9. 15. 35-8. 41. 42.
98, 117. 125, 127, 156. 188, 189-93
number 38, 58, 69
numeral 37
object 4, 39, 73, 132
object control 171
omissibiliry 81
one-substitution 191, 192
one-word phrase 40, 193
open-class element 37, 40
oven element 128
paragraph 21
parsing I
participant 66
particle 130, 180, 185
passive sentence 18, 131-4
passive voice 47, 48
passivisarion 3. 16. 18, 30, 73, 102, 131-4,
163, 164
past tense 9, 46
patient 18, 66
perfect aspect 47
phonetic form 2, 3
phrasal category 188, 197
phrasal verb 65, 130. 180, 181, !84-6
phrasal-prepositional verb 186, 187
phrase 5-8. 35
phrase structure rule (PS rule) 2, 3, 10-13,
101. 198
pied-piping Ill. 118, 119
plural 9. 38. 58, 69
possessive pronoun 37, 40
postderem1iner (Postdet) 37
posrmodifier (Postmod) 41 , 117, 192, 197
po~rposirion 52, 61
pragmatics 4
pr~derermrner (Preder) 37
predicate (Pred) 64, 70
predicarive adjunct (P+A) 86-8
predicarive complement (Pc) 71, 72, 79
premodifier (Premod) 37, 192
preposing 19
preposition (P) 51, 61, Ill, 112. 176. 186
preposition stranding 111,112,118,121
prepositional complement (Prcpc) 51. 176
prepositional idiom 186
prepositional phrase (PP) 41. 51. 52, 61.
85,99.111,112,176,177,188,195
prepositional verb 182-7
present tense 46. 48
prime 192
process 16. 17. 102
proform 38. 43. 102, 152
progressive aspect 47, 48
projection 188. 192, 197
projection principle 4
pronominalisation 16. 18. 19. 30. 103
pronoun IS. 37.38
proper noun 58
pseudo·clefting 16- 18, 30, 102, 151. 152
question 69. 102, 103, 114
question formation 50, 102, 115
raasing 3. 163-8
with intransitive verbs and with
adjecuves 165-7
with passive verbs 163-5
reanalysis 175
reduced relative clause 126-9
referent 36. 120, 123
reflexive pronoun 4, 39, 169
reflexivisation 169
relative clause 41, 116·25, 127, 185
relative pronoun 4, 41, 119. 120. 125, 185
Index 201
restrictive relative clause 120, 121, 124,
127
restructuring 175
retained clause 164 . 166
role 18
$-structure 2-4
semantics 4
sentence (S) 5·9, I I, 13- I 5, 21 , 24-9, 70,
121, 137
,.enrence adjunct (Sa) 70, 85, 93
sentence grammar 14
sentence structure 5. 6, 9, 10, 21
simple sentence 29
singuJar 31!, 58, 69
small clause see verbless clause
specifier (Spec) 36. 37, 47. 48, 52, 99, 197
stranded tense-marker I 06
subcaregori:.arion frame 4, 45, 1\5, 61\, 74,
78, 108
~ubjecr (Su) 4. 39, 64, 6S, 71, 96. 104.
133, 136, 137
subje.:r·aux inversion (SAl) 3, 69, 103-5,
115,118.145 .
subject control 162. 171, 172
subject deletion 154
subje.:t-verb inversaon (SVIJ l•D-5
subordinate clause 13. 27. 28. 96. 114.
157-61
subordination I 1- 13
subordinator 28. 30, 61
substitution 4, 18. 70, 152-4
suffix 9, 47, 48, 60
stqxrlative degn:c 60
surface structure 4. I02. I04
syntactic category 3
syntax I. 2. 5. 6. 13·15. 23
rag formation 50
tag question 50
tense marking -16. 106
renninal node l I
text 14, 15, 21
text grammar 14
that
as complemenriser 30. 31. 61. 114.
121, 123
in appositive clauses 125, 126
in relative clauses 122. 123
there-insenion 145-7
theta criterion 3
to-infinitive 33, 157
trace theory 3
transformation 3, t0-1
transitive verb 45, 77, 82, 132
tree diagram 10-13,25,64, 159. 177, 184
triangle 3
triggered processes 10
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